NASM Flashcards

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Which of the following is the process of getting oxygen from the environment to the tissues of the body?


Which of the following is true of the interval sessions in a stage training exercise program?

It should ideally be in the work-to-rest ratio of 1:3.

Operations activities are those that ________

Do not directly generate revenue

In order to develop maximal strength or power, training will require _____.

a series of exercises, one after the other, with minimal rest periods in between.

Which of the following is true of the Valsalva maneuver?

It refers to the maneuver in which a person attempts to exhale forcibly through closed glottis.

Bracing is referred to as a(n) _____ of global muscles, such as the rectus abdominis, external obliques, and quadratus lumborum.


The study of personality, values, opinions, attitudes, interests, and lifestyles is called _________.


While pressing overhead during a Multiplanar Step-Up Balance, Curl, to Overhead Press exercise for body stabilization, it is important to make sure that the low back does not arch as it may indicate weakness of the intrinsic core stabilizers and tightness of the _____ muscle.

latissimus dorsi

The training strategy for Strength Endurance Training involves using _____.


Which of the following is true of stage III of a stage training exercise program?

The warm-up phase for clients with a heart rate between 65 percent and 75 percent is about 10 minutes.

Which of the following muscles does the single-leg balance engage?

Gluteus Maximus

A client is performing a standard push-up and the trainer notes a low-back arch. Which of the following muscles are most likely weak or underactive?

Transverse abdominis

What is blood pressure (BP)?

It is the pressure of the circulating blood against the walls of the blood vessels.

Identify a feature of the exercises in the power level of reactive training.

They help improve dynamic neuromuscular efficiency.

Which of the following statements is true of the strength level of reactive training?

Exercises in this level require great specificity, speed, and neural demand.

What is the effect of beta-blockers on the heart?

They decrease the heart rate.

Which of the following methods uses a percentage of a client’s estimated maximal heart rate to calculate target heart rate?

Peak maximal heart rate

Exercises help establish optimal landing mechanics in the _____ level of reactive training.


How long does pressure need to be held on the tender spot while using self-myofascial release?

30 seconds minimum

A _________ trait changes over time.


A lower crossed syndrome is characterized by:

an anterior tilt to the pelvis.

Identify the purpose of stretch-shortening cycles.

To produce the necessary force to change the direction of an object’s center of mass efficiently

The Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire (PAR-Q) is primarily aimed at identifying an individual’s

level of risk for cardiovascular disease.

While performing the cable lift exercise, Hannah begins to experience difficulty and pain. In this case, what should the fitness professional ask her to do?

Regress to the resistance band lift

Miguel is a 20-year-old client with a desired training intensity of 50% of his maximal heart rate. He has a resting heart rate of 35 bpm. Calculate Miguel’s target heart rate.

118 beats per minute

Landing behind the ball of the foot while performing power exercises would _____.

ensure proper force distribution through the foot and lower extremity

Which of the following is a small chamber located superiorly on either side of the heart that gathers blood returning to the heart?


_____ is the preferred method to measure maximal oxygen consumption.

The submaximal exercise test

Low-volume training with high intensity produces an:

increased rate of force production

When an individual performs chest presses, the range of motion at the shoulder joint is determined by the load one is lifting and _____.

tissue extensibility




The amount of time that muscle is actively producing tension during exercise movements.

Repetition Tempo

The speed at which each repetition is performed.

Pennate Muscle

Muscle with fibers that are oriented at an angle to the muscle’s longitudinal axis.


A white tendinous sheet that attaches muscle to bone.


The incorrect or improper alignment of the joints in a body without movements.

