Chapter 9- Race (Questions)

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What term refers to a group of people who share a set of physical characteristics and a bloodline?
a. race
b. genes
c. genetics
d. heredity


Although race has no deterministic, biological basis, it still:
a. influences heredity.
b. has important social influence.
c. has genetic importance.
d. has physical importance.

has important social influence

When the term race comes up in America today, we usually think in two colors:
a. black and brown
b. black and white
c. red and black
d. brown and white

black and white

The concept of race:
a. has changed over time.
b. is biological.
c. is stable and constant.
d. all of the above.

has changed over time

In ancient Egypt, physical markers were linked to:
a. status.
b. geography.
c. genes.
d. ethnicity.


Hippocrates believed that physical markers such as skin color were the result of:
a. genetics.
b. social status.
c. different environmental factors.
d. geography.

different environmental factors

Phrenology refers to:
a. variations in body size.
b. the differences in head formation.
c. athletic ability.
d. the study of bones.

the differences in head formation

Based on measurements of skull bumps, Blumenbach came up with five principal varieties of:
a. humans.
b. intelligence.
c. athletic ability.
d. ethnicity.


Which of the five varieties of humans did Blumenbach decide were the superlatives of the races based on their excellent skull qualities?
a. Ethiopians
b. Hispanics
c. Asians
d. Caucasians


Under Johann Caspar Lavater’s theory of ____________, people with light skin were thought to have higher intellect.
a. physiognomy
b. intelligence
c. civic values
d. biological superiority


Reverend Samuel Stanhope Smith proposed that dark skin should be thought of as different levels of suntan or:
a. a universal freckle.
b. a godly distinction.
c. dark beauties.
d. environmentally induced.

a universal freckle

Because the German Nazis could not find a reliable marker to identify Jews, the Jews were forced to:
a. wear a yellow Star of David.
b. identify themselves as Jewish immediately in conversation.
c. use their birth names.
d. live in certain parts of the country.

wear a yellow Star of David

The one-drop rule asserts that just "one drop" of black blood makes:
a. a person biracial.
b. a person black.
c. a person more criminal.
d. a person less intelligent.

a person black

Although we now know all humans are the same species, there is still an underlying belief that we can trace specific traits through:
a. our ethnicity.
b. our place of birth.
c. our race.
d. our lineage.

our lineage

The genetic variation that corresponds with geographic origins is much ____________ than people commonly believe.
a. more random
b. more important
c. less
d. more


What is the group that displays no physical distinctions from Japanese citizens but is believed by the Japanese to be a descendant of a less-human race than the Japanese nation as a whole?
a. Malayans
b. Burakumin
c. Filipinos
d. Chinese


The comparison between the Burakumin and the Japanese shows that race is:
a. an important marker.
b. significant for intelligence.
c. not just about physical or biological differences.
d. more important than culture.

not just about physical or biological differences

Aristotle’s principle of civic association was that the true test of a person’s worth was in what they did, not who they were. All people were included in this except:
a. brown-skinned people.
b. women.
c. whites.
d. nonwhites.


Johann Caspar Lavater suggested that outside appearances were connected to inner virtues. He tended to value:
a. women over men.
b. light skin over darker skin.
c. dark skin over lighter skin.
d. men over women.

light skin over darker skin

An 1851 excerpt from Harper’s Weekly magazine describes a certain racial group as law-breaking, idle, thriftless, poor, and barbarian. What group is this excerpt describing?
a. Irish
b. African Americans
c. Italians
d. Jews


What term refers to the belief that members of separate races possess different and unequal traits?
a. blackism
b. racism
c. whitism
d. ethnism


Modern racial thinking developed in the mid-seventeenth century in parallel with three global changes. Which of the following is NOT one of these global changes?
a. the Protestant Reformation in Europe
b. the Age of Exploration
c. the rise of capitalism
d. scientific innovations

scientific innovations

European Christians and scientists interpreted the curse Noah put on his son Ham to mean that Ham:
a. was the original black man.
b. was no longer going to be king.
c. never had descendants.
d. was perverted.

was the original black man

In the nineteenth century, theories of race moved from religious-based racism to:
a. neo-racism.
b. modern racism.
c. scientific racism.
d. biological racism.

scientific racism

The General Social Survey asked respondents why, on average, African Americans have worse jobs, income, and housing than white people. Nearly half of the respondents believed that blacks:
a. have been socially repressed.
b. don’t have the motivation to pull themselves out of poverty.
c. have less inborn abilities to learn.
d. prefer to live that way.

don’t have the motivation to pull themselves out of poverty

Ethnocentrism classified nonwhites as abnormal and inferior to help justify:
a. racism.
b. imperalism.
c. cultural relativism.
d. war.


