SOC 202 Final

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Which of the following terms refers to a social position built around normative sex categories?


Which term is used to describe biological differences between males and females?


During the 1960s women stepped out of their comfort zone and began protesting for their rights. Which of the following social movements occurred as a result?


Which of the following is NOT a goal of collective action?

to create a public disturbance

Which type of collective action can only take place when members of a group are face to face?

Crowd collective action

At an NCSU football game the student section starts "the wave." Soon the entire stadium is involved. Which theory of collective behavior best explains this phenomenon?

Contagion theory

Historically, women have experienced a great deal of social inequality as compared to men in this country. However, over time things have become more equal with women gaining the right to vote, a decreasing gender pay gap, and more representation of women in political office. This is an example of

social change

In value-added theory (which describes how social movements form), what is the first necessary condition?

Structural conduciveness

Mothers Against Drunk Driving is an example of which type of social movement?


Which term refers to a self-fulfilling prophecy?

Pygmalion effect

What is it called when students are separated into different classes or groups based on ability and/or future plans?


Social change is the __________ of public policy, culture, or social institutions over time.

all the above

All of the following phenomena are considered by sociologists to be causes of social change, EXCEPT:

self esteem

n which of the following decades was the normative "traditional family" (breadwinner-homemaker modemost prevalent within American society


James and Lisa are a young married couple with two small children. After discussing their childcare and career options – in particular, whether Lisa should look for a job or stay at home full-time to raise their children. In the end, they decide that she should go to work to help supplement James’ income. This decision (although common within today’s families violates one of the prevailing patterns of gender norms from the first half of the 20th C. Which one?

The cult of domesticity

Which of the following terms was used by Conley to refer to patterns of intrafamily stratification present within many families

the pecking order

Which of the following explanations best accounts for the causes and outcomes of sibling inequality patterns within families

The scarcity of material and emotional resources available to some children as a result of parents’ socioeconomic standing and marital status

‘Concerted Cultivation’ is a parenting style characterized by busy family schedules, driven by children’s’ participation in many extra-curricular activities. In which of the following socioeconomic groups is this type of parenting most prevalent?

middle class

Parents in which of the following socioeconomic groups tend more frequently to rely on ‘Natural Growth’ in socializing their children?

poverty level and working class

Jack and Diane are concerned parents. They enroll their 4-year-old son Jack, Jr. in piano lessons, a recreation league soccer team, and Spanish camp. His days are tightly scheduled. Their parenting style is best characterized by which of the following descriptions

concerted cultivation

What is the name of the economic system that developed along with the agricultural revolution and Industrial Revolution in Europe?


In a capitalist economic system, what determines the price and distribution of goods and services?


What is the correct term describing an economic system characterized by the presence of lords, vassals, and serfs?


Which theorist claimed that modern capitalism would not have arisen without the Protestant Reformation, which created the necessary social conditions for capitalism by creating theological insecurity and instilling a doctrine of predestination?

max weber

What is the condition when only a handful of firms exist in a particular market?


orporations often seek to reduce production costs by lowering their labor costs. One publicly unfavorable way to do this is to move all or part of the company’s operations overseas and use third-world labor (which can be paid a small fraction of the wages paid to US laborers). This is referred to as:


Henry Ford was heralded for his generosity and genius when he created a new type of wage system whereby male workers were paid sufficient wages to support a dependent wife and children. What term refers to this type of payment?

family wage

With regard to the family wage, women

If they were single, were seen to be working just for "extra money" so they was not paid the same as men.

Which of the following descriptions best describes global warming:

Rising atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases, and higher global average temperatures

According to Ulrich Beck’s typology of risks in our contemporary ‘risk society’, Hurricane Katrina is an example of what type of risk?


When compared to organic megafarms (like Colgate Palmolive and Dean Foods), why are small family farms at an economic disadvantage when it comes to agricultural production?

USDA certification is expensive

The increasing popularity of organic products is generally thought of in a positive light – more healthy for the environment, human consumers, farm animals and livestock. However this trend can also contribute to health stratification by income – by offering wealthier and more educated customers a health opportunity that may not be readily available to those with more limited resources. This is inequality results because

organic products are more expensive

The Matthew effect is essentially like

having to have experience to get a job

According to the normative view of science, what should scientists leave at the laboratory door?

personal values

When a scientific paradigm shifts, this means that:

scientific revolution

There have been a greater number of ____________ presidents of the United States than any other religion.


During the 1960s some social scientists touted the secularization theory. This theory predicted:

that the influence of religion would be diminished in the coming years.

Peter Berger wrote, in the 1960s, that the world was becoming more secular. Recently he wrote that:

that he was wrong

The second-largest religion in the world and in the United States is:


Approximately what percentage of people in the world identify themselves as Christian?


A system of government in which the state provides a number of key necessities, such as food, health care, and housing, outside the economic marketplace is referred to as:

a welfare state

n our class textbook, Conley describes five defining characteristics of bureaucracies. Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of a bureaucracy?

are flexible and individualistic

What was the project in which scientists attempted to identify all of the genes in human DNA?

human genome project

The ____________ study showed how labels become self-fulfilling prophecies.


The digital divide refers to:

access to and knowledge of the Internet.

The term Global divide describes:

lack of internet in poorer areas

What term refers to a group of people who share a set of characteristics (typically, but not always, physical characteristics) and are said to share a common bloodline?


Although race has no deterministic, biological basis, it still:

has important social influence

A group of people who are identified as a group through a common nationality or cultural heritage

What is ethnicity?

