Soc Terms Chapters 10-15

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Systems and structures that persist over time and help to organize group life are called:

social institutions

What is the most extreme form of authoritarianism called?

Totalitarianism

On January 30, 2005, Iraq held what many claim were the first free and fair elections in its history, after many decades of military dictatorship. This was seen as the first step in transforming Iraq into a:

democracy

What is the central means by which modern society transmits knowledge, values, and expectations to its members?

Education

When students are tested, and the test results are used to place them in a certain category of classes (remedial, advanced, college prep, etc..)this process is called:

tracking

What do sociologists call the lessons that students learn indirectly, but which they are not officailly or formally tested on?

The hidden curriculm

What development transformed and expanded the role of distance learning in the American educational system?

The rise of the internet

Religious groups that emphasize literal interpretation of sacred texts are called:

fundamentalist

The fact that school schedules are organized around Christmas is evidence:

that the United States is not a totally secular society

The Industrial Revolution changed not only working conditions, but also many other elements of daily life.

True

What new technology was important to the Industrial Revolution?

The steam engine

How has the Information Revolution changed the nature of work and the economy?

It has shifted the economy toward the production of knowledge and services

In a capitalist system, what do workers have available to sell?

Their own labor

How did the Industrial Revolution create "work" in the modern sense?

In a traditional economy, most work happened in the home

What is the most extreme form of socialism called?

Communism

The cultural and economic changes that result from dramatic increases in international trade and exchange are called:

globalization

An association of workers who organize to improve their economic status and working conditions is called:

a union

Even manufacturing jobs now require workers to have some skills in knowledge work and information technology.

True

Why did Karl Marx believe that workers in a capitalist economy experienced alienation?

Because they are paid for their labor but do not own the things they produce

Why do many contemporary sociologists speak not of "the" family, but rather of "families"?

Family situations in contemporary society are so varied that there is no single model

What do sociologists call the tendency to marry someone of a similar background?

Endogamy

When was the last inter-racial marriage law struck down in the United States?

1967

In what way is the family responsible for the reproduction of society?

It produces and socializes children

Family friends who are referred to as "Aunt" or "Uncle" are examples of:

fictive kin

Propinquity refers to:

geographical proximity

Who is more likely to return home after a full day of paid labor and then have to put in a "second shift" at home taking care of domestic work?

Women

What is it called when individuals must care for both their own children and their elderly parents?

The sandwich generation effect

How do male and female life expectancies compare in the United States today?

Women live an average of 5 years longer than men

Women of all different socioeconomic statuses are equally likely to be abused.

False

gentrification

which entails the transformation of poor inner-city neighborhoods into more affluent middle-class communities.

The study of the size, composition, distribution and change in a human population is called:

demography

Which of the following is a basic demographic variable?

migration

Which of the following would be an example of a positive check on population growth?

Famine

The shift of large segments of the population away from the urban core and toward the edge of cities is called:

suburbanization

Under what circumstance are bystanders less likely to attempt to help a stranger who appears to be in danger?

When there are lots of bystanders

The study of human populations and their impact on the natural world is called:

social ecology

When environmental sociologists study the problems of waste and consumption, how are they understanding the environment?

As a social problem

The United States has the lowest infant mortality rate in the world?

False

Nonindustrialized nations with high fertility rates are the largest consumers of energy worldwide.

True

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