Biology 1110 Chapter 10

Your page rank:

Total word count: 1734
Pages: 6

Calculate the Price

- -
275 words
Looking for Expert Opinion?
Let us have a look at your work and suggest how to improve it!
Get a Consultant

In bacterial cell division, the cell divides into two nearly equal halves. This process is referred to as:

binary fission

How does the organization of the bacterial genome differ from the organization of the eukaryotic genome?

Most bacterial chromosomes are circular and the eukaryotic chromosomes contained in the nucleus are not.

The division of a bacterial cell occurs as the:

New membrane and cell wall materials begin to grow and form a septum.

The accommodation of the very long DNA strands that are part of a chromosome into the limited space of the nucleus is achieved by coiling the DNA around beads of histones into repeating subunits. These DNA-wrapped histones are called:


The point of constriction on chromosomes that contains certain repeated DNA sequences that bind specific proteins is called:

The centromere

Eukaryotic chromosomes are composed of a complex of 60% protein and 40% DNA. This complex is referred to as:


The number of chromosomes characteristic of diploid eukaryotic cells, in general:

varies considerably from 2 to over 1000 in different species

A person whose cells all contain a chromosome number of 2n+1 most likely has what type of condition?


In later chapters, you will learn more about the regulation of gene expression. One way to regulate gene expression is to make changes to the histone proteins to alter how tightly the DNA is coiled and wrapped. The more tightly coiled and wrapped a particular region of DNA is, the less likely it is that the genes in that region will be expressed. Bearing this in mind, how tightly do you think regions of heterochromatin are compacted?

Very tightly

You are assembling a model of a chromosome, but begin having some trouble when you get to the step of forming chromatin loops. If you are unable to resolve this problem, what step of chromosome structure would you be unable to achieve?


The two copies of each type of chromosome found in normal somatic (body) cells in an organism, throughout the cell cycle, are called:

Homologous chromosomes

These structures are held together by cohesin:

Sister chromatids

A cell biologist produces a karyotype of mouse somatic cells arrested in mitosis. She sees 40 chromosomes, which is completely normal for mice. Based on this information, what is the haploid number of chromosomes for mice?


If there are 32 sister chromatids in a normal somatic cell, what is the haploid number for that cell?


If there are 32 sister chromatids in a normal somatic cell, how many chromosomes are there?


A somatic cell from a garden pea normally contains 14 chromosomes. How many sister chromatids would that cell contain during G1 of the cell cycle?


A somatic cell from a corn plant normally contains 20 chromosomes. How many sister chromatids would that cell contain during G2 of the cell cycle?


What is the sequence of events in a typical eukaryotic cell cycle?

G1 to S to G2 to mitosis to cytokinesis

The portion of the cell cycle when the cell is growing and does not contain a replicated genome is referred to as:


The stage of the cell cycle during which the cytoplasm divides to form two cells is called:


This stage of the cell cycle is characterized by growth and it contains a checkpoint to verify that all of the DNA has been replicated prior to mitosis.


A duplicate copy of all of the hereditary information contained in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells is made during what stage of the cell cycle?


The physical distribution of cytoplasmic material into the two daughter cells in plant cells is referred to as:


If a cell has 32 chromosomes prior to S and undergoes mitosis followed by cytokinesis, each new daughter cell will have how many chromosomes?


Embryonic cell cycles allow the rapid division of cells in the early embryo. These mitotic cell cycles are much shorter in length than the mitotic cell cycles of cells in a mature organism. In the embryonic cell cycles, mitosis takes approximately the same amount of time as it does in the cell cycles of mature cells. What do you think is a result of the embryonic cycle?

Resulting daughter cells are smaller than the mother cell in the embryonic cell cycles.

What is the portion of the cell cycle during which the chromosomes are invisible under the light microscope because they are not yet condensed?


Interphase is made up of what stages of the cell cycle?

G1 + G2 + S

During what stages of the cell cycle are sister chromatids bound together by cohesin?

S, G2, prophase, metaphase

Following S phase, a human cell would have how many pairs of sister chromatids and individual DNA molecules?

46 pairs of sister chromatids and 92 individual DNA molecules

If a chromosome contains a mutation such that it cannot bind to the kinetochore complex, what would be the consequence?

That chromosome would not be able to bind to the mitotic spindle.

Consider the cell cycle of a human cell. During G2, what is the state of the homologous chromosomes?

The homologous chromosomes have all been copied through DNA replication and are beginning to condense.

This is the stage of mitosis characterized by the alignment of the chromosomes in a ring along the inner circumference of the cell:


The stage of mitosis characterized by the physical separation of sister chromatids is called:


This stage of mitosis is characterized by the disassembly of spindle apparatus, the reestablishment of the nuclear membrane, and the decondensation of the chromosomes:


During this stage of mitosis, the nuclear envelope begins to break down and the spindle begins to form.


