Cell Bio Ch. 5

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A dehydration reaction (or condensation reaction) is the process in which _____.

water molecules are produced as a polymer is formed from monomers

The four main categories of large biological molecules present in living systems are _____.

proteins, nucleic acids, polysaccharides, and lipids

Sucrose is formed when glucose is joined to fructose by a(n) _____.

glycosidic linkage


a polysaccride that is a major component of the tough walls that enclose plant cells, not digestable

The characteristic that all lipids have in common is that _____.

none of them dissolves in water

Palm oil and coconut oil are more like animal fats than are other plant oils. Because they _____ than other plant oils, they may contribute to cardiovascular disease.

contain fewer double bonds

Secondary structure

the localized folding and/or coiling of the primary structure of a polypeptide, resulting from hydrogen bonding between atoms of the polypeptide backbone

R groups

hydrophobic/nonpolar, found on the inside of the folded chain, away from water

The flow of genetic information in a cell goes from _____.

DNA to RNA to protein


is a nucleic acid monomer consisting of a nitrogen base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. Nucleotides joined together by covalent bonds called phosphodiester linkages form nucleic acid molecules.

carbohydrates include

monosaccharide’s, starch, polysaccharide, disaccharide

unsaturated fats

have double bonds in the carbon chains of their fatty acids

The structural level of a protein least affected by a disruption in hydrogen bonding is the

primary level.

Enzymes that break down DNA catalyze the hydrolysis of the covalent bonds that join nucleotides together. What would happen to DNA molecules treated with these enzymes?

The phosphodiester linkages of the polynucleotide backbone would be broken.

base sequence that could form a short stretch of a normal double helix of DNA

5´-ATGC-3´ with 5´-GCAT-3´

Which feature of large biological molecules explains their great diversity?

The many ways that monomers of each class of biological molecule can be combined into polymers

What structural difference accounts for the functional differences between starch and cellulose?

Starch and cellulose differ in the glycosidic linkages between their glucose monomers.

Which level of protein structure is characteristic of some, but not all, proteins?

Quaternary level of protein structure

A nucleotide consists of three parts

a nitrogenous base, a pentose sugar, and one or more phosphate groups. ATP consists of a nitrogenous base (adenine), a pentose sugar, and three phosphate groups.

Bilogical Macromolecules

proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, lipids

polymers are made up of


Carbohydrates contain

carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen

Use of carbs

store sugars for energy production


monomer of carbohydrates,

an example of monomers in a carbohydrate

glucose, DNA, and RNA


structural isomer of glucose that is sweeter


stereoisomer of glucose


two of more monosaccharides bonded together

examples of disaccharides

sucrose and lactose

Purpose of disaccharides

in animals: nutrition, in plants: transport


long polymers made up of monosaccharides used for energy storage

an example of a polysaccharide

starch, glycogen, chitin


animal starch, branched amylose chains


structural material in anthropods and fungi

Nucleic Acids

information molecule of proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates

Nucleic Acids are held together by what bond

phosphodiester bond


single ring


double ring





Examples of purines

adenine (A) and guanine (G)

examples of pyrimidines

Cytosine, Thymine, Uracil


adds a water molecule, breaking a bond

DNA and RNA differences

DNA has a double strand, RNA contains ribose sugar and uracil


transfer of genetic information


transfers amino acids


site of protein synthesis


amino acid monomer strung together to make polypeptides

Proteins are made up of

amino group + R goup + carboxyl group

Acids have what kind of charge


bases have what kind of charge


acids/bases are located where

on exterior of 3-demensional structure

____ bonds link amino acids in proteins

peptide bonds

Primary structure

Amino acid sequence

Secondary Structure

begins to fold and hydrogen bonds form

Tertiary Structure

final folded shape that is determined by the primary structure

Quaternary Structure

two or more polypeptide chains form a functional protein-subunits. Ex. hemoglobin

Chaperone proteins

help proteins fold correctly, heat shock proteins (able to maintain structure at high temps)


help form large macromolecule complexes, refold improperly folded proteins


triglycerides, phospholipids, steroids- hydrophobic, made of hydrocarbons

the monomer of a lipid

fatty acid polymer chains

saturated fat

single bond, solid at room temp, most animal fats


double bond , or oils, liquid at room temp, come from plants and fish usually


animal fats, plant oils, glycerol head, 3 fatty acid tails


found in membranes, glycerol head, 2 fatty acid tails, phosphate group

Structure of a phospholipid

hydrophilic head- phosphate group(outward) hydrophobic tail- fatty acid tail (center)


hormone, venoms, pigments (chlorophyll)

-PO4 is at what end of a nucleic acid


-OH3 is at what end of a nucleic acid


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