ANTH 1013 – Midterm Practice Questions

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d. all of the above.

Physical anthropologists can understand human biological variation by looking at changes in: a. genes. b. health. c. lifestyle. d. all of the above.

a. Your report does not attempt to test a hypothesis.

For your physical anthropology research project, you report that you measured the length of 150 gorilla thighbones, and you suggest that the two groups you found represent different sexes. What problem might your professor have with this report? a. Your report does not attempt to test a hypothesis. b. Your report uses the scientific method. c. Your report does not identify past literature on the topic. d. Your report uses all four fields of anthropological inquiry.

b. cultural anthropology, biological anthropology, archaeology, and linguistic anthropology.

The four branches of anthropology are: a. linguistic anthropology, cultural anthropology, biological anthropology, and paleontology. b. cultural anthropology, biological anthropology, archaeology, and linguistic anthropology. c. paleontology, biological anthropology, physical anthropology, and linguistic anthropology. d. physical anthropology, ethnography, cultural anthropology, and archaeology.

c. the biocultural approach

Your professor researches the Turkana pastoralists of Kenya, investigating both the genetic changes that allow them to easily digest milk and the role that dairy animals have played in their history. Your professor most likely uses which of the following methods in her research? a. sociolinguistics b. interdisciplinary science c. the biocultural approach d. archaeological excavation

b. evolution; variation

Physical anthropology is the study of human __________ and human _________. a. bones; nature b. evolution; variation c. culture; language d. pottery; stone tools

d. all of the above

A physical anthropologist would study which of the following? a. modern hunter-gatherers in Africa b. human skeletons from ancient Rome c. primate behavior d. all of the above

c. Our species now completely depends on culture for its survival.

Feedback: Although our hominid ancestors used tools and therefore depended on culture for survival, they also physically adapted to their environment over the long term. As modern humans, we have great control over our environment through cultural means; for example, heaters allow us to live in cold environments. Recent genetic changes tend to occur on a smaller scale than the monumental changes (such as bipedal walking) that are the hallmarks of humanness in our early ancestors. Some physical anthropologists are therefore less interested in modern genetic change.

Humankind is still evolving, but recent genetic changes are often less interesting to physical anthropologists than are the striking evolutionary changes that differentiated our hominid ancestors from apes. What is a possible reason for this? a. Physical anthropologists do not study modern humans; they study only ancient hominids. b. Human evolution occurs only in Africa and thus cannot help us to understand contemporary people. c. Our species now completely depends on culture for its survival. d. The origin of bipedal walking in our hominid ancestors is more important than variation in genes for disease-susceptibility among modern people.

a. pottery and stone tools

Which of the following would a physical anthropologist NOT study to learn more about humans? a. pottery and stone tools b. bones and teeth c. disease and nutrition d. genes and reproduction

b. Aleš Hrdlička

One of the key figures in the creation of physical anthropology in the United States was Czech-born __________________, who started the field’s preeminent journal and professional society. a. Rudolf Virchow b. Aleš Hrdlička c. Franz Boas d. Alfred Kroeber

d. climbing a tree

Which of the following is NOT a uniquely human activity? a. gossiping with friends b. making a bookshelf c. growing corn d. climbing a tree

d. do all of the above.

A scientific hypothesis can: a. predict future outcomes. b. be refuted by new information. c. help to explain observed phenomena. d. do all of the above.

c. woodlands.

New research in Ethiopia in 2001 changed the way we think about human origins by demonstrating that the earliest hominids lived in: a. wetlands. b. grasslands. c. woodlands. d. none of the above.

a. Identify a problem; state a hypothesis; collect data; test the hypothesis.

Which of the following outlines the steps of the scientific method in the proper order? a. Identify a problem; state a hypothesis; collect data; test the hypothesis. b. State a hypothesis; test the hypothesis; collect data; identify a problem. c. Identify a problem; collect data; state a hypothesis; test the hypothesis. d. Collect data; state a hypothesis; test the hypothesis; identify a problem.

b. stone tools

Modern humans lost the typical primate honing canine used for food processing because of which invention? a. agriculture b. stone tools c. bipedalism d. hunting

d. forensic anthropology

Your best friend’s great-uncle went missing in action during his Pacific tour of duty during World War II. Your friend wants to find out what happened to these enlisted men and women and to bring them home. What course of study would you suggest your friend pursue in college? a. cultural anthropology b. linguistic anthropology c. bioarchaeology d. forensic anthropology

c. creating a glossary of the local language, using methods of linguistic anthropology

Several forensic anthropologists have dealt with the aftermath of Argentina’s "Dirty War" (1970s and 1980s) during which many people disappeared. Which of the following techniques would be inappropriate for anthropologists to use in attempting to find and identify these individuals? a. excavating mass graves, using archaeological techniques b. talking to locals who were alive at the time, using ethnographic methods of cultural anthropology c. creating a glossary of the local language, using methods of linguistic anthropology d. studying skeletons, using methods of physical anthropology

b. material culture.

