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During puberty, adolescents’ thoughts center on _____.

A. friends
B. society
C. family
D. themselves


During puberty, young people center on themselves, in part because brain maturation heightens _____.

A. self-esteem
B. self-consciousness
C. self-concept
D. self-identity


Thinking intensely about themselves and about what others think about them is called _____.

A. hypotheticalism
B. deductive thinking
C. inductive thinking
D. egocentrism


Adolescent egocentrism begins _____, and may increase again at the start of college. puberty late adolescence middle childhood preschool

at puberty

Many adolescents feel that their own thoughts and experiences are far more extraordinary than those of other people. This is part of their _____.

A. personal fable
B. post-operational thought
C. moral reasoning
D. invincibility fable

personal fable

The belief that unless one’s number is up, one cannot be harmed by things that would hurt someone else is referred to as _____.
a.the personal fable
b.the imaginary audience
c.the invincibility fable
d.deductive reasoning

the invincibility fable

Avery, who is 14 years old, is attending her first swim team practice. She is very sensitive to the facial expressions, body language, communication styles, and other social cues given by her new teammates. Avery’s sensitivity to these social cues is aided by her adolescent _____.

A. hypothetical thinking
B. deductive thinking
C. inductive thinking
D. egocentrism


Piaget called the reasoning that characterizes adolescence _____.

A. formal operational thought
B. invincibility thinking
C. metacognition
D. concrete operational thinking

formal operational thought

When Piaget asked children of different ages to balance a scale using several different weights, they found that by age _____ logic is used to understand a reciprocal relationship.
b.13 or 14

13 or 14

Jeremy is 7 years old and has been asked to balance a scale with weights that can be hooked to the arms of the scale. Jeremy will probably _____.

A. solve the problem through a trial-and-error strategy
B. put weights on both sides without considering distance from the center of the scale
C. understand the inverse relationship between distance and weight
D. put all the weights on one side of the scale

B. put weights on both sides without considering distance from the center of the scale

In Piaget’s balance experiment, trial-and-error problem solving was most characteristic of those of the age defined by _____.
a.formal operational thought
b.logical thought
c.unrealistic thought
d.concrete operational thought

logical thought

One of the most prominent aspects of formal operational thought is the ability to _____.

A. reject adult thought and values
B. think in terms of possibilities
C. take another person’s point of view
D. use practical problem-solving skills

think in terms of possibilities

Reasoning that includes propositions and possibilities that may not reflect reality defines _____.
a.perceptual thought
b.hypothetical thought
c.inductive reasoning
d.deductive reasoning

hypothetical thought

Justine is 14 years old. Her parents are frequently annoyed because Justine tends to ask critical questions such as, "Why can’t I have wine with dinner? You do," or "I don’t understand why I’ll be able to vote when I’m 18, but I have to wait until I’m 21 to buy alcohol!" This demonstrates Justine’s _____.

A. inductive reasoning
B. perceptual thinking
C. hypothetical thinking
D. deductive reasoning

perceptual thinking

Deductive reasoning is also referred to as _____ reasoning.

A. top-down
B. theoretical
C. concrete
D. bottom-up


Which term refers to reasoning from a general statement, premise, or principle, through logical steps, to figure out specifics?

deductive reasoning

Which term refers to the ability to begin with specifics, such as accumulated facts, and then make general conclusions?

inductive reasoning

Bottom-up reasoning is also referred to as _____ reasoning.


The mistaken belief that if money, time, or effort cannot be recovered has already been invested in some endeavor, that more should by invested in an effort to reach the goal.

sunk cost fallacy

What is an example of the sunk cost fallacy?

A. walking out of a movie theater when the movie is only half over because the movie is poor quality
B. stopping painting a bedroom because the color is too bright
C. reading a book to the end even though the reader was bored by chapter 3
D. sleeping in on the weekend to catch up on sleep

reading a book to the end even though the reader was bored by chapter 3

A common fallacy in which a person ignores the overall frequency of some behavior or characteristics in making a decision.

base rate neglect

What group is likely to experience logic failures in thinking?