Common overactive muscles of the shin

Soleus, Lateral gastrocnemius, Peroneus longus and brevis (pereneals)

Common underactive muslces of the shin

Medial gastrocnemius, Anterior tibialis, posterior tibialis

Common overactive muscles of the knee

Biceps femoris (short head) Tensor fascia latae (TFL)

Common underactive muscles of the knee

Vastus Medialis Oblique (VMO)

Common overactive muscles of the LPHC

Hip flexors (TFL quads, and psoas), adductors, abdominals (rectus abdominis, external obliques), erector spinae

Common underactive muscles of the LPHC

Gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, hamstrings, intrinsic core stabilizers, erector spinae

Common overactive muscles of the shoulder

Latissimus dorsi, pectoralis major/minor

Common underactive muscles of the shoulder

Middle and lower trapezius, rhomboids, rotator cuff

Rotator cuff muscles (SITS)

Supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor, subscapularis

Common overactive muscles of the head and neck

Upper trapezius, sternocleidomastoid, levator scapulae

Common underactive muscles of the head and neck

Deep cervical flexors

Afferent neurons

Nerve impulses that move TOWARD spinal chord and brain from the periphery of the body and are sensory in nature (body to brain)

Efferent neurons

Motor neurons that send a message for muscles to contract (Brain to body)


only located within the spinal cord and brain; receive impulses from afferent neurons and conduct back out to provide a motor response

Muscles spindles

Receptors sensitive to change in LENGTH of the muscle, and the rate of that change

Golgi tendon organs

Receptors sensitive to the change in TENSION of the muscles, and the rate of that change

Joint receptors

receptors in and around a joint that respond to pressure, acceleration, and deceleration of the joint

4 behavioral properties of a muscle

1. Extensibility 2. Elasticity 3. Irritability 4. Ability to develop tension


Strong connective tissue that connects BONE to BONE


Connective tissue that attaches MUSCLE to BONE

5 sections of the spine

1. Cervical vertebrae (C1-C7) 2. Thoracic vertebrae (T1-T12) 3. Lumbar vertebrae (L1-L5) 4. Sacrum 5. Coccyx


The motions of the joints in the body. 3 major motions: roll, slide, spin

Posterior Oblique subsystem

The lats work with the opposite side gluteus maximus. This tightens the thoracolumnbar fascia. Works concurrently with the DLS during gate

Anterior oblique subsystem

Composed of internal and external obliques, the adductor complex, the hip external rotators Contributes to rotational movements, leg swing, and stabilization

Deep longitudinal subsystem (DLS)

This consists of the peroneus longus, the anterior tibialius, long head of the biceps femoris, sacrotuberous ligament, thoracolumnbar fascia, erector spinae. These create a contracting tension to absorb and control ground reaction and forces during gate

Global muscular system

A system composed of 4 subsystems that are designed for larger muscles to work synergistically in large movement patterns such as a combination squat-to-row exercise.

Lateral subsystem

composed of gluteus medias, TFL, adductor complex, and quadratus lumborum. help with frontal plane movements (side to side things)

Reciprocal inhibition

Simultaneous contraction of one muscle and the relaxation of its antagonist to allow movement to take place (pg 110)

Hamstring muscles

Accelerated knee flexion and hip extension

Quadricep muscles

Knee extension and hip flexion

Gluteus maximus

Hip extension and external rotation


Shoulder extension, abduction and internal rotation.


Scapular retraction, and downward rotation

Biceps brachi

Elbow flexion, shoulder flexion, and supination of radio ulnar joint


Elbow and shoulder extension

Serratus anterior

Scapular protraction

Soleus and gastrocnemius

Plantar flexion

Rectus abdominus

Spinal flexion, lateral flexion and rotation

What is the inner most layer of muscle


How many calories are in 1 gram of protein/carbohydrate/fat


4 steps to overcoming client objections

1. Validate 2. Isolate 3. Remind 4. Resolve


Carry blood away from the heart. As arteries get smaller they form small terminal branches called arteriole, which end in capillaries.


They are the site of water and gas exchange between blood and tissues.


Carry blood toward the heart.

Primary Endocrine Glands

Hypothalamus, pituitary, thyroid, and adrenal glands.

Acute Variables

The components that specify how each exercise is to be performed.

The five stages of the OPT model

Stabilization endurance, strength endurance, hypertrophy, maximal strength, power.

Three phases of flexibility training

corrective (SMR, static stretching), active (moving joint through full range of motion with the antagonist is being stretched) FUNCTIONAL (dynamic stretching a.k.a. soccer warm-ups)

3 Zones of cardiorespiratory system

Zone 1 maintaining a heart rate of 65-75% of max heart rate. Zone 2 76-85% of max heart rate. Zone 3 anything above that. It should be done for 30-60 seconds then recover in zone 1 or 2.