Charles Darwin is dressed in clothing appropriate for living in England (i.e. a coat). This illustrates humans’ ability to deal with their environment through: a. biological evolution. b. material culture. c. genetic change. d. bipedal locomotion.

a. variation in the chimps’ fur color

An anthropologist wants to know more about the lifestyle of our human ancestors and is studying modern primates (chimpanzees) for clues to the past. What aspect of these chimps’ lives is LEAST likely to interest her? a. variation in the chimps’ fur color b. whether the chimps use tools c. what the chimps eat d. how the chimps locomote (move)

b. False

Physical anthropologists study only Africa, where humans evolved. a. True b. False

a. True

Physical anthropology deals with all aspects of human biology, both past and present. a. True b. False

a. True

Physical anthropology and biological anthropology are equivalent. a. True b. False

b. False

The environment does not affect humans’ biological makeup. a. True b. False

b. False

A scientific theory is nothing more than a guess. a. True b. False

a. True

The invention of this item was responsible for a change in our ancestors’ teeth. a. True b. False

b. False

The human in this image could easily be replaced with a chimpanzee without any changes evident in the method of locomotion.

b. Charles Darwin

This naturalist spent five years on the HMS Beagle. a. Georges Cuvier b. Charles Darwin c. Charles Lyell d. Erasmus Darwin

c. finches; Galápagos

Darwin studied species of ____________ in the ____________ Islands when coming up with his ideas about evolution. a. turtles; Falkland b. dinosaurs; Cyclades c. finches; Galápagos d. snakes; Seychelles

d. natural selection

The "peppered" moths of northern England range in color from light to dark. During the Industrial Revolution, the peppered moth population became predominantly dark-colored, as these moths were better able to avoid predation by blending into their surroundings of soot-and-smoke covered trees. This example illustrates which force of evolution? a. genetic drift b. mutation c. gene flow d. natural selection

d. all of the above.

In coming up with hisidea of evolution, Darwin drew on information from: a. geology and paleontology. b. taxonomy and systematics. c. demography. d. all of the above.

a. Hutton and Lyell

Uniformitarianism, an important idea in geology, was proposed by these two scientists. a. Hutton and Lyell b. Cuvier and Darwin c. Lamarck and Malthus d. Linnaeus and Hooke

b. this is an example of Lamarckism, which has some kernels of truth about evolution but is not a wholly accurate theory.

While home for winter break, you start telling your grandmother about your physical anthropology class. She once heard about a man who became a bodybuilder and then produced muscular children, and she asks you to explain how this could happen. You say: a. inheritance of acquired characteristics is a fundamental tenet of Darwin’s theory of evolution. b. this is an example of Lamarckism, which has some kernels of truth about evolution but is not a wholly accurate theory. c. Malthus’s ideas about how food supply limits population growth mean that a bodybuilder will be more successful at procuring food and reproducing. d. this illustrates Mendel’s idea that inherited traits are not blended.

a. Carolus Linnaeus.

The study of taxonomy was enriched by the work of: a. Carolus Linnaeus. b. Thomas Malthus. c. James Hutton. d. All of the above.

c. Homo sapiens.

According to Linnaean taxonomy, humans are in the genus and species: a. Homo neanderthalensis. b. Homo habilis. c. Homo sapiens. d. Homo erectus.

c. both Malthus and Darwin observed that variation exists within a species and no two members are exactly alike.

– Taxonomy and systematics: Classifying living organisms and identifying their biological relationships, p. 29. Although two people can bear a striking resemblance to one another, particularly in the case of identical twins, there are sure to be small phenotypic differences in their appearance that differentiate them. Both Malthus and Darwin observed that no two individuals of a species are exactly alike.

Your cousin insists that he ran into your doppelgänger—the spitting image of you—at the mall. You counter this assertion with your knowledge of physical anthropology by replying: a. the principle of blending inheritance states that only siblings can look alike. b. natural selection would not allow look-alikes to exist because of the risk of competition for food. c. both Malthus and Darwin observed that variation exists within a species and no two members are exactly alike. d. his assertion is based in Lamarckism, a highly discredited theory of evolution.

d. mutation.