Comte de Buffon’s classification schemes assumed that anyone who differed from what group was abnormal?
a. American
b. African
c. European
d. British


Ontological equality is the notion that:
a. God made stratification among people.
b. whites are the dominant group.
c. lighter skin is superior to darker skin.
d. all people are created equal under God.

all people are created equal under God

What group believed that humans were one species, united under God?
a. Darwinists
b. polygenists
c. monogenists
d. Catholics


Which group believed that different races were distinct species?
a. Darwinists
b. polygenists
c. monogenists
d. Catholics


Which group did Darwin side with, claiming that the notion of different species of humans was absurd?
a. Protestants
b. monogenists
c. polygenists
d. Catholics


Social Darwinism was the evolutionary notion of:
a. race.
b. survival of the fittest.
c. domination.
d. genetics.

survival of the fittest

What term refers to a pseudoscience of genetic lines and the inheritable traits they pass on from generation to generation?
a. eugenics
b. biogenics
c. race relations
d. sociogenics


Eugenics literally means:
a. "well-born."
b. "well-bred."
c. "high-status."
d. "royalty."


What group, led by Sir Francis Galton, believed that negative traits such as criminality were passed through bloodlines and could be bred out?
a. sociologists
b. geneticists
c. biologists
d. eugenicists


H. H. Goddard used his tests on what group to generalize about immigrant populations?
a. immigrants at Ellis Island
b. immigrants who worked in factories
c. immigrants on ships to America
d. factory managers

immigrants at Ellis Island

During the 1950s the United States began to focus more on cultural theories of race and ethnicity, thus rejecting:
a. biblical theories of race.
b. racialization.
c. miscegenation.
d. eugenics.


Nativists believed that restricting the immigration of certain groups would:
a. create tension in ethnic communities.
b. protect the nation.
c. harm international relations.
d. eliminate racism.

protect the nation

Miscegenation refers to:
a. segregation.
b. incest.
c. interracial marriage.
d. mixed races

interracial marriage

Muslims in America have undergone what scholars refer to as the formation of a new racial identity, in which new ideological boundaries of difference are drawn around a formerly unnoticed group of people, or:
a. ethnicization.
b. racism.
c. ethnism.
d. racialization.


Most Arabs in the United States are not Muslim but ____________, and about 20% of U.S. Muslims are ____________.
a. Catholic; Asian
b. Islamic; Latino
c. Christian; African American
d. Protestant; East Indian

Christian; African American

Some Muslims have been in North America since the seventeenth century, when they were transported from:
a. Africa as slaves.
b. South America as immigrants.
c. China as indentured servants.
d. the West Indies.

Africa as slaves

About 35% of Muslims worldwide were born in:
a. Iran.
b. Afghanistan.
c. Canada.
d. America.


Muslims have recently (since 9/11) undergone a new racial identity, from being formally unnoticed as a group to being singled out for more discrimination. This is known as:
a. racialization.
b. prejudice.
c. whiteness.
d. primordialism.


The opening story (Chapter 9) about the author kidnapping a child to become his new baby sister shows:
a. how racist his parents were.
b. that racism is innate.
c. the social impact of race.
d. how badly he wanted a sister.

the social impact of race

Race is not a fixed biological or natural reality; rather, it is:
a. genetic.
b. biologically invented.
c. an environmental reality.
d. a social construction.

a social construction

America’s first naturalization law, passed in 1790, granted citizenship to:
a. anyone that had fought in the Revolutionary War.
b. free white people.
c. all white people.
d. former British citizens.

free white people

Which act formalized the exclusive definition of whiteness by imposing immigration restrictions based on a national origins quota system that limited the yearly number of immigrants from each country?
a. Ethnic Act of 1900
b. White Ethnic Act of 1876
c. Immigration Act of 1924
d. Race Act of 1850

Immigration Act of 1924

Who was one of the first sociologists to point out the importance of culture in determining race?
a. Robert Park
b. Charles Darwin
c. Anthony Giddens
d. Ann Oakley

Robert Park

What allows one to identify with a nationality without the rights and duties of a citizen?
a. genetic identity
b. race
c. ethnicity
d. heritage


The differences between race and ethnicity underscore the privileged positions of ____________ in America, who have the freedom to pick and choose their identities and freely show their ethnic backgrounds.
a. whites
b. blacks
c. Hispanics
d. Asians


Compared with 11% of the U.S. population as a whole, around 33% of Native Americans die before age:
a. 45.
b. 50.
c. 55.
d. 60.