3 mechanisms that show how reactive training enhances performance

1. enhanced muscle spindle activity 2. desensitization of the golgi tendon organ 3. enhanced neuromuscular efficiency


ability of the neuromuscular system to provide internal tension and exert force against external resistance

Maximal strength

The most force a muscle can produce in a single, voluntary effort, regardless of the speed


The neuromuscular system’s ability to increase the rate of force production (ie the speed at which the motor units are activated)

Resistance Training Systems (8)

Single set system Circuit training system Multiple set system Peripheral heart action system Pyramid system Tri-set system Super set system Split routine system

Single set system

Individual performs one set of each exercise

Circuit training system

Program consists of a series of exercises that an individual performs one after the other with minimal rest

Multiple set system

2-3 warm up sets with increasing resistance, followed by several sets of the same resistance

Peripheral heart action system

Variation of circuit training divided into 2-4 sequences, all of which contain 4-6 different exercises alternating between upper body and lower body exercises

Pyramid system

Light to heavy, heavy to light

Tri-set system

3 different workouts for the same muscle group

Super set system

Perform exercises immediately after one another either for the same muscle group or an antagonistic one

Split routine system

Chest and triceps one day, biceps and back the other day.

Ancillary revenue

Revenue beyond the sale of memberships and services generated by the direct sale of products to customers (drinks, merchandise, etc)

The 4 P’s Marketing

Product Price Placement Promotion

Acronymns that help build rapport

ALF- Always Listen First APE- Attentive Peripheral and Empathetic FORM- Family Occupation Recreation Message (topic of convo) A LADDER- Ask Listen Acknowledge Dig Deeper Empathize, Repeat

Subjective Assessment

Assessment used to obtain information about a clients personal history as well as his or her occupation, lifestyle, and medical background.

Objective Assessment

Assessment that address observations that can be directly measured and quantified by the fitness professional.

Systolic Pressure

The top number of a blood pressure measurement that represents the pressure within the arterial system after the heart contracts.

Diastolic Pressure

The bottom number of a blood pressure measurement that represents the pressure within the arterial system when the heart is resting and filling with blood

Body Fat percentages

Men: 15% Women: 25%

Recommendations for Skin Fold Measurements

Take a minimum of two measures at each site. Open the jaws of the calipers before removing it from the measurement site. Be meticulous when locating anatomic landmarks Do not measure immediately after exercise Instruct the clients ahead of time regarding the test protocol. Avoid doing it on extremely obese clients

4 main sites of skin fold measurement

1. Biceps 2. Triceps 3. Subscapular skin fold 4. Illiac crest skin fold All skin fold measurements should be taken on the right side of the body. Then the four sites are added together.

Benefits of circumference measurements

Can be used on obese clients Good for comparisons/progressions Good for assessing fat pattern and distribution Inexpensive to perform Easy to record Little room for technician error

7 sites for circumference measurements

1. Neck 2. Chest 3. Waist 4. Hips 5. Thighs 6. Calves 7. Biceps

Proper way to perform waist to hip measurement

Measure the waist and hip circumferences and then divide the waist measurement by the hip measurement. A ratio greater than .8 for women and greater than .95 for men is an indicator for disease risk.


Body mass index. Weight (kilos)/ height (meters^2) Weight (lbs)/ Height (inches^2) X 703

4 steps to overcoming objections

1. Validate 2. Isolate 3. Remind 4. Resolve

Altered neuromuscular efficiency

Occurs when the kinetic chain is not performing optimally to control the body in all three planes of motion.

Altered Arthrokinematics

Altered joint motion caused by altered length- tension relationships and force couple relationships that effects the joints and causes poor movement efficiency

Relative flexibility

The human movement systems way of finding the path of least resistance during movement

Pre Assessment information

Occupation Extended periods of sitting Repetitive movements Dress shoes Past injuries Ankle sprains Knee injuries involving ligaments Low back injuries Shoulder injuries Other injuries Past surgeries Recreation

Pronation distortion syndrome

A postural distortion syndrome characterized by foot pronation (flat feet) and adducted and internally rotated knees (knocked knees).

