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When choosing a communication channel, ______ refers to the degree to which communications can be planned and recorded, thus allowing strategic message development.

A. richness

B. immediacy

C. constraint

D. coordination

E. control


Angel prefers written communication because she can brainstorm, draft, edit, revise, and otherwise develop her message before delivering it. Which aspect of communication does she value?

A. permanence

B. immediacy

C. planning

D. richness

E. coordination


Bao is conducting a study that compares the cost of keeping print messages on file versus storing digital messages in the cloud. What aspect of communications relates to the storage of messages?

A. coordination

B. planning

C. constraint

D. permanence

E. richness


Rick is trying to schedule a video teleconference with colleagues at several locations. To do so, he needs to coordinate their schedules and also check to see if the company needs to invest in any additional resources to make it happen. By addressing coordination and resource issues, he is dealing with

A. constraint.

B. control.

C. immediacy.

D. permanence.

E. richness.


Which of the following deals with how quickly someone is able to give feedback during communication?

A. coordination

B. immediacy

C. cue

D. permanence

E. richness


Logan dislikes email and texting because he cannot hear the other person’s tone of voice or see facial expressions. Logan’s frustration is related to a lack of

A. constraints.

B. resources.

C. cues.

D. control.

E. permanence.


Individuals involved in ______ communication can pay attention to and respond to communications at a time of their choosing.

A. asynchronous

B. synergized

C. low empathy

D. intrapersonal

E. concurrent


Maya’s virtual team includes editors in the United States, designers in Italy, and fact checkers in India. Maya wants the team to discuss the development process for their next book. Which communication channel will best allow team members to consider what they say, to respond in a way that is comfortable, and to fit the discussion in their schedules?

A. a conference call

B. a videoconference

C. an electronic discussion thread

D. a series of print memos

E. a series of one-to-one phone calls


Polly needs to communicate with many people in her department. It is not necessary for everyone to receive the message at the same time. Which of the following is the best tool for Polly to use?

A. a videoconference

B. an email

C. a phone conversation

D. a conference call

E. a webinar


Which of the following is typically used for short, one-to-one or one-to-many messages and is ideal for quick announcements and scheduling?

A. a blog

B. a videoconference

C. texting

D. a conference call

E. a webinar


Which of the following facilitates a one-stop work space containing project and meeting information, shared files, and communication platforms?

A. texting

B. written messages

C. webinar

D. social networking

E. email


Ismail needs to let Felicia know that the funds for her pet project have been slashed. Which communication channel should Ismail use?

A. email

B. written message

C. social networking

D. texting

E. spoken communication


Email communication is

A. characterized by low control.

B. characterized by little coordination.

C. a rich communication medium.

D. a high-cost option.

E. best suited for emotional communication tasks.


Craig is the sales manager at Blaize Supersports and has a 20-member sales team. During an average day, Craig receives about 115 emails and sends out 75 emails. James, a salesperson at the store, is typing an email to Craig. James wants to take a week off to spend time with his family. Which of the following is true concerning the subject line of James’s email?

A. The email does not need a subject line because it comes from one of Craig’s staff.

B. It should include only the number of days and dates of his vacation.

C. It should include James’s name, department details, and employee identification number.

D. It should use a descriptive subject line such as "James requests time off."

E. It should include an attention-getting phrase such as "Urgent Staff Issue."


Judging only by length, which of the following is the best subject line for an email?

A. Why?

B. Last month

C. The reason why we should consider implementing this marketing plan is its many benefits.

D. Team meeting, Harper conference room, at 11:00

E. So, here it goes


Which of the following is most likely to be placed in the subject line of an email?

A. an expected action

B. a signature block

C. a list of attachments

D. a professional tagline

E. the recipient’s name


Which of the following is most likely to be included in the signature block of an email?

A. a list of attachments

B. an expected action

C. statistical data

D. contact details

E. the names of all the recipients


Which of the following guidelines best ensures that your email is easy to read?

A. Include a subject line that is at least 20 words long.

B. Make each paragraph in your message at least 80 words long.

C. Avoid the inclusion of attachments.

D. Avoid stating expected actions explicitly.

E. Provide a descriptive signature block.


Which of the following serves the same function in emails that headlines do in newspapers and magazines?

A. subject lines

B. signature blocks

C. attachments

D. salutations

E. first paragraphs


When Sherry sends task-oriented emails to colleagues, she always tells them the deadline for the tasks and details about when she is available to talk or meet. What conclusion are Sherry’s colleagues likely to draw from this?

A. Sherry holds an important place in the organization.

B. Sherry is arrogant and bossy.

C. Sherry respects their time and other commitments.

D. Sherry packs unnecessary information in her messages.

E. Sherry has leadership potential.


What should you do when you cannot respond to a request made in an email?