Increasing trade and economic exchanges among individuals, corporations, and countries are important continuing trends in the historical development of capitalism. However, your text mentions four recent phenomena that make the current period of globalization different. Which of the following is NOT one of those?

new means of travel

Which of the following possible answers correctly lists three of the four ‘ideal types’ of social stratification that were identified in the Conley textbook:

estate system, caste system, class system

Which of the following pairs correctly represents the 2 main classes that Karl Marx believed made up a capitalist society:

Proletariat; bourgeoisie

Which of the following terms is used to describe the measurement of poverty where a household’s income falls below the necessary level to purchase food to physically sustain its members?

absolute poverty

One of the ways sociologists study relative poverty is by:

determining the median income in a given location and anything under this number is considered poverty.

Which of the following considerations was the main factor in determining the US poverty line?

food costs based on the U.S. Department of Agriculture recommendations for minimum food requirements

Which of the following is a criticism of how the poverty line is calculated in the United States:

the formula does not reflect that housing now takes up a much larger proportion of family budget, than was once the case

Clifford Geertz used which of the following terms to describe the fact that ethnic ties remained even after people assimilated?


A society is considered pluralistic if no one ethnic group is statistically:

in the majority

What is pluralism?

the presence and coexistence of many different groups within one society

Robert Park’s model explains the universally progressive pattern in which immigrants arrive, settle in, and achieve full assimilation in a newly homogeneous country. His model is called:

straight line assimilation

A primary difference between evangelical Protestants and fundamentalist Christians is that:

A) fundamentalists believe that the Bible should be taken literally; evangelicals do not.

With regard to gender and religion, which of the following statement is FALSE?

C) Women’s organizations in churches have maintained their numbers even as women have entered the workforce in greater numbers since the 1970s.

Conley begins the Religion chapter in our textbook, by discussing which of the following patterns as an interesting paradox about religion

Religions that are more demanding of their followers grow faster than less strict religions, but as a religion grows larger, it tends to become less strict.

Karl Marx referred to religion as the "opium of the masses." Which of the following statements offers the best paraphrase of Marx’s idea?

Religion keeps people pacified with promises of rewards in the afterlife; therefore, they do not challenge the subjugating, exploitative, and alienating social conditions in this life.

Which of the following statement best characterizes Emile Durkheim’s functionalist perspective on the social significance of religious belief.

religion perpetuates social unity or solidarity

Evidence to support the conflict perspective of religion comes from all of the following EXCEPT:

In the caste system in India, people were born into statuses that determined their life chances. This system was thought to be the natural way of the world and ordained by the gods.

Theism is ____________; examples of it include ____________.

the worship of a god or gods; Hinduism and Islam

According to Bourdieu, the three types of cultural capital are:

embodied, objectified, and institutional.

Which of the following scenarios illustrates "stereotype threat"?

Antoine, a black student at Yale University, is nervous about taking the Law School Admissions Test (LSAT). He fears that if his score is low, he will confirm negative perceptions about the intelligence of black men. His fear then affects his performance, and he scores lower on the actual test than he did on practice tests.

What is stereotype threat?

a psychological process of fear that develops when members of a negatively stereotyped group are placed in a situation where they may confirm the stereotype.

Affirmative action practices refer to:

policies that grant preferential treatment to subgroups within a population.

While the notion of sex refers to biological characteristics, the concept of gender refers to:

social characteristics

By looking at the gender practices of different cultures (like the Native American communities in the "Two-Spirit" film we watched in class), sociologists can observe the cultural context of gender definitions, this helps us see that the boundaries within our own system of gender:

are socially constructed

Which theoretical perspective argues that gender is a product of social interactions, and that by "doing gender" men and women create and contribute to the gendered patterns we see?

psychoanalytic theory

Who coined the term "cultural capital"?

Pierre Bourdieu

Which types of social movements target particular subgroups and not the entire society?

Alternative and Redemptive

What is the first stage of a social movement?


What is a synonym for a paradigm shift?

scientific revolution

What is a quality described by the Matthew effect that gives certain scientific results more notoriety and influence?

Existing prestige of the researchers

The Human Genome Project was launched in what year?


Which one of the following would Frances Fox Piven and Richard Cloward advocate is the reason for low rates of political participation?

political party

A general movement away from religiosity and spiritual belief towards a rational, scientific orientation is


_____ is the justifiable right to exercise power.


One’s ethic quality or affiliation. It is voluntary, self-defined, nonhierarchical, fluid, and multiple, and based on cultural differences, not physical ones.


A nationality, not in the sense of carrying the rights and duties of citizenship but identifying with a past or future nationality. For later generations of white ethnics, something not constraining, but easily expressed, with no risks of stigma and all the pleasures of feeling like an individual.

symbolic ethnicity

The economic activity that involves providing intangible sectors.

service sector

Multidimensional set of social processes that create, multiply, stretch, and intensify worldwide social exchanges and interdependencies.


The technical term for multiracial marriage; literally meaning a mixing of kinds; it is politically and historically charged


An overemphasis on credentials (college degrees) for signaling social status or qualification for a job


The rights guaranteed to each law-abiding citizen in a nation-state.

Citizenship Rights

The rights guaranteeing a citizen’s personal freedom from interference, including freedom of speech and the right to travel freely.

civil rights

The rights guaranteeing a citizens ability to participate in politics, including the right to vote and the right to hold office.

political rights

he rights guaranteeing a citizen’s protection by the state.

he rights guaranteeing a citizen’s protection by the state.

social rights

the idea that in Western culture, gender, rather than being an innate quality of individuals, is a psychologically ingrained social construct that actively surfaces in everyday human interaction.

"doing gender"

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