Lower Crossed Syndrome

A postural distortion syndrome characterized by an anterior tilt to the pelvis (arched lower back)

Upper Crossed Syndrome

A postural distortion syndrome characterized by a forward head and rounded shoulders

The shortened and lengthened muscles with pronation distortion syndrome

Shortened: Gastrocnemius, Soleus, Peroneals, Adductors, IT band, Hip flexor complex, biceps femoris (short head) Lengthened: Anterior tibialis, posterior tibialis, gluteus maximus, gluteus medius

The shortened and lengthened muscles with lower crossed syndrome

Shortened: Gastrocnemius, soleus, hip flexor complex, adductors, latissimus dorsi, erector spinae Lengthened: anterior tibialis, posterior tibialis, gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, transversus abdominis

The shortened and lengthened muscles with upper crossed syndrome

Shortened: upper trapezius, levator scapulae, sternocleidomastoid, scalenes, lattisimus dorsi, teres major, subscapularis, ectoralis major/minor Lengthened: deep cervical flexors, serratus anterior, rhomboids, mid-trapezius, lower trapezius, teres minor, infraspinatus

How to fix pronation distortion syndrome

Foam roll and statically stretch their calves (gastrocnemeus and soleus), adductors, IT band, hip flexors, and bicep femoris. Strengthen their anterior tibialis, posterior tibialis, gluteus maximus (floor bridges), gluteus medius (lateral tube walking)

Pushing/Pulling assessment

-Tempo: 2/0/2 -Look for lower back arch -do the shoulders elevate? -Does the head migrate forward?

Davies Test movement

Put 2 pieces of tape on the floor, 36 inches apart. Have the client put their hand on each piece of tape. Perform alternating touches on each side for 15 seconds. Repeat for 3 trials.

Shark skill test

Client stands on one foot in a 9 box grid. They start in the center and jump to each square, returning to the middle. Test twice with each foot. Add .10 seconds for each of the following faults: -non-hopping leg touches ground -hands come off hips -foot goes into the wrong square -foot does not return to center square

Bench press test

1. Warm up with 8-10 repetitions. 2. Take one minute rest. 3. Add 10-20 lbs and peform 3-5 repetitions. 4. Take 2 minute rest. Repeat steps 3 and 4 until failure. Use one rep max estimation chart to calculate one rep max. (squat assessment is the same except you add 30-40 lbs each time)

Pro Shuttle Test

Three Marker cones are placed 5 yards apart. Client stands at the middle cone and runs to the right side, then ten yards to the left side then back through the middle. This is done 3 times and the best time is recorded.

LEFT test

Two marker cones are set ten yards apart. Sprint, backpedal, side shuffle, side shuffle, carioaca, carioca, sprint.

YMCA 3 minute step test

24 steps per minute on a 12 inch step for a total of 3 minutes. Within 5 seconds of finishing the clients heart rate is recorded for 60 seconds and recorded as the recovery pulse. Determine the clients maximal heart rate by using the age predicted maximum heart rate regression formula: 208- (0.70 X Age)

Ways to fix common compensations

Focus on stretching their clients calves, hip flexors, lats, and pecs. And strengthening the glutes, intrinsic core stabilizers, and scapular stabilizers.

General guideline for when clients should be reassessed.

Every four weeks.

Most commonly addressed Acute variables

Exercise selection, order of exercises performed, load (weight/resistance), volume, (repetition x sets), rest periods, and tempo.

Assigned Tempos for each phase of the OPT model

Tempo- slow (4-2-1), Adaptation- Endurance, Phases 1,2 Tempo- Moderate (2,0,2) Adaptation- Strength, Phases 2,3,4 Tempo- Fast (x/x/x) Adaptation- max strength/power phases 4,5 (x/x/x) means it should be performed as fast as it can be controlled.