The only source of new genetic material is: a. sexual reproduction. b. DNA. c. blending. d. mutation.

a. natural selection

Darwin believed that ________________ was the primary cause of evolution. a. natural selection b. mutation c. genetics d. fossil evidence

b. gemmules.

Darwin did not know about genes but believed that traits passed from parents to offspring by particles called: a. alleles. b. gemmules. c. blenders. d. phenotypes.

c. genetic drift

-p. 36. In the 1744 migration of the Amish to Pennsylvania, two members of the population shared a recessive trait for polydactylism. Over time, the allele frequencies of the population changed and were magnified by the small size of the Amish population. This founder effect (when a small pool of alleles from the population’s founders influence the future genetic makeup of the population) is a well-documented case of genetic drift.

Your history professor is interested in genealogy and tells your class that, on his mother’s side, he is descended from the original Amish population in Pennsylvania, a religious and insular group of people who tended to marry within their social circle. He also notes that many of his extended family members have the condition polydactyly, an extra finger or toe. The high frequency of polydactyly in your professor’s ancestry is an example of _________________ in the Pennsylvania Amish. a. mutation b. gene flow c. genetic drift d. natural selection

d. there would have been insufficient gene flow among the relatively few Homo sapiens in the world to maintain a single gene pool.

– p. 36. For Homo sapiens to arise simultaneously in three different areas of the world, there would have to be a significant amount of gene flow introduced through interbreeding of the populations. A criticism of the so-called multiregional evolution (which you will learn more about in chapter 12) is that there was insufficient gene flow among Homo erectus populations to evolve independently into Homo sapiens.

One of the theories put forth to explain the evolution of modern humans is that Homo sapiens arose more or less simultaneously in a variety of major geographical locales in the Old World (Europe, Africa, and Asia) through interbreeding of populations. A criticism of this theory based on the forces of evolution is that: a. natural selection would have eliminated African Homo sapiens because of a lack of food on the continent. b. random mutation would have created three different subspecies—European, African, and Asian Homo sapiens—that could not interbreed. c. genetic drift says that the small populations of Homo sapiens that left Africa would have been more affected by a change in allele frequencies than the larger African population, so the European and Asian populations would be different from the African Homo sapiens. d. there would have been insufficient gene flow among the relatively few Homo sapiens in the world to maintain a single gene pool.

b. gene flow, genetic drift, mutation, and natural selection.

The four forces of evolution are: a. genetic drift, allele frequency, natural selection, and mutation. b. gene flow, genetic drift, mutation, and natural selection. c. natural selection, mutation, gene flow, and demographic change. d. mutation, natural selection, genetic drift, and genotype.

a. True

In a simplified example of eye color inheritance, B stands for the allele for brown eyes and is dominant. Blue eyes are represented by the recessive allele b. A child who inherits one of each allele from her parents will have the genotype Bb and therefore have brown eyes. a. True b. False

b. False

– The evolutionary synthesis

Darwin’s ideas about evolution and Mendel’s research in genetics are combined into what we now call the idea of blending inheritance. a. True b. False

a. True

New diseases, such as swine flu (H1N1), can be attributed to the evolution of viruses. a. True b. False

a. True

Darwin’s ideas helped stimulate research in the fields of biology, genetics, comparative anatomy, and physical anthropology. a. True b. False

a. True

Comparing the skeletons of Aegyptopithecus and Oreopithecus, two extinct species of primates, can provide physical anthropologists information about the human past. a. True b. False

c. suborder Anthropoidea.

According to Linnaean taxonomy, the most specific category and level shared by humans, gorillas, and howler monkeys is: a. superfamily Hominoidea. b. genus Homo. c. suborder Anthropoidea. d. kingdom Animalia.

d. phenotype

This picture shows two variants in ___________ or physical appearance of seven characteristics of the pea plant. a. allele b. genotype c. gene d. phenotype

a. double helix.

This specific shape of DNA is known as the: a. double helix. b. winding ladder. c. spiral staircase. d. building block.

b. False

This animal was instrumental to Linnaeus’s creation of binomial nomenclature. a. True b. False

a. True

The HMS Beagle, whose path is seen here, circumnavigated the globe. a. True b. False

d. all of the above.

