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independent variable

the variable in an experiment that is deliberately manipulated by the experimenter

human development

the scientific study of the changes that occur in people as they age, from conception to death


study in which one group of people is followed and assessed at different times as the group ages


study in which several different age-groups are studied at one time

cross-sequential design

study in which a combination of the longitudinal and cross-sectional design

cohort effect

the particular impact on development that occurs when a group of people share a common time period or common life experience

length and money

two disadvantages in the longitudinal design


refers to the influence of the environment on personality, physical growth, and social interactions


refers to heredity, the influence of inherited characteristics on personality, physical growth, and social interactions


includes parenting styles, physical surroundings, economic factors, and anything that can have an influence on development that does not come from within the person

behavioral genetics

a field in the investigation of the origins of behavior in which researchers try to determine how much of behavior is the result of genetic inheritance and how much is due to a person’s experience


the science of heredity


the genes that are more influential in a trait


genes that tend to fade into the background when paired with a dominant gene

polygenic inheritance

process that provides that all traits are controlled by more than one pair of genes

Down syndrome

a disorder in which there is an extra chromosome in what would normally be the 21st pair


hazards to the development of humans or that can cause a birth defect

klinefelter’s syndrome

disorder in which the 23rd set of chromosomes is XXY, producing a male with reduced masculine characteristics

turner’s syndrome

disorder in which the 23rd pair of chromosomes is actually missing an X, resulting in females who are very short, infertile, and sexually underdeveloped


In a ___ design, one group of people is followed and assessed at different times as the group ages. a. longitudinal b. cross-sectional c. cross-sequential d. cross-longitudinal


The cognitive and social changes students go through because they are born and grow up in an age of smartphones would be referred to as a(n) a. experimental group b. control group c. dominance effect d. cohort effect


Brandy has naturally blond hair. Based on this information, what do we know about Brandy’s parents? a. At least one of her parents has a recessive gene for blond hair b. Each of her parents must have one recessive gene for blond hair c. Each of her parents must have one dominant gene for brown hair d. Neither of her parents has a recessive gene for blond hair


When sets of genes group together, the result can be multiple traits expressed as a single dominant trait. This is best explained by the process known as: a. dominant inheritance b. recessive inheritance c. polygenetic inheritance d. amines


Which of the following is a disorder characterized by having only one X chromosome in the 23rd pairing? a. Tay-Sachs b. Turner’s syndrome c. Klinefelter’s syndrome d. PKU


Which disorder results from recessive inheritance? a. Turner’s syndrome b. Klinefelter’s syndrome c. cystic fibrosis d. Down syndrome




process in which an ovum and sperm are fused


cell resulting from fertilization

monozygotic twins

two babies come from one fertilized egg

dizygotic twins

multiple babies not resulting from the same fertilized egg

conjoined twins

twins joined at the point where the two cell masses remained "stuck" together

germinal period

2-week period of pregnancy in which a mass of cells attaches itself to the wall of the uterus

embryonic period

2 weeks after conception until 8 weeks; cells specialize and become the various organs and structures of the human infant

critical periods

times during which some environmental influences an have an impact, often devastating, on the development of the infant


a series of physical and mental defects including stunted growth, facial deformities, and brain damage

fetal period

a period of tremendous growth lasting from about 8 weeks after conception until birth

preferential looking

assumes that the longer an infant spends looking at a stimulus, the more the infant prefers that stimulus over others


the tendency to for infants and adults to stop paying attention to a stimulus that does not change


existing from birth


innate, involuntary behavior patterns

synaptic pruning

the development of the infant brain after birth involves a necessary loss of neurons

grasping reflex

first infantile reflex; involves the hands

startle reflex

Moro reflex; second infantile reflex

rooting reflex

third infantile reflex; when you touch a baby’s cheek it will turn toward your hand, open its mouth, and search for the nipple

stepping reflex

fourth infantile reflex; involves the feet when baby is picked up

sucking reflex

fifth infantile reflex; involves the baby’s mouth

2 to 4 months

age at which a child is able to raise its head and neck

2 to 5 months

age at which a child is able to roll over

4 to 6 months

age at which a child is able to sit up with support

6 to 7 months

age at which a child is able to sit up without support

7 to 8 months

age at which a child is able to crawl

8 to 18 months

age at which a child is able to walk

cognitive development

includes the development of thinking, problem solving, and memory

sensorimotor stage

cognitive development at age birth to 2 years old

preoperational stage

cognitive development at age 2 to 7 years old

concrete operations stage

cognitive development at age 7 to 12 years old

formal operations stage

cognitive development at age 12 years old to adulthood

sensorimotor stage

children explore the world using their senses and ability to move

sensorimotor stage

children develop object permanence and the understanding that concepts and mental images represent objects, people, and events

preoperational stage

young children can mentally represent and refer to objects and events with words or pictures and they can pretend

preoperational stage

children cannot conserve, logically reason, or simultaneously consider many characteristics of an object

concrete operations stage

children at this stage are able to conserve, reverse their thinking, and classify objects in terms of their many characteristics

concrete operations stage

children can think logically and understand analogies but only about concrete events

formal operations stage

people at this stage can use abstract reasoning about hypothetical events or situations, think about logical possibilities, use abstract analogies, and systematically examine and test hypotheses