Rest Period and Percent Recovery

Amount of Rest Percent Recovery 20-30 seconds 50% 40 seconds 75% 60 seconds 85-90% 3-5 minutes 100%

Rest Period by Phase

Muscular endurance/ Stabilization- 0-90 seconds Hypertrophy- 0-60 seconds Maximal Strength and Power 3-5 minutes

Linear Periodization

High volume, low intensity and progresses to low volume high intensity.

Undulation Periodization

Periodization that provides changes in the acute variables of workout to achieve different goals on a daily or weekly basis. (Example: Monday-Stablilization, Wednesday- Strength, Friday-Power)

Annual, Monthly and Weekly Plans are also called

Macrocycle, Mesocycle, and Microcycle

A training template should include 5 items

Phase of training, exercises used, intensity of exercise, volume, and measure of outcome (how they did)

All of the following are parts of the small intestine except


How many calories of fat will a typical adult male of normal weight and body fat have?

100,000 calories

What is the correct formula for calculating fat mass?

Body fat percent times scale weight.

What is the recommended intake amount of carbs for individuals exercising more than one hour per day?

4-5 grams per kilogram of body weight per day.

Hypokalemia describes a condition in which:

There is a loss of significant amounts of potassium, resulting in weakness, fatigue, and muscle cramping.

If a fitness professional wants to increase their closing percentage, what numbers are they trying to improve?

The percent of individuals who attend an assessment who end up purchasing a paid service.

What amount of caffeine has been shown to increase endurance exercise performance?

5-13 grams per kilogram of body weight.

How many balance strength exercises should be included in a client’s movement prep portion of a training session?

1-3 exercises

The order you should follow in a workout

10 minutes of warm up and SMR/stretching 10 minutes of core, balance, reactive, SAQ drills (if applicable) 30 minutes of resistance training 10 minutes of cool down

Muscular Endurance

1. a muscles ability to contract for an extended period 2. The ability to produce and maintain force production over prolonged periods of time

Repetition range for stabilization endurance phase

12-20 reps with a 4/2/1 tempo 1-3 sets

Goals for phase 1

Increase stability Increase muscular endurance Increase control in all planes of motion Increase coordination of movement S, ME, POM, COM

FITTE principle

Frequency: 3-5 days a week Intensity: 65-75% of heart rate max or 12-13 on RPE scale Time: 30-60 minutes Type: Exercise that are rhythmic, use large muscle groups, and/or are continuous in nature Enjoyment: do what you like to do, not necessarily what you think you should do

NASM movement prep protocol

Activate under-active muscles, increase ROM, neuromuscular efficiency, structural stability, inter and intra muscular stabilization, inter vertebral stabilization, hip and scapular stability. Additionally: coordination functions between highly mobile body segments such as ankles, hips, or the LPHC.

Common mistakes made in the stabilization level by fitness pros

Underutilized assessments, lack of protocol, programming, or formulated means of progression, desire to progress too soon, focusing on stabilization or endurance but not on both.

Benefits of phase 1 training for weight loss clients

Muscular endurance, increase time under low tension, lower rest intervals, core activation, and increased caloric expenditure

Metabolic Conditioning

Exercise that improves effective and efficient energy storage and delivery for physical activity.

Goals of phase 2 strength endurance

Increased work capacity and exercise tolerance. Improvement in the core musculature’s ability to stabilize the pelvis and spine under heavier loads through complete range of motion. Increased load-bearing capabilities of the muscles, tendons, ligaments, and joints.

Goals of phase 3 hypertrophy

Increased muscle mass Increased connective tissue strength and mass. Increased metabolism through increased muscle mass.

Goals of phase 4 Maximal Strength

Increased motor unit activation. Increased motor unit synchronization. Increased muscle coordination. Enhanced force production in preparation for the Power Level.

Cardio guidelines for those seeking maximal strength gains

Lower intensity <75% of max oxygen uptake Frequency of 3 days per week or fewer Volume of less than 45 minutes per day

Guidelines for active isolated stretching in the strength level

Before workouts 1-2 sets of active-isolated stretches should be performed at 5-10 repetitions with a 1 to 2 second hold for each.

Guidelines for core workouts in the strength level

One to four exercises, perfor for 2-3 sets of 8-12 repetitions. Tempo should be kept at a moderate pace with rests of 0-60 seconds between sets.

