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Psychosocial development during adolescence involves the search for a(n) _____.

a.set of behaviors to please others
c.understanding of oneself
d.soul mate

understanding of oneself

Psychosocial development during adolescence is often seen as a quest to answer the question _____.
a."What am I going to do with my life?"
b."Why don’t my parents understand me?"
c."Who am I?"
d."Will I ever find someone to love?"

who am i

According to Erikson, adolescents are in the stage of _____.

A. identity versus role confusion
B. intimacy versus isolation
C. independence versus neediness
D. integration versus separation

identity v role confusion

According to Erikson, the goal of adolescence is to _____.
a.abandon parental goals
b.attain independence from one’s peer group
c.form an intimate relationship with a member of the opposite sex
d.find one’s own identity

find one’s identity

According to Erikson, the ultimate adolescent psychosocial goal is identity __________.

A. diffusion
B. achievement
C. foreclosure
D. moratorium


Mary is an adolescent. According to Erikson, her new identity will be established by choosing _____. appropriate adult "hero figure"
b.values and goals opposite to the destructive identities of media stars sexual role and sticking with it, regardless of the consequences embrace some parental and societal values while abandoning others

to embrace some parental and societal values while abandoning others

Following Erikson’s lead, _____ distinguished four specific ways young people cope with the identity crisis.

A. Baumrind
B. Freud
C. Marcia
D. Skinner


The identity status characterized by a lack of commitment to any goals or values was originally called identity_____.


Role confusion is typically characterized by _____.
a.commitment to a cause
c.following one’s heart focus on or concern about the future

no focus on or concern about the future

Which adolescent appears to be experiencing role confusion?

a. Jeannine, who runs away from a pressured home environment and joins a commune
b. Fred, who is pressured by his parents to become a doctor
c. Barbara, a college studetn who frequently changes majors
d. Zachary, who spends most of his time watching TV and hanging out with his friends


Seventeen-year-old Andrew failed several classes, lost his job, and spends most of his time sleeping on the couch. When his parents voice their disapproval, he replies, "Whatever." Andrew’s response indicates role __________.


Harold readily adopted his parent’s political beliefs without question. Happy and secure, he enjoys participating in political events with his parents. His identity status reflects _____.

A. diffusion
B. achievement
C. foreclosure
D. moratorium


The term for a pause in identity formation, when alternatives are explored before final choices are made, is known as _____.

A. identity diffusion
B. role confusion
C. negative identity
D. moratorium


During an identity moratorium, adolescents typically take on a _____ role.


In the United States, one way for some to legitimatize an identity moratorium is to _____.

A. go to college
B. get married
C. have a baby
D. smoke marijuana

go to college

Barrett is serving a two-year mission for his church at the age of 19. When he returns home from his mission assignment, he will decide whether or not to attend college and will make decisions about career and family. Barrett’s current status is identity _____.

a. diffusion
b. moratorium
c. achievement


According to Erikson, what is one of the four aspects of identity?

A. physical
B. political
C. familial
D. economic


_____ adolescents totally reject the religion in which they’ve grown up.

A. Few
B. About half of
C. About three-fourths of all
D. Almost all


Today, vocational identity often takes _____ to establish, and most work demands very specific skills that cannot be learned except on the job.

A. days
B. months
C. years
D. decades


Enrique believes that males should always be the ones to ask females out on dates. He thinks that if a man accepts an invitation for a date from a girl it makes him a wimp. This is an example of Enrique’s _____.

A. sex
B. gender identity
C. sexual orientation
D. gender

gender identity

In the United States, parent-child conflict is most common when children are in _____.

A. late childhood
B. early adolescence
C. late adolescence
D. emerging adulthood

early adolescence

Bickering between parents and adolescents is most likely to _____.
a. increase steadily between the ages of 13 and 19
b. concern personal habits and dress
c. signal of pathology in the family
d. to be about religious beliefs

concern personal habits and dress

Some parent-child bickering during the adolescent years may indicate _____.
a.poor parenting skills
b.teenage depression
c.a disturbed parent-child relationship
d.a healthy family

a healthy family

Which type of parenting is most effective during adolescence?



Which type of parenting can "backfire," resulting in adolescents who learn to deceive their parents?



Which are two of the aspects of family closeness during adolescence?

A. communication and autonomy
B. support and connectedness
C. connectedness and authority
D. openness and control

support and connectedness

A father says to his son, "I want you home by 10:00 pm." This best represents which aspect of family closeness?

A. control
B. support
C. communication
D. connectedness


Eva is about to become an adolescent mother. Based on recent research, she and her child will better handle the situation if her parents _____.