A. adolescents only
B. adults only
C. adolescents and adults
D. neither adolescents or adults

adolescents and adults

The notion that two networks exist within the human brain, one for emotional and one for analytical processing of stimuli, is called _____.

A. dual-thinking model
B. dual-process model
C. dual-reasoning model
D. emotional-analytic model

dual-process model

Thinking or drawing conclusions based on past personal experience, emotions, or a hunch is referred to as _____.

A. deductive reasoning
B. intuitive thought
C. concrete reasoning
D. analytic thought

intuitive thought

Fifteen-year-old Richard wants to be allowed to drive the family car, even though he does not yet have a driver’s license. When his parents ask him why he thinks he should have driving privileges, he answers, "I know other kids who do it, and it’s just stupid that I have to wait another three months until I turn 16." This is an example of what kind of thinking?

A. reasoning
B. intuitive
C. logical
D. analytical


Kristy and her friends come up with several options of things to do on Friday night, and ultimately decide to go to a new movie because it received positive reviews. In making this decision Kristy and her friends are using what type of thought?

A. deductive reasoning
B. intuitive thought
C. concrete reasoning
D. analytic thought


Formal, logical, hypothetical-deductive thinking described by Piaget is referred to as _____.

A. deductive reasoning
B. intuitive thought
C. concrete reasoning
D. analytic thought

analytic thought

Fifteen-year-old Latrina has a 10 P.M. curfew. She asks her parents to extend her curfew to 11 P.M. on weekends. When her parents ask her why, Latrina replies, "I’ve never been late for my 10 P.M. curfew. You can trust me. Can we at least give it a try?" This is an example of what kind of thinking?

A. concrete operational
B. intuitive thought
C. emotional thought
D. analytical thought

analytical thought

A longitudinal study (Harden & Tucker-Drob, 2011) that traced the development of sensation-seeking, which can lead to intuitive thinking, from early adolescence to the mid-20s found that increases in sensation-seeking were notable from ages _____.

A. 12 to 14
B. 15 to 17
C. 18 to 20
D. 21 to 23

12 to 14

During adolescence, impulsivity declines and analytic thinking _____.


Adolescent victims of cyberbullying are likely to experience _____.


Middle school typically includes grades _____.

A. 4 to 6
B. 5 to 7
C. 6 to 8
D. 7 to 9

6 to 8

Many developmentalists find middle schools to be "developmentally regressive," which means _____.

A. teachers do not allow students to be independent
B. learning goes backward
C. the curriculum is not high-quality
D. students do not desire autonomy

learning goes backwards

Rachel and Matt are in their first year of middle school. Statistically, one would expect their academic achievement to _____.

A. improve
B. decline
C. remain the same as in elementary school
D. exhibit an erratic pattern of rising and falling


Which student is MOST likely to be admired during middle school?

A. Allie, who is a straight A student
B. Lloyd, who attends school regularly but fails most of his classes
C. Louisa, who uses marijuana and frequently finds herself in physical fights.
D. Chong, who is conscientious and friendly


The common middle-school schedule that involves classroom changes every 40 minutes has the effect of creating a developmental ________.


An approach to understanding intelligence that sees ability as innate, a fixed quantity present at birth; those who hold this view do not believe that effort enhances achievement.


entity theory of intelligence

An approach to understanding intelligence that holds that intelligence can be directly increased by effort is referred to as the _____ approach.



A strategy to increase student motivation in middle schools is to encourage a belief in _____.

A. students’ ability to master whatever they seek to learn
B. doing homework
C. the entity approach to learning
D. studying for tests

A. students’ ability to master whatever they seek to learn

Most U.S. high schools emphasize learning based on _____, which is developmentally appropriate.

A. formal thinking
B. memorization
C. practical cognition
D. international standards

formal thinking

According to the results of the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), the countries with the highest math test scores are _____.

A. Greece, Iceland, and China
B. Japan, the United States, and Finland
C. Austria, Italy, and South Korea
D. China, Singapore, and South Korea

D. China, Singapore, and South Korea

The nations with the best PISA results _____.

a.focus on memorization of math formulas
b.expect teachers to follow a state-mandated curriculum
c.have a culture that strongly values education the best teachers with the students who perform at the highest level

have a culture that strongly values education

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