How often should balance strength exercises be included in the strength level?

1-3 balance exercises, up to four times a week, about 2-3 sets per exercise.

Reactive strength acute variables

Reps-8-10 sets 2-3 rest 0-60 seconds frequency 2-4 days a week duration-4 weeks exercise selection 1-3

SAQ Strength Acute Variables

Reps-3-5 run throughs Sets-3-4 Rest 0-60 Seconds Frequency 2-4 days a week Duration 4 weeks Exercise Selection 6-8 drills

Common mistakes made in the strength level

Failure to adjust training level based on the individual Utilizing the same exercises for all clients regardless of their need. Failure to alter training in a coordinated fashion over time. Prescribing training to muscular failure for lengthy periods of time. Creating excessive soreness by over prescribing intense training.

Goals of phase 5

Enhance neuromuscluar efficiency Enhance prime mover strength. Increase the rate of force production.

Eccentric Strength

One of the three phases in the movement of a muscle. Refers to the action of a muscle while lengthening under load.

RPE for each heart rate zone and training for phase 5

Zone 1 HR 65-75%, RPE 12-13 Zone 2 HR 76-85%, RPE 14-16 Zone 3 HR 86-95%, RPE 17-19 Warm up in zone 1 for 10 minutes. Workload should increase every 60 seconds until client reaches zone 3. Then the client can go back and forth between zone 2 and zone 3 every minute for up to 30 minutes or until they can’t get their heart rate back down in time. Then do a cool down.

Recommended stretches for the power level

Prisoner Squat, Multiplanar lunges, single leg squat touchdown, tube walking, medicine ball lift and chop.

Reactive power acute variables

Reps-8-12, Sets 2-3, Rest 0-60 seconds, Frequency 2-4 days a week,

SAQ protocols for the power level

3-5 sets of 6-10 agility drills should be done for 3-5 repetitions. Rest period 0-90 seconds. 2-4 days a week for 4 weeks.

Common SAQ drills for the power level

Partner mirror drill, agility ball drill, star cone drill, dynamic ladder drills

Strength with reactive training supersets

-Exercise is performed at near maximal resistance 85-100% of the one repetition max, followed by a power exercise that is similar and performed explosively at 30-45% of the one rep max. (bar bell squats would be followed by jump squats). -The strength part is 1-5 reps and the power part is 8-10 reps for 3-5 sets.

Common mistakes made in the power level

Too much volume, not using proper regressions, inappropriate exercise selection, not cueing intensity

Areas to foam roll before power workouts

Bottom of the feet, calves, hamstrings, IT band, piriformis, and lats.

7 Different forms of training modalities

Bodyweight training, suspension training, free weights and implements, resistance machines, ropes, vibration exercise, rolling acute resistance.

Vibration exercises should be avoided with the following 14 condtions

Pregnancy, recent operative wounds, joint implants, pacemakers, active cancer, circulatory conditions, gallstones, kidney stones, acute severe migraine headaches, infections, epilepsy, nephrolithiasis, cardiorespiratory disease, severe diabetes.

Parameters that are important to understand regarding vibration exercise include:

Frequency: A measure of the number of oscillations per second in Hertz. Amplitude: Total vertical displacement, often measured in millimeters. Time: Length of time that an exerciser experiences vibration in seconds.

Metabolic Resistance Training

The use of high work-rate resistance activities with few or no recovery intervals.


Chronically high blood pressure as defined by a systolic pressure above 140 or diastolic pressure above 90


Narrowing of the arteries due to a buildup of plaque along their walls.

Peripheral artery disease

Condition in which blood flow to the extremities is reduced due to the narrowing of arteries.

