Soc 201 Chapters 10-11

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In class systems, categories in the social hierarchy are more clearly and rigidly defined than they are in caste systems. True or False?

False

A category of people defined as "untouchable" because they perform work that is viewed as "unclean" has been part of social stratification in ________

India

In all societies, kinship plays a part in social stratification because ________

parents pass their social position on to their children.

Class systems assign social position based on both birth and individual achievement. True or False?

True

If you were born into a traditional caste system, you would expect that, based on birth, you would be ________

raised to do a certain type of job.

Social stratification ________

is a matter of inequality and beliefs about why people should be unequal.

Caste systems are typical of high-income societies. True or False?

False

Ideology, or beliefs that support social stratification, is found in ________

both caste and class systems.

Comparing societies in history and around the world, we see that ________

ways in which people are unequal and how unequal they are vary from society to society.

Social stratification is a concept that refers to ________

ranking categories of people in a hierarchy.

Ideology refers to ideas that support social stratification. True or False?

True

If you have a job that involves manual labor, you are doing ________

blue-collar work.

According to Davis and Moore, a system of unequal rewards increases productivity by ________

motivating people to work longer, harder, or better.

Caste systems encourage romantic love and personal choice as the basis of marriage. True or False?

False

A caste system is defined as ________

social stratification based on ascription, or birth.

Caste systems encourage the long-term commitment to labor, which is required in an economy based on agriculture. True or False?

True

Conspicuous consumption refers to the fact that rich people and poor people generally shop for different products, such as food and clothing. True or False?

False

Compared to other high-income nations, the United States has ________

more economic inequality.

In the United States, social inequality is simply a matter of people’s talents and abilities.
True or False?

False

In general, societies that have caste systems have economies that are ________

agrarian.

If you lived in a society with a traditional caste system, you would expect your marriage to be ________

endogamous.

The concept "meritocracy" refers to social stratification ________

based entirely on personal merit.

Social stratification is a matter of not only inequality, but also beliefs about fairness. True or False?

True

Based on what you have read, as the United States develops a postindustrial economy, economic inequality is ________

increasing.

Social stratification is found in most-but not all-societies. True or False?

False

The concept "conspicuous consumption" refers to ________

the practice of buying things to make a statement about one’s social position.

Which of the following factors tends to raise your social standing?

Marrying and staying married

In general, people of low social class position ________

live in less safe and more stressful environments.

The concept of "intergenerational social mobility" refers to change in social position ________

when comparing children to their parents.

The total amount of financial assets, minus any debts, is referred to as ________

wealth.

Which concept refers to earnings from work or any investments?

Income

In the United States, which age category has the highest poverty rate?

Children under the age of eighteen

Because education is a right in the United States, there is very little inequality in schooling. True or False?

False

Critics of the 1996 welfare reforms claim the new system ________

has done little to reduce poverty in the United States.

Social position in the United States is affected by a person’s ________

family, race, and gender.

U.S. society does not have social stratification. True or False?

False

Which concept refers to change in social position during a person’s lifetime?

Intragenerational social mobility

When people talk about realizing the American dream, they generally mean making enough money to join the ranks of the upper-upper class. True or False?

False

The globalization of the economy has increased the earnings of highly educated people who specialize in law, finance, marketing, and computer technology. True or False?

True

The concept "feminization of poverty" refers to the fact that, in the United States ________

women make up an increasing percentage of the poor.

The working class is sometimes called the "lower-middle class." True or False?

True

In general, white-collar occupations have more prestige than blue-collar occupations. True or False?

True

Based on what you know about occupational prestige, you would assume that ________

occupational rankings are roughly the same in all high-income nations.

Being in the upper-upper class is usually the result of _____; being in the lower-upper class is more a matter of _____.

birth; achievement

Wealth refers to what people earn each year from their jobs plus any income from investments. True or False?

False

People in the lower-upper class are sometimes said to have "old money." True or False?

False

Societal factors that contribute to homelessness include low wages and a lack of low-income housing. True or False?

True

The wealth of rich people is not only greater, but more of it is in the form of investments that typically increase in value and generate income. True or False?

True

Relative poverty is ________

found everywhere.

Jobs typically performed by women carry more prestige than those typically performed by men. True or False?

False

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