SOC 210 – Introduction to Sociology (Quiz #6)

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Saadawi recalls her experience of ____________ when, at age 6, she was awakened in the night and dragged to the bathroom, her legs were pried apart, and her clitoris was cut off.

female circumcision

What is the term that refers to desire, sexual preference, sexual identity, and behavior?


All of the following are reasons why sociologists view gender as a social construction rather than a biological given EXCEPT:

Contemporary studies show us that men and women have different personality structures, the innate by-product of existing social structural relations.

Judith Lorber believes that gender is a social institution because it:

is a major structure organizing our day-to-day experiences.

The idea that there was only one sex and that the female body was an inversion of the male body was promoted by which culture?


In the one-sex model, it was believed that both a man’s orgasm and a woman’s were required for conception. When the two-sex model gained momentum, women and men were viewed as radically different creatures, and the female orgasm became viewed as:


Under the sex/gender system, men universally perform the kinds of tasks:

that are accorded higher value than those done by women.

All of the following terms characterize essentialist thinking EXCEPT:

fluid and ambiguous.

What you do in the social world should be a direct result of who you are in the natural world. This statement refers to:

biological determinism.

Feminist philosopher Elizabeth Grosz proposed that we view the relationship between sex (the natural) and gender (the social) as existing on a Möbius strip because:

sex and gender are two side of the same coin, and thus inseparable.

An essentialist would argue all of following for why women outnumber men in occupations that involve caring EXCEPT:

gender establishes different cultures and expectations for men and women.

According to your text, hijras in India are a group of men who opt to have their penis surgically removed and renounce sexual desire and practice. Which of the following statements is NOT true according to your text?

The hijra identity is secret, and no one can tell who is/isn’t a hijra.

By looking at anthropological findings in tribal societies, sociologists can see fluidity in gender, which helps us see that the boundaries within our own system of gender:

may not be stable.

In Navajo tribes, there are three genders. Which of the following is NOT one of their gender categories?


According to Judith Lorber, differences between the sexes are not easy to explain because gender isn’t natural, but rather is:

a social institution.

In the seventeenth century, Rubenesque women were considered beauties because when food was scarce, a plump woman was a sign of good health, wealth, and attractiveness. What was the catalyst that made food plentiful and changed the standard of beauty for women?


Michael Kimmel found that in the eighteenth century, the ideal man was very different than the modern-day ideal man. The ideal man in the 1700s was:

a quiet and "nerdy" intellectual who enjoyed writing poetry.

Sociologist Cynthia Fuchs Epstein argues that deceptive distinctions are those sex differences that arise out of the roles individuals occupy, rather than some innate force. Which of the following is NOT an example of deceptive distinctions?

A girl who is a cheerleader and acts unanimated and unenthusiastic.

Hegemonic masculinity can best be described as:

the dominant, privileged, and often invisible category of men at any point in history.

Similar to hegemonic masculinity, social problems that exist within a dominant group in a society tend to be:

invisible, because it is regarded as the norm.

Which theoretical perspective assumed that every society had certain structures that existed to fulfill some set of necessary functions?

structural functionalism

The study of gender is basically the study of how two spheres shape each other. What are the two spheres?

nature and nurture

Although female circumcision is a custom in some societies, a structural functionalist might argue that this practice exists because it:

fulfills some set of necessary functions.

Freud describes a boy’s experiences starting with heterosexual love for his mother but soon realizing that he will be castrated by his father if he continues to have romantic feelings toward her. To resolve this, the boy rejects his mother and emulates his father. Freud referred to this as:

the Oedipus complex.

Carol Gilligan found boys and girls played differently on the playground. In comparison to boys, girls tended to:

play more cooperative and people-based games.

In the 1980s, what group believed that unequal gender relationships were at the root of all social relationships?

social feminists

Dr. John Money claimed a genetic male could be raised as a girl and would turn out just fine. The David Reimer story showed that Money’s claims were:


For the Sambia, taking in semen of older men by performing fellatio is the only way to

become "real" men.

In cultures where scant resources are available, homosexuality is practical because:

it keeps down the birthrate.

Ann Stoler examined how sexual desire was constructed in the nineteenth-century Dutch East Indies and French Indochina colonies. She found that when the imperialist agenda was threatened by rebellion, racial boundaries hardened, and European men no longer desired sexual relations with the natives. This example shows all of the following EXCEPT:

how an individual’s desires are relatively insulated from the social relations in a society.

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