A. Log off the system so the sender will assume that you are offline.

B. Set up an automated response to say that you are out of town.

C. Inform the sender that you are busy and cannot reply straightaway.

D. Reply immediately to explain how soon you can respond in full.

E. Ignore the email for now and reply when you can.


Paul always hits "reply to all" whenever he answers a team email, even if the email was a question posed by one other person and directed only to Paul. When he initiates an email about his project, he sends it to everyone in his department. Judging only from this information, what impact does Paul have on his department’s communications?

A. He is spreading confidential information to unauthorized people.

B. He is making everyone in his department feel included as part of the team.

C. He is helping make the department work more efficiently.

D. He is ensuring that each person on the team clearly knows his or her assignment.

E. He is contributing to email overload in his department.


Which of the following is a reason why greetings and names are omitted from emails?

A. People do not like being greeted or having their names used very often.

B. Omitting names and greetings saves space and keeps many emails on one screen.

C. Some professionals view emails as the equivalent of memos, which traditionally omit names and greetings.

D. Most people are emotionally uninvolved at work and are not inclined toward greeting others.

E. Since emails are typically forwarded to several other people, it is inappropriate to name only one recipient.


Which of the following is an example of the neutrality effect?

A. George writes an email in which he intends to express a negative emotion, but readers decode it as neutral.

B. Sue writes an email in which she intends to express a positive emotion, but readers decode it as neutral.

C. Ali writes an email in which he intends to express a neutral emotion, and readers decode it as neutral.

D. Rand writes an email that he intends to be neutral, but readers decode it as negative.

E. Cora writes an email that she intends to be neutral, but readers decode it as positive.


Clement, a customer service representative at Sarah’s Supermart, has a tough time handling customers during his first week on the job. Carlo, Clement’s colleague, guides him through this difficult period. Afterward, Clement writes Carlo an email to thank him warmly for his help. Carlo neither reacts nor replies. Carlo’s behavior is an example of

A. negativity effect.

B. neutrality effect.

C. active incivility.

D. defusing.

E. constraint.


Chris and Susan are employees of Finvest Corp. During a recent performance review, Susan’s manager tells her that her productivity has declined this year and she needs to improve. When Susan confides this to Chris, he mentions objectively that he has noticed she is spending more time texting on the job. Susan responds by saying, "I don’t need you to criticize me too!" Susan’s behavior is an example of

A. negativity effect.

B. neutrality effect.

C. passive incivility.

D. defusing.

E. a flame.


James usually wants other people to think well of him, but when he is online, he feels anonymous enough to say profanely negative things. What is the term for such comments?

A. flames

B. noise

C. reinterpretation

D. constraint

E. defusing


What is cyber silence?

A. It is the tendency to perceive messages with an intended positive emotion as neutral.

B. It is the tendency to perceive messages that are intended as neutral as negative.

C. It is the act of sending digital communications characterized by words of profanity and obscenity.

D. It is the act of not responding to emails or other digital communications.

E. It is the tendency to perceive messages that are intended as neutral as positive.


Dave sends an email to his colleague, Stan, asking for important details about an ongoing project. Stan is on a business trip and finds no time to reply to all of Dave’s queries. Dave wrongly perceives that Stan is ignoring him. Which of the following should Dave do?

A. Because Stan is indulging in cyber silence, Dave should retort with flames.

B. Dave should inform their manager about his complaints against Stan.

C. Because Stan is on a business trip, Dave should not bother him even if the project falls behind.

D. Dave should call Stan or send a polite message saying he would appreciate an early reply.

E. Dave should ignore Stan’s emails when Stan finally replies.


When Samantha was asked to inform a colleague she dislikes about a meeting, she waited until an hour before the meeting to email the information to the woman. What is this an example of?

A. maintaining formality

B. passive incivility

C. negativity effect

D. neutrality effect

E. active incivility


Which of the following involves adjusting your initial perceptions by making more objective and fact-based evaluations and fewer personal judgments?

A. reinterpretation

B. planning

C. coordination

D. defusing

E. incivility


Pongtorn receives an email in which a colleague accuses him of not caring about the success of the team. Pongtorn responds by with an email that apologizes for giving that impression and reports his progress on the tasks the team assigned him. What action has Pongtorn just taken?

A. reinterpretation

B. planning

C. coordination

D. defusing

E. incivility


One possible negative effect of texting is that

A. the brevity of texts can make them sound bossy.

B. texts are an inherently serious channel.

C. texts do not convey meta messages.

D. the format of texts is not good for positive news.

E. texts cannot be sent to a group.


Jasper has to send out a number of communications. Which of the following is appropriate to send as a text?