In prophase, ribosomal RNA synthesis stops when the chromosomes condense, and as a result:

The nucleolus disappears

During this stage of mitosis, the chromosomes become attached to the spindle at their kinetochores.


What happens during Anaphase B?

The spindle poles move apart.

You are conducting a genetic screen using Caenorhabditis elegans embryos to isolate mutations affecting anaphase (A). Therefore, you need to look for embryos in which:

The centromeres do not move toward the poles

What stage of mitosis is essentially the reverse of prophase?


The drug Taxol, or Paclitaxel, is used to treat patients with a variety of cancers, including breast, lung and ovarian cancers. The drug works by stabilizing microtubules, and preventing their disassembly. The goal of the drug is to prevent dividing cells from being able to complete mitosis. As a result, cancerous cells can no longer divide. In a cell treated with Taxol, at what stage of mitosis will the cells arrest?

Prior to metaphase

Why is it so important that all of the chromosomes align on the metaphase plate during metaphase?

If they cannot, it suggests that they aren’t properly attached to the spindle microtubules, and thus won’t separate properly during anaphase.

If a cell was capable of bypassing metaphase and going directly from prometaphase to anaphase, what is the most likely consequence of this?

The resulting daughter cells would have different numbers of chromosomes.

Animal cells typically achieve cytokinesis by:

Forming a cleavage furrow that pinches the cell into two.

Plant cells typically achieve cytokinesis by:

Forming a cell plate across the middle of the cell.

If a drug that inhibited transport from the trans face of the Golgi was applied to plant cells, which stage of the cell cycle would be directly affected?


The progress of the eukaryotic cell cycle is regulated primarily by what proteins?


At what checkpoint(s) does the cell arrest in response to DNA damage?

G1/S and G2/M

You are examining the effect of maturation-promoting factor (MPF) in sea urchin cells, which have a diploid number of 36. If you fuse a dividing sea urchin cell with a G1 arrested oocyte, what would be the outcome?

The G1 cell would enter mitosis, but would likely arrest at the spindle checkpoint because the chromosomes have not been properly replicated.

What time point represents G2?


You are studying cell cycle progression in yeast cells. If you could prevent cdc2 from associating with the mitotic cyclin, the cells would:

Arrest in G2.

You are studying cell cycle progression in an early frog embryo. If you were to inject a protein synthesis inhibitor into a cell during S phase, where do you predict that the cells would arrest?


In G2, there are typically high levels of the mitotic cyclin. Why is cdc2 not active during G2 if the mitotic cyclin is present?

Cdc2 is also regulated by phosphorylation.

What is separase?

A protein that destroys cohesin through its protease activity.

What is one of the roles of the APC/C during anaphase?

To directly target the mitotic cyclins for destruction.

What would you expect to happen if the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) failed to ubiquitinate securin?

The cohesin complex will persist, preventing the cell from entering anaphase.

If you were to think of the cell as a car, and mitosis as a process that drives that car to go, what would be a good analogy for a cell that has a mutation in both copies of a tumor-suppressor gene?

The brake pedal of a car does not work at all.

If a cell contained a mutation in the gene that encodes FtsZ, what process would be affected?


You are leading a team of researchers at a pharmaceutical company. Your goal is to design drugs that help fight cancer. Specifically, you want to focus on drugs that bind to and inactivate certain proteins, thereby halting cell cycle progression. One of your team members suggests targeting the retinoblastoma (Rb) protein and inhibiting this protein. Will this approach be successful? Why or why not?

This approach will not be successful. Rb is tumor-suppressor protein, and functions to inhibit the action of a number of cell cycle regulatory proteins. A drug designed to inactivate the Rb protein would essentially create the same situation as in as a cell that lacks both copies of the Rb gene. Lack of Rb activity would release the inhibition of cell cycle regulatory proteins, thereby promoting cell cycle progression, rather than halting it.

This protein or protein complex functions in the cell to stop cell division if the cell has experienced extensive DNA damage:


What oxidizing agent is used to temporarily store high energy electrons harvested from glucose molecules in a series of gradual steps in the cytoplasm?


What molecule can oxidize NADH?


Share This

More flashcards like this

NCLEX 10000 Integumentary Disorders

When assessing a client with partial-thickness burns over 60% of the body, which finding should the nurse report immediately? a) ...

Read more


A client with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) tells the nurse, "Sometimes I feel so frustrated. I can’t do anything without ...

Read more

NASM Flashcards

Which of the following is the process of getting oxygen from the environment to the tissues of the body? Diffusion ...

Read more

Unfinished tasks keep piling up?

Let us complete them for you. Quickly and professionally.

Check Price

Successful message