Chapter 17- Gene Expression- From Gene to Protein

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Genetic information of eukaryotic cells is transferred from the nucleus to the cytoplasm in the form of __________.


When RNA is being made, the RNA base _________ always pairs with the base __________ in DNA.

U; A

By bombarding the fungus Neurospora crassa with X-rays, Beadle and Tatum were able to study __________ and characterize enzymes in a __________.

nutritional mutants; biochemical pathway

In eukaryotic cells, a __________ by a __________ targets a growing peptide to the endoplasmic reticulum.

signal peptide; signal-recognition particle

Which of the following is a post-translational modification of a polypeptide?


The structures called snRNPs are __________.

part of a spliceosome

Gene expression is __________.

the process by which DNA directs the synthesis of proteins

One strand of a DNA molecule has the following sequence: 3-AGTACAAACTATCCACCGTC-5.
In order for transcription to occur in that strand, there would have to be a specific recognition sequence, called a(n) __________, to the left of the DNA sequence indicated.


The sickle-cell β-globin mutation is an example of a __________.

missense mutation

RNA molecules that function as enzymes are called __________.


__________ is the synthesis of a polypeptide using information in the mRNA.


Which of the following best describes the arrangement of genetic information in a DNA molecule?

The three-nucleotide words of a gene are arranged in a nonoverlapping series on the DNA template strand.

Stop codons are unique because they __________.

do not code for amino acids that allow a releasing factor to bind to the A site of the ribosome

Eukaryotic processing of the primary transcript includes __________.

the addition of a 5ꞌ cap, a 3ꞌ poly-A tail, and the splicing out of introns

The function of tRNA during protein synthesis is to __________.

deliver amino acids to their proper site during protein synthesis

An exception to the one gene-one enzyme hypothesis is __________.

that not all genes code for enzymes; some genes code for structural proteins such as keratin

What is the proper order of the following events in the expression of a eukaryotic gene?
1. translation
2. RNA processing
3. transcription
4. modification of protein


The bonds that hold tRNA molecules in the correct three-dimensional shape are __________.

hydrogen bonds

The type of point mutation that results in a premature stop codon is called a _________ mutation.


The "triplet code" refers to the fact that _________.

three nucleotides code for a single amino acid

__________ is the synthesis of RNA using information in the DNA.


Polysomes may be defined as __________.

groups of ribosomes

Because the bacterial cell’s DNA is not surrounded by a nuclear envelope, __________ occur(s).

coupled transcription and translation

Insertions and deletions are called __________ mutations.


How many nucleotides are needed to code for a protein with 450 amino acids?

At least 1,350

Who formulated the one gene-one enzyme hypothesis?

Beadle and Tatum

Which of the following catalyzes the linkage between ribonucleotides to form RNA during gene expression?

RNA polymerase

Bacteria can transcribe and translate human genes to produce functional human proteins because __________.

the genetic code is nearly universal

The TATA box is a __________ that allows for the binding of __________ and __________.

eukaryotic promoter; transcription factors; RNA polymerase II

What is a key difference in gene expression between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells?

In prokaryotic cells, the mRNA transcript is immediately available as mRNA without processing.

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