mental concepts formed as children experience new situations and events


children try to understand new things in terms of schemes they already possess


process of alerting or adjusting old schemes to fit new information and experiences

object permanence

the knowledge that an object exists even when it is not in sight


anything that moves is alive


the inability to see the world through anyone else’s eyes but one’s own


focusing only on one feature of some object rather than taking all features into consideration


the ability to understand that altering the appearance of something does not change its amount, its volume, or its mass


children that are unable to "mentally reverse" actions

abstract concepts

concepts that do not have some physical, touchable reality

concrete concepts

those concepts that are understood by children are about physical objects, written rules, and real things


someone else asks leading questions and provides examples of concepts in order to help a child to learn


the difference between what a child can do alone versus what a child can do with the help of a teacher


at around 2 months of age, babies begin to make vowel-like sounds


at about 6 months of age, infants add consonants to the vowel sounds

one-word speech

just before age 1, children begin to say actual words without saying entire phrases of meaning

telegraphic speech

around a year and a half, toddlers begin to strong words together to form short simple sentences

whole sentences

children eventually learn to use grammatical terms and increase the number of words in their sentences


whole phrases in one word


the behavioral and emotional characteristics that are fairly well established at birth


babies that are regular in their schedules of waking, sleeping, eating, and are adaptable to change


babies that are irregular in their schedules and typically unhappy about change of any kind

slow to warm up

babies that are less grumpy, quieter, and more regular than difficult but that are slow to adapt to change


the emotional bond that forms between an infant and a primary caregiver


infants that are upset by the leaving of their mother and ecstatic at her return


infants that have no interest or concern in the absence of their mother


infants that are clingy and hard to soothe after being left by the mother


infants that are unable to decide how to respond to their mother’s return


the image you have of yourself, based on interactions with the important people in your life


Erikson’s turning points in development

how their needs are met

trust vs. mistrust: infants learn a basic sense of trust dependent on what?

control their own actions

autonomy vs. shame and doubt: toddlers begin to understand that they can what?

responsibility; self-control

initiative vs. guilt: preschool children learn _____ for their own behavior as they develop ____-_____.

measure; success; failure

industry vs. inferiority: the school-aged child compare themselves to others to _____ their _____ or _____.

adolescents; believe; adult

identity vs. role confusion: _____ must decide who they are, what they ____, and what they want to be as an ___.

young adults; partner; identity

intimacy vs. isolation: _____ ______ must face the task of finding a ____ with whom to share their ____ in an ongoing, personal relationship

middle; creative; productive; nurturing

generativity vs. stagnation: _____ aged adults must find a way to be a ____, _____ person who is _____ the next generation

older; end; wholeness; acceptance

ego integrity vs. despair: _____ adults must come to terms with the ___ of life, reaching a sense of _______ and ______ of life as it has been


the period of life from age 13 to early 20s, during which a young person is no longer physically a child but is not yet an independent, self-supporting adult


the physical changes in both primary sex characteristics and secondary sex characteristics that occur in the body as sexual development reaches its peak

primary sex characteristics

growth of the actual sex organs

secondary sex characteristics

changes in the body such as the development of breasts and body hair

growth spurt

rapid period of growth that takes place round age 10 for girls and around age 12 for boys

personal fable

adolescents have spent so much time thinking about their own thoughts and feelings that they become convinced that they are special and that no one has ever had these thoughts before them

imaginary audience

extreme self-confidence in adolescents; adolescents are convinced that everyone is looking at them

preconventional morality

morality of an action is based on the consequences

conventional morality

an action is morally right if it conforms to the rules of society and wrong if it doesn’t

postconventional morality

morality is determined by the experience and judgement of the person, even if that judgement disagrees with society’s rules


changes that happen during women’s 40s


the period of 5 to 10 years over which the climateric happens


the cessation of ovulation and the menstrual cycle


process that begins during men’s 40s; a decline in several hormones, primarily testosterone


an emotional and psychological closeness that is based on the ability to trust, share, and care while still maintaining one’s sense of self


a process of adults parenting the next generation and helping them through their crises

authoritarian parenting

parent that tends to be overly concerned with rules; stern, rigid, controlling, and uncompromising

permissive parenting

occurs when parents put very few demands on their children for behavior

permissive neglectful

parents simply aren’t involved with their children, ignoring them and allowing them to do whatever they want

permissive indulgent

parents seem to be too involved with their children, allowing their "little angels" to behave in any way they wish, refusing to set limits on their behavior or to require any kind of obedience

authoritative parenting

parenting that combines firm limits on behavior with love, warmth, affection, respect, and a willingness to listen to the child’s point of view

ego integrity

feeling of wholeness resulting from being able to look back and say that their life was full

cellular-clock theory

in this theory, cells are limited in the number of times they can reproduce to repair damage; telomeres cause cellular reproduction to stop


structures on the ends of chromosomes that shorten each time a cell reproduces

wear-and-tear theory

theory that points to outside influences such as stress, physical exertion, and bodily damage as the culprit for aging and death

free-radical theory

theory that gives a biological explanation for the damage done to cells over time

free radical

oxygen molecules that have an unstable electron, bouncing around a cell and causing damage by knocking loose electrons

activity theory

proposes that an elderly person adjusts more positively to aging when they remain active in some way

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