Resistance training guidelines for youth

Frequency:2-3 days a week. Volume 1-5 sets Reps: 3-30 per set Intensity: 45-85% of 1RM

Reactive training guidelines for youth

Frequency: 2-3 days a week Reps: 20-300 per session

Resistance training among adults

Frequency: 1-3 days a week Volume: 1-5 sets Reps: 6-20 per set Intensity: 30-85% 1RM

Benefits of exercise in pregnancy

Improved weight management Reduced incidence of gestational diabetes Decreased Hypertension Enhanced body image Improved psychological well-being Decreased risk of premature labor Shorter delivery and hospitalization Improved fetal development Decreased risk of obesity both in mother and child

Resistance training among pregnant women

Frequency 1-3 days a week volume 1-3 sets per exercise Reps 12-20 per set Intensity less than 70% of 1RM through 1st and 2nd trimester Rest interval, at least 2 minutes

Aerobic guidelines for obese clients

Frequency: at least 5 days a week Intensity: 40-80% of 1RM Duration: 20-60 minutes per session.

Resistance training among obese clients

Frequency: 1-3 days a week Volume: 1-4 sets per exercise Reps: 8-15 per set Intensity: 40-80% of 1RM

Resistance Training among people with high blood pressure

Volume: 1 set Reps: 12-15 Intensity: 60% of 1RM


A niti of energy equal to 1,000 calories.


Nutrients that provide calories

Complex Carb

A carb with more than 10 carbon/water units. Includes the fiber and starch found in whole grains and vegetables.

Simple Carb

carb with fewer than 10 carbon/water units. Includes glucose, sucrose, lactose, galactose, maltose, and fructose.


A simple sugar manufactured by the body from carbs, fat and protein that serves as the body’s main source of fuel.

Percent of calories that should come from Carbohydrates

45-65% primarily as complex carbs and whole grains

Amount of grams per kilogram of carbs needed for individuals

Inactive 3 grams Active 4-5 grams Athletes training intensely 8-12 grams

Amino acids

The building blocks of proteins; composed of a central carbon atom, a hydrogen atom, an amino group, a carboxyl group, and an R-group.

Functions of protein

Helps develop, maintain and repair tissue, involved in fluid balance, blood clotting, enzyme production, acie-bas balance, immune function, and hormone regulation, and it serves as a carrier for several nutrients.

Percent of calories that come from protein

10-35% or 0.8 grams per kilogram. For endurance athletes it is 1.2-1.4 grams and for 1.6-1.7 for strength athletes.

Complementary Proteins

Consuming two or more incomplete proteins together to provide needed amino acids.

Percent of calories that come from fat

20-35% of total daily calories Less than 10% from saturated fats

Vitamin A

Helps with vision. Helps with skin, digestive tract, and other tissues. Good sources are eggs, and green leafy vegetables.

Vitamin D

Helps maintain calcium in the blood by increasing calcium absorption, good sources of this are milk, salmon and tuna.

Vitamin K

Necessary for normal blood clotting. Required for strong bones. Good sources of this come from Clloard, kale, spinach, and brussel sprouts.

Vitamin C

Antioxidant role. Involved in collagen formation. Aids in iron absorption. Good sources are oranges and other citrus fruits, green peppers and broccoli.


Coenzyme for several reaction in energy metabolism. Necessary for muscle coordination and proper development and maintenance of central nervous system. Good sources are pork , cereal and grains, nuts and seeds.

Recommended water intake for women

2.7 L or 91 oz a day

Recommended water intake for men

3.7 L or 125 oz a day

Water intake 2 hours pre-exercise

14-20 oz

water intake 15 minute pre exercise

16 oz if tolerated

water intake during exercise

4-8 oz every 15-20 mins or 16-32 oz every hour

water intake post exercise

50 ounces for every kilogram of body weight lost (2.2 lbs)

Signs of dehydration

Dry mouth, sleepiness, thirst, decreased urine output, dry skin, headache, constipation, dizziness, sunken eyes, low blood pressure, rapid heartbeat, rapid breathing, fever, delirium, unconciousness

HMB (beta-hydroxy beta-methylbutyrate)

Used as a supplement to increase muscle mass and decrease muscle soreness.