A. a reprimand to an employee who has been late two days in a row

B. an analysis of the latest sales figures for an important product

C. a complicated conversation that will require several exchanges with a colleague

D. a quick compliment to a colleague who gave a great presentation

E. an announcement that the company is not giving holiday bonuses this year


Savita sends the following message to a colleague she has texted only once before: "Do you want to meet for coffee to discuss combining our efficiency reports?" What would make this text more professional?

A. identifying who she is at the beginning of the message

B. adding a smiley face emoticon at the end of the message

C. using "Wanna" instead of "Do you want" to be more concise

D. sending the phrase "Call me" instead of the whole message

E. including a sarcastic comment about their impossible deadline


Just before Ellen goes to bed at 11:00 p.m., she realizes that she forgot to confirm a meeting that she is supposed to attend the following day. She texts her colleague the following message: "Hi, it’s Ellen. Are we still on tomorrow at 3:00?" What should she have done differently?

A. not bothered to include her name in the message

B. waited to send the text right after she arrived at the office the next day

C. included a frowning face emoticon to apologize for forgetting

D. made a humorous comment about having a memory like a sieve

E. turned off her sound alerts so she will not be awakened if her colleague answers


Hannah is in the middle of writing a report, and she does not want to disrupt the flow of her work by walking over to the department bookcase to double check the name of their main competitor’s product. She decides to text Joe, who sits next to the bookcase, to ask him to do it. Because of repeated incidents like this, Hannah is likely to be seen as

A. efficient.

B. a team player.

C. a contributor.

D. busy.

E. a taker.


Ayele sends the following message to the people he supervises in the factory: "Plant inspection Wed. 9:00. Some fun, huh? Ayele." What is the best way to make this text more professional?

A. moving his name to the beginning of the message

B. spelling out the word "Wednesday"

C. adding "a.m." after the time

D. deleting the phrase "Some fun, huh?"

E. adding a winking face emoticon


Frequent incoming messages can

A. increase productivity.

B. increase attention spans.

C. reduce creativity.

D. reduce stress.

E. improve civility.


Which of the following can help keep email-induced distractions at bay?

A. checking your messages once an hour

B. checking your messages at the end of the day

C. checking your messages once a week and using an automated message to indicate that

D. checking your messages just two to four times a day

E. checking your messages constantly to keep updated on the latest information


Why are companies like Google and Microsoft joining the Overload Research Group?

A. It is a service that responds to texts and emails on behalf of individuals.

B. It is a service that responds to texts and emails on behalf of companies.

C. It is an organization devoted to finding solutions to the problem of too many e-interruptions.

D. It is a service that searches a company’s emails to reduce overload by destroying duplicates.

E. It is an organization trying to train workers to have better attention spans.


How is productivity affected when employees multitask?

A. Productivity increases by up to 80 percent.

B. Productivity increases by up to 40 percent.

C. Productivity remains the same.

D. Productivity drops by up to 40 percent.

E. Productivity drops by up to 85 percent.


Which of the following would help to reduce e-interruptions?

A. checking digital messages six to eight times a day at random

B. turning on an automatic message that you are not answering emails all day

C. replying immediately to all messages to get them out of the way

D. using rich channels of communication to accomplish tasks completely

E. adding colleagues to an email chain so they can answer the messages


Karla, the administrative assistant, sends an email with the annual holiday schedule to everyone in the department. At the bottom of the email, Karla types "no reply necessary." What can you infer about Karla from this?

A. She is not a very polite person.

B. She is creating unnecessary e-interruptions.

C. She is trying to reduce email overload.

D. She is taking on too much authority.

E. She sees herself as unimportant.


When preparing for a business phone call, you should do many of the same things you do for

A. an email.

B. a meeting.

C. texting.

D. a webinar.

E. social media.


What advantage do landlines have over mobile phones?

A. email ability

B. texting ability

C. Internet access

D. more reliable video

E. more reliable audio


Which of the following is a helpful guideline for phone conversations with business colleagues?

A. Begin discussing business issues immediately after saying hello.

B. To keep a formal tone, avoid using the other person’s name.

C. Multitask as long as you can do so without the other person suspecting.

D. Make sure that the conversation time is balanced between both parties.

E. To avoid wasting your colleagues’ time, end without social niceties.


Which of the following is a helpful tip for using webcams during a group video call?

A. Make sure your background shows several objects relevant to the conversation.

B. Wear casual clothing that day to appear friendlier.

C. Maintain direct eye contact with the camera as much as possible.

D. Be careful to tone down your facial expressions and gestures.

E. Sit slightly to one side so you can display visual aids if needed.


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