A. assume care for Eva and her child
B. adopt Eva’s child and raise the child as their own
C. encourage Eva to move out of the house to raise her baby alone
D. are supportive, but do not assume complete care for her child

are supportive, but do not assume complete care for her child

An intervention study designed to improve family communication and cohesion between parents and their sons (Brody et al., 2009) revealed that the sons’ DNA was important to the outcome. Which of the following was a finding from the study?

A. The intervention had an impact on boys with a long allele of the 5-HTTLPR gene.
B. The intervention had an impact on boys with a short allele of the 5-HTTLPR gene.
C. The control experience had an impact on boys with a long allele of the 5-HTTLPR gene.
D. The control experience had an impact on boys with a short allele of the 5-HTTLPR gene.

B. The intervention had an impact on boys with a short allele of the 5-HTTLPR gene.

Callie called her friend Sue on Saturday to see if Sue wanted to go to the movies. Sue told Callie she was staying home to study for their upcoming history test. After the call, Callie decided to study instead of go to the movies. Callie was experiencing _____.
a.peer pressure
c.adolescent burden
d.generation gap

peer pressure

Isaac and Derek persuaded Robert to cut school and steal alcohol from a store. Isaac and Derek provided _____ training to Robert.


At age 17, Gage aspired to become a serious musician. His group of friends began to change as he grew closer to students with deep musical interests, and he drifted away from other friends who were more engaged in sports. This illustrates peer:

a. focus
b. facilitation
c. selection


According to Dunphy, the third step in the sequence of male-female relationships during childhood and adolescence is the development of _____.

a.groups of friends, exclusively one sex or the other
b.formation of couples with private intimacies
c.a loose association of girls and boys, with public interactions within a crowd
d.small mixed-sex groups of the advanced members of the crowd

small mixed-sex groups

T/F: Contrary to adult fears, many adolescent romances do not include sexual intercourse.


A recent study of teens found the teens MOST at risk for sexual violence and STIs had _____.

A. exclusively same-sex partners
B. exclusively opposite-sex partners
C. gender-identity disorder
D. both same-sex and opposite-sex partners

D. both same-sex and opposite-sex partners

One reason that the teenage pregnancy rate in most European nations is less than half of that in the United States may be because _____.

A. of the European sex-education curriculum
B. European adolescents live at home longer
C. American parents are too permissive
D. European teens reach puberty later

of the European sex-education curriculum

According to research, abstinence-only sex-education programs _____ the adolescents’ engagement in sexual activity.
b.had no impact on

b. had no impact on

Compared to when they were children, many adolescents are:
a. happier.
b. more carefree.
c. less self-confident.
d. more focused.

less self-confident

In general, as children experience puberty, their self-esteem _____.

A. rises
B. declines
C. rises then declines
D. remains stable


Elyse broke up with her boyfriend after a fight. She has spent the last week repeatedly going over the fight in her mind, which has caused her to sink into depression. Her continual reliving the fight is known as:
a. rumination.
b. reminiscence.
c. obsession.
d. fixation.


Suicidal ideation refers to _____.

A. a deliberate act of self-destruction that does not end in death
B. thinking about suicide
C. the belief that suicide is an effective way of getting back at one’s parents or peers
D. feelings of sadness or hopelessness

thinking about suicide

Serious, distressing thoughts about killing oneself (called suicidal ideation) are most common at about age ____


Parasuicide refers to:
a. a suicide attempt that does not end in death.
b. helping someone else to commit suicide.
c. several people in a group committing suicide.
d. the serious consideration of suicide.

a suicide attempt that does not end in death.

With respect to suicide, what is more common in adolescent boys than in adolescent girls?

A. serious consideration of suicide
B. parasuicide
C. completed suicide
D. cluster suicide

completed suicide

Pete has been shoplifting for the past year. Unless he experiences an intervention his shoplifting behavior is most likely to lead to _____.

a. burglary
b. rape
c. defiance


Life-course-persistent offenders:
a. may show signs of neurological impairment.
b. have after-school jobs they dislike.
c. tend to be involved in school activities.
d. are unlikely to end up in prison.

may show signs of neurological impairment

An individual who commits crimes during adolescence but stops by the age of 21 is considered a(n) _____.

A. repeat offender
B. career criminal
C. life-course-persistent offender
D. adolescence-limited offender

adolescence-limited offender

Many longitudinal studies have shown that _____ anger during adolescence is normal and that most adolescents express their anger in _____ ways.

A. increased; acceptable
B. decreased; acceptable
C. increased; illegal
D. decreased; illegal

increased; acceptable

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