Overhead squat assessment

Excessive Forward Lean
-Probable overactive/Under-active muscles

Overactive: Soleus, Gastrocnemius, hip flexor complex, abdominal complex. Underactive: anterior tibialis, gluteus maximus, erector spinae LPHC

Arched lower back (anterior pelvic tilt)
-Probable overactive/Under-active muscles

Overactive: Hip flexor complex, erector spinae, lats Underactive: gluteus maximus, hamstring complex, intrinsic core stabilizers (transverse abdominis, multifidus, transversospinalis, internal oblique pelvic floor.) LPHC

Rounded lower back (posterior pelvic tilt)
-Probably overactive/Under-active muscles

Overactive: hamstring complex, rectus abdominis Underactive: intrinsic core stabilizers, gluteus maximus, erector spinae LPHC

Arms fall forward
-Probable overactive/Under-active muscles

Overactive: lats, teras major, pectoralis major/minor Underactive: mid/lower trapezius, rhomboids rotator cuff Upper body

Turned out feet
-Probable overactive/Under-active muscles

Overactive: soleus, lateral gastrocnemeus, biceps femoris Underactive: medial gastrocnemeus, medial hamstring complex, gracilis, sartorius, popliteus Feet

Knees moving inward
-Probable overactive/Under-active muscles

Overactive: adductor complex, soleus/gastrocnemeus, biceps femoris, TFL, vastus lateralis Underactive: gluteus medius/maximus, VMO Knees

Knees moving outward
-Probable overactive/Under-active muscles

Overactive: soleus/gastrocnemeus, bicep femoris short head, piriformis Underactive: gluteus maximus, adductors, medial complex

Special considerations for SMR (5)

-Varicose veins -High blood pressure -Diabetes -Pregnancy -Anytime the trainer is unsure of a condition

How long should static stretching be held?

30-60 seconds

Form mistakes and cues to correct for:
lateral tube walking and cues to correct

-too strong of a band -taking too large of steps -turning the feet out -allowing the knees to cave inward -begin light and work up -take small steps (begin at hip width and step to shoulder width) -keep feet parallel as if on skis -keep knees pulled out to maximize use of glutes

Form mistakes and cues to correct for:
Inch worms

-sagging the back -bending the knees or elbows -not maintaining a neutral spine -tuck your chin -engage your core to keep your back in neutral alignment

3 elements necessary for creating long lasting healthy lifestyle changes

Nutrition Fitness Behavior

6 stages of the transtheoretical model

1. Pre-contemplation -no plans for change 2. contemplation -begin thinking about change in the next 6 mo. 3. preparation -making plans to change (gym membership, exercise equiptment, sporadic workouts) 4. action -Actually started to make changes within the last 6 mo. 5. maintenance -still reaching the criteria after 6 mo. 6. Termination stage -individuals have zero temptation to engage in old behavior and exhibit 100% self efficacy

Confidence vs. Self-Talk vs. Self-Confidence

Feeling or belief of certainty One’s internal dialogue Belief in one’s ability to execute a certain behavior

Ways to increase client’s confidence

Performance accomplishments, modeling (you show them someone else doing it correctly), verbal persuasion, imagery (imagine yourself performing a task)

Affective influence

influence resulting from emotions

4 steps to motivational interviewing

1. expressing empathy 2. developing discrepancy (helping the client realizing the gap between where they want to be and what is holding them back) 3. respect the clients resistance as being normal 4. supporting the clients self-efficacy

Autonomy supportive style

A coaching style that focuses on creating an environment that emphasizes self-improvement rather than competing against others

Disassociation vs Association

-When you focus on the external environment (distracting yourself) -Focusing on how your body feels

Cognitive restructuring

Process of learning to identify and dispute irrational or maladaptive thoughts

Cognitive distortions

The minds way of convincing itself that something true is actually untrue to reinforce negative thinking or emotions


Process of managing specific internal or external demands that tax or exceed ones resources

Emotion focused coping

Distracts from negative feelings associated with stress

Intrinsic Approach

An inside out approach to exercise that emphasizes the enjoyment and fun of exercise and making it something to look forward to, not just a means to goal accomplishment.

Outcome Goal

A goal that is usually about winning or losing; in exercise settings, it is the end result of some behavior..

Performance Goal

A goal that specifies the end products of performance expressed in terms of personal achievement.

Process Goal

Focuses on what to do in order to improve.


Specific, measurable, attainable, realistic, timely

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