SOC Social Stratification (8)

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Social stratification is a concept that refers to ________

Ranking categories of people in a hierarchy

Using the sociological perspective, we see that social stratification ________

Give some people more privileges and opportunities than others

Social stratification ________

is a matter of inequality and beliefs about why people should be unequal.

Which concept describes a person who moves from one occupation to another that provides about the same level of rewards?

Horizontal social mobility

In all societies, kinship plays a part in social stratification because ________

parents pass their social position on to their children.

A caste system is defined as ________

social stratification based on ascription, or birth.

In general, societies that have caste systems have economies that are _______

Agrarian

The concept "meritocracy" refers to social stratification ________

based entirely on personal merit.

Why do societies with class systems retain some elements of caste (such as the inheritance of wealth) rather than trying to become complete meritocracies?

Because a pure meritocracy would eliminate families and other social loyalties that tie a society together.

The degree of status consistency is ________

greater in caste than class systems.

The concept of structural social mobility refers to ________

change in the social position of many people due to changes in society itself.

Compared to other high-income nations, the United States has ________

more economic inequality.

Ideology, or beliefs that support social stratification, is found in ________

both caste and class systems.

Who coined the concept "survival of the fittest"?

Herbert Spencer

In Karl Marx’s analysis, another name for the capitalist class is the ________

Bourgeoisie

When Marx argued that capitalism "reproduces the class structure," he meant that ________

Society operates in a way that carries class differences from one generation to the next.

According to Karl Marx, social stratification in a capitalist society always involves ________

class conflict

One reason Marx’s predicted socialist revolution never took place in industrial-capitalist societies is that ________

Living standards for the majority have gone up.

The idea that social inequality is harmful and divides society is associated with the ________

Social-conflict approach.

Max Weber claimed that social position was based on a person’s ________

Economic class, degree of social status, and amount of power.

Marx thought of inequality in terms of two main classes. In contrast, Weber envisioned inequality in terms of ________

A multi-dimensional socioeconomic ranking.

Max Weber claimed that agrarian societies give special importance to which dimension of social inequality?

Social prestige or honor

Marx claimed social stratification would end with the creation of a socialist economy. What was Weber’s view?

Weber thought socialism would reduce economic differences but also create political elite, increasing differences in power.

A common micro-level pattern involving social interaction is that ________

People tend to socialize with others of about the same social position.

Which of the following types of societies comes closest to being egalitarian?

Hunting and gathering

Based on what you have read, as the United States develops a postindustrial economy, economic inequality is ________

Increasing

The total amount of financial assets, minus any debts, is referred to as ________

Wealth

If you were looking for data supporting the claim that U.S. society is very stratified, you would make the strongest case by pointing to which of the following factors?

Wealth

Being in the upper-upper class is usually the result of _____; being in the lower-upper class is more a matter of _____.

birth; achievement

Those most likely to be liberal on social issues (say, by supporting feminism) are ________

rich, highly-educated people.

People of low social position are more liberal on _____ issues and more conservative on _____ issues.

economic; social

Which concept refers to change in social position during a person’s lifetime?

Intragenerational social mobility.

Which of the following factors tends to raise your social standing?

Marrying and staying married.

Relative poverty is ________

Found everywhere.

The concept "feminization of poverty" refers to the fact that, in the United States ________

Women make up an increasing percentage of the poor.

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