Soc 204 Test bank 4 Ch4

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1. _____ describes how any action that is repeated frequently becomes cast into a pattern.

*b. Habitualization

2. Karl Marxs Communist Manifesto is based on the ____ perspective.

*d. Conflict Theory

3. ____ societies relied on permanent tools for survival, and expanded due to innovations such as crop rotation and fertilizer.

*c. Agricultural

4. Which of the following is NOT an example of self-fulfilling prophecy?

a. Charlotte is an intelligent teenager, but told by her step-sisters and cousins that shes destined to a life of poverty and failure. Charlotte begins to do poorly in school, and eventually drops out. b. Though encouraged by his parents to audition for Julliard, Jose believes he isnt good enough to attend. After his audition, he expresses this reluctance to the admissions committee. They dont admit him due to his lack of certainty. c. Morgan overhears a professor predicting the economic recession will prevent entry-level graduates from finding gainful employment. Morgan goes on interviews but doesnt bother preparing, convinced its a waste of time. Morgan appears unprofessional and is not hired. *d. Kevin sprained his ankle a month before a marathon. Though his trainer advises him not to participate, Kevin runs the marathon and places third.

5. The Agricultural Revolution is often referred to as dawn of civilization because:

*a. Cities and towns were established, and humans had more time for leisure activities.

6. Please place the following societies in chronological order:

*d. Hunter-gatherer; Pastoral; Horticultural; Agricultural

7. Ivanka Trump is the daughter of business mogul Donald Trump. Her role as heiress to the Trump fortune is an example of ______.

*c. Ascribed status

8. Functionalist Émile Durkheim viewed society as:

*d. An organism in which each portion plays a vital role in keeping the organism stable and healthy

9. On the first day of high school, Kaitlin overhears a group of girls calling her goth and emo. She soon begins to don more black clothing, dark makeup, and seek out friends who dress the same. This is an example of ______.

*b. Role performance

10. Which of the following is NOT an example of organic solidarity?

*b. A freelance artist creating a sculpture of Barack Obama

11. Alienation is defined by the text as:

*a. The condition in which the individual is isolated and divorced from his or her society, work, or sense of self.

12. Which of the following is NOT one of Marxs four types of alienation?

*d. Alienation from ones religion

13. A judge and her gavel. A cop and his gun. A lawyer and her power suit. A ____ would be most concerned with the parts these objects play in impression management.

*b. Symbolic interactionist

14. Durkheim defined ______ as the communal beliefs, morals, and attitudes of a society.

*b. Collective conscience

15. As industrialization began to boom, Durkheim believed people were more susceptible to anomie because:

a. Collective norms are weakened. b. Society no longer has the support of the collective consciousness. c. Specialization of labor lead to alienation. *d. All of the above

16. Karl Marx asserted that the means of societal change existed in the tension between:

*c. The working class proletariat taking the means of production from the wealthy bourgeoisie.

17. The concept anomie can be defined as:

*a. A situation in which society no longer has the support of a firm collective consciousness.

18. Which of the following is an example of role strain?

*b. Becca returns to work after giving birth to her daughter, finding it difficult to act as mother, wife, and executive.

19. Charles Cooleys concept of the looking-glass self hypothesizes that:

*c. People base their images on how they think other people see them.

20. The term institutionalization can be defined as:

*b. The act of implanting a convention or norm into society.

21. Which of the following fictional societies is an example of a pastoral society?

*c. The Hunti, a wandering group of nomads who specialize in breeding and training horses

22. Which of the following occupations is a person of power most likely to have in an information society?

*a. Software engineer

23. Which of the following societies were the first to have permanent residences?

*c. Horticultural

24. Organic solidarity is most likely to exist in which of the following types of societies?

*b. Industrial

25. According to Marx, the _____ own the means of production in a society.

*c. bourgeoisie

26. Which of the following best depicts Marxs concept of alienation from the process of ones labor?

*d. A construction worker is laid off and takes a job at a fast food restaurant temporarily, although he has never had an interest in preparing food before.

27. The Protestant work ethic is based on the concept of predestination, which states that ________.

*d. God has already chosen those who will be saved and those who will be damned

28. The concept of the iron cage was popularized by which of the following sociological thinkers?

*a. Max Weber

29. Emile Durkheims ideas about society can best be described as ________.

*a. functionalist

30. Mary works full-time at an office downtown while her young children stay at a neighbors house. Shes just learned that the childcare provider is leaving the country. Mary has succumbed to pressure to volunteer at her church, plus her ailing mother-in-law will be moving in with her next month. Which of the following is likely to occur as Mary tries to balance her existing and new responsibilities?

*a. Role strain

31. According to Peter Berger and Thomas Luckmann, society is based on ________.

*a. habitual actions

32. Paco knows that women find him attractive, and hes never found it hard to get a date. But as he ages, he dyes his hair to hide the gray and wears clothes that camouflage the weight he has put on. Pacos behavior can be best explained by the concept of ___________.

*c. role performance

33. According to Marx, the owners of the means of production in a capitalist society are the:

*c. bourgeoisie

34. A situation when one or more of an individuals roles clash is known as:

*c. role conflict

35. Roger picks up his son from school and asks him if he has homework. This is an example of:

*a. role performance

36. Nora finds it difficult to work 40 hours a week at her job as a nurse and fulfill her role as a mother, this is an example of:

*c. role conflict

37. Tom is promoted to a supervisory position at his company but finds that the stress and long work week are damaging his health. This is an example of:

*a. role strain

38. Alienation, the condition in which the individual is isolated and divorced from his or her society, work, or the sense of self was an important concept to which of the following social theorists:

39. A situation in which society no longer has the support of a firm collective consciousness is referred to as:

*c. anomie

40. Receiving a college degree is an example of:

*c. an achieved status

41. The responsibilities and benefits that a person experiences according to their rank and role in society is referred to as:

*c. status

42. Which of the following is not an ascribed status:

*c. son

43. An ascribed status is a social position

*b. assigned to a person by society without regard for the persons unique talents or characteristics.

44. Which of the following statements about an ascribed status is correct?

*c. It is often biological in origin, but significant mainly because of the social meanings attached to it.

45. Which of the following is an example of an ascribed status?

*c. Oregon native

46. An achieved status is a social position

*a. that is within our power to change.

47. An ascribed status is a social position that:

*d. can be given to a person based upon that persons age, race, or gender.

48. In general, ones ascribed status can heavily influence ones achieved status, but ones achieved status cannot affect ones ascribed status.

*a. True

49. Role conflict and role strain are closely related, and role conflict is often considered a severe form of role strain.

*b. False

50. It is easier to change an ascribed status than it is to change an achieved status.

*b. False

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