Psyc Chapter 4

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1. Nutrients and oxygen are transferred from a mother to her developing fetus through the:

d. placenta

2. The most immediate and direct function of the rooting reflex is the facilitation of:

c. food consumption.

3. Infants’ tendency to gaze longer at novel stimuli than at familiar ones provides compelling evidence regarding their:

d. memory capacities.

4. The importance of schemas was most clearly highlighted by:

b. Piaget’s cognitive development theory.

5. Two closed, pyramid-shaped beakers containing clearly identical amounts of a liquid are suddenly judged by a child to hold different amounts after one of the beakers is inverted. The child apparently lacks a:

b. concept of conservation

6. A child’s realization that others may have beliefs which the child knows to be false best illustrates the development of:

c. a theory of mind.

7. The process of imprinting occurs during a brief developmental phase known as:

d. a critical period.

8. Although 3-year-old Adam happily explores the attractive toys located in the dentist’s waiting room, he periodically returns to his mother’s side for brief moments. Adam most clearly displays signs of:

a. secure attachment.

9. "I don’t care whether you want to wash the dishes, you will do so because I said so!" This statement is most representative of a(n) ________ parenting style.

d. authoritarian

10. Mark believes that choosing to violate government laws is morally justifiable if it is done to protect the lives of innocent people. Kohlberg would suggest that this illustrates ________ morality.

d. postconventional

11. Jessica acts so differently with her parents than with her girlfriends that she often thinks her personality is completely phony. Erik Erikson would have suggested that Jessica is experiencing

c. role confusion.

12. Compared to a century ago, menarche occurs ________ in life and adult independence begins ________ in life.

d. earlier; later

13. A reduction in estrogen levels is most closely associated with:

b. menopause.

14. People differ the most in their learning and memory abilities during:

d. later adulthood.

15. A researcher who administers a personality test to the same children every 3 years as they progress through school is conducting a(n) ________ study.

a. longitudinal

1. For the unborn children of mothers who smoke heavily, nicotine is a(n):

c. teratogen.

2. By a week after birth, infants are able to distinguish between their mothers’ and strangers’:

c. body odors.

3. After Nadia learned that penguins can’t fly, she had to modify her existing concept of birds. This best illustrates the process of:

d. accommodation.

4. During Piaget’s sensorimotor stage, children acquire a:

c. sense of object permanence.

5. Deficient social interaction and an impaired understanding of others’ states of mind is most characteristic of:

a. autism.

6. Marissa resents the burden and constraints of caring for her infant daughter and frequently ignores her cries for attention. As a consequence, her daughter is most likely to display signs of:

c. insecure attachment.

7. People’s styles of romantic love in adulthood are most likely to reflect their childhood:

d. attachment experiences.

8. Compared to the children with authoritarian parents, the children of authoritative parents are:

d. more likely to develop a sense of self-reliance and more likely to demonstrate social competence.

9. Female breasts are to ________ as male testes are to ________.

c. secondary sex characteristics; primary sex characteristics

10. Jarrud thinks he should obey his teachers only if they are carefully watching him. Kohlberg would suggest that Jarrud demonstrates a(n) ________ morality.

c. preconventional

11. The sexual abuse of a very young child is so emotionally repulsive to most people that they immediately recognize it as shamefully immoral. This best illustrates that moral judgments may reflect:

c. gut-level intuitions.

12. The process of developing a sense of identity during adolescence was highlighted by:

a. Erikson’s psychosocial development theory.

13. A series of small strokes that progressively damage an elderly person’s brain is most likely to produce:

b. dementia.

14. As adults age, they show the greatest declines in:

b. fluid intelligence and in the memory capacities needed to recall recently presented information.

15. Research on developmental stability and change indicates that:

a. at the age of 1 or 2, adult personality traits are still largely unpredictable.

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