What minority group has the highest percentage of males in prison?
a. whites
b. blacks
c. Native Americans
d. Hispanics


Afro-Caribbeans such as Cubans, Haitians, and Jamaicans resent being unilaterally categorized as African American, because these immigrant groups:
a. are indentured servants.
b. have a unique culture and language.
c. live in various parts of the country.
d. don’t understand the American culture.

have a unique culture and language

The majority of the Latinos in the United States come from:
a. Puerto Rico.
b. Cuba.
c. Mexico.
d. the Dominican Republic.


The majority of Latinos in the United States have immigrated here within the last ____________ years.
a. 2
b. 10
c. 40
d. 80


Mexicans are generally classified as a physical type that combines Native American and European traits and referred to as:
a. mestizos.
b. hybrids.
c. half-breeds.
d. biracial.


In 1907, the United States barred immigration from what country, because its people were seen as a threat to the American-born labor force?
a. Poland
b. China
c. Ireland
d. Mexico


Asians have been applauded for their smooth assimilation and are referred to as:
a. the model minority.
b. more intelligent.
c. entrepreneurs.
d. small businessmen.

the model minority

In one study of television portrayals of Arabs, researchers found basic myths that continue to surround this group. Which of the following is NOT one of these myths?
a. They are fabulously wealthy.
b. They are uncivilized and barbaric.
c. They don’t assimilate.
d. They revel in acts of terrorism.

They don’t assimilate.

Robert Park’s model explains the universally progressive pattern in which immigrants arrive, settle in, and achieve full assimilation in a newly homogeneous country. His model is called:
a. immigration patterns.
b. assimilation progress.
c. the geographic immigrant process.
d. straight-line assimilation.

straight-line assimilation

Clifford Geertz used what term to describe the fact that ethnic ties remained even after people assimilated?
a. primordialism
b. ethnocentrism
c. neoassimilation
d. ethnicism


The 1896 Supreme Court decision Plessy v. Ferguson upheld:
a. equality.
b. ethnic cleansing.
c. integration.
d. segregation.


A society is pluralistic if no one ethnic group is statistically:
a. in the minority.
b. equal to another.
c. the dominant group in government.
d. in the majority.

in the majority

The legal or social practice of separating people on the basis of their race or ethnicity is referred to as:
a. segregation.
b. separatism.
c. individuality.
d. pluralism.


The Supreme Court’s landmark 1954 decision in Brown v. Board of Education struck down what doctrine?
a. separate but equal
b. integration
c. segregation of churches
d. inequality in jobs

separate but equal

The black ghetto was manufactured by whites through a set of deliberate, conscious practices. Which of the following is NOT one of the practices mentioned in your book?
a. property owners signed secret agreements promising to exclude blacks
b. high homeowner association dues
c. if blacks moved in, whites would move out
d. redlining

high homeowner association dues

Japanese internment camps resulted in
a. greater wealth for Chinese Americans.
b. a decrease in wealth for white Americans.
c. greater wealth for white Americans.
d. more Chinese immigrants entering the United States.

greater wealth for white Americans

Thoughts and feelings (usually negative) about an ethnic or racial group are referred to as:
a. subaltern.
b. discrimination.
c. modern racism.
d. prejudice.


Prejudice is to discrimination as thinking is to:
a. manifesting.
b. developing.
c. doing.
d. being.


What is the term that refers to the mass killing of a particular population?
a. extinction
b. extermination
c. expulsion
d. genocide


Which of the following is not a response to oppression?
a. passing
b. prejudice
c. acceptance
d. withdrawal


Oftentimes African Americans turn to ____________ when they are attempting to be accepted by the dominant group. This means acting differently with the dominant group.
a. collective resistance
b. subalterning
c. redlining
d. code-switching


What term refers to the more overt form of resistance through a movement such as revolution or genocide or through nonviolent protest?
a. collective resistance
b. group protest
c. individual alliance
d. mutual resistance

collective resistance

During the mid-twentieth century in the United States, many blacks moved north to escape Jim Crow laws in the rural south. This resulted in:
a. an immediate improvement in the lives of African Americans.
b. movement of more whites to the South.
c. competition for housing and employment in the North, resulting in violent clashes between whites and blacks.
d. many blacks "passing" as white.

competition for housing and employment in the North, resulting in violent clashes between whites and blacks

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