The somatic type of eukaryotic cells makes up: a. bone and muscle. b. skin and fat. c. hair and brain. d. all of the above.

b. 98%

Human and chimpanzee DNA is about _________ similar. a. 100% b. 98% c. 90% d. 75%

a. mtDNA.

You and your roommate learned that you shared the same maternal ancestor 15,000 years ago in Europe after doing a genetic analysis on your respective: a. mtDNA. b. nuclear DNA. c. mRNA. d. SNPs.

d. GATTACA.

If one side of the DNA ladder includes the sequence CTAATGT, the complementary base configuration for this sequence will be: a. GCAACGC. b. AGCCGTG. c. TAATGTC. d. GATTACA.

b. luck has nothing to do with it; rather an SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) can code for susceptibility to baldness, so his problem is genetic.

As you’re waiting at the doctor’s office, you overhear another patient discussing with the doctor how unlucky he is to be going bald at such a young age. The doctor counters this assertion and explains that: a. it is not unlucky but rather unfortunate that we do not yet understand the cause of baldness. b. luck has nothing to do with it; rather an SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) can code for susceptibility to baldness, so his problem is genetic. c. only men over the age of 50 go bald, so the patient is exaggerating. d. baldness is common in Asian populations, so the patient must have Asian ancestry.

b. female.

An offspring with the chromosome pair XX will be: a. male. b. female. c. neither; XX is not a valid chromosome pairing.

a. 23

The human karyotype consists of ______ pairs of chromosomes. a. 23 b. 46 c. 48 d. 24

c. Sequence his genome.

If you wanted to learn everything possible about the genetic background of Ötzi, the 5,300-year-old "Iceman" mummy found in the Alps in 1991, which method would you most likely use? a. Look at his blood cells under a microscope. b. Hypothesize about his nucleotides. c. Sequence his genome. d. Find one of his SNPs.

d. haplotypes.

Blocks of genetic material that do not recombine and are passed on for generations are called: a. phenotypes. b. genotypes. c. karyotypes. d. haplotypes.

a. when you went through puberty.

Structural proteins found in the human body are responsible for all of the following except: a. when you went through puberty. b. the shape of your femur. c. the size of your wisdom teeth. d. whether your hair is straight or curly.

d. all of the above.

Regulatory or functional proteins include: a. lactase. b. testosterone. c. antibodies. d. all of the above.

b. transcription; translation

In protein synthesis, ___________ refers to "unzipping" the DNA and ____________ refers to the formation of polypeptide chains. a. division; replication b. transcription; translation c. meiosis; mitosis d. translocation; nondisjunction

c. uracil

In RNA, _________ replaces thymine as a nucleotide base. a. valine b. cysteine c. uracil d. cytosine

d. homeotic genes.

During a visit to the circus, you and a friend stumble into a tent with a "freaks of nature" display. Your friend points out a photograph of a man whose left arm is protruding from his left hip rather than from his shoulder. You explain to your friend that this condition was likely caused by a mutation in the man’s: a. proteins. b. haplogroups. c. polypeptides. d. homeotic genes.

d. O.

If a man and a woman who both have the AB blood phenotype have a child, the one blood type that child cannot have is: a. A. b. B. c. AB. d. O.

c. both of her parents have cleft chins, but she does not.

Your friend who is also taking a physical anthropology class tells you over dinner one night that after learning about dominant and recessive traits, she is certain she is adopted, because: a. her father has a free-hanging earlobe, but she has an attached earlobe. b. both of her parents can roll their tongues, but she cannot. c. both of her parents have cleft chins, but she does not. d. her mother has dimples, but she does not.

b. False

Prokaryotes have multiple cells while eukaryotes have one. a. True b. False

b. False

The largest organelles in a cell are the mitochondria. a. True b. False

a. True

The assertion that each parent provides one allele for any inherited trait is known as the Law of Segregation. a. True b. False

a. True

The potato and the guinea pig have more chromosomes than humans do. a. True b. False

c. gametes

This picture shows male and female ___________ in the process of fertilization. a. nucleotides b. genes c. gametes d. chromosomes

d. linkage

This figure demonstrates _______________, the inheritance of a package of genes from the same chromosome. a. translocation b. recombination c. trisomy d. linkage

a. True

This picture demonstrates that E. coli is a prokaryotic bacterium. a. True b. False

b. False

This is a close-up of hair, which is composed of functional proteins. a. True b. False

a. True

This diagram represents one of the building blocks of DNA. a. True b. False

b. balanced polymorphism means that not all African Americans are heterozygous for the sickle-cell trait.

An online article that your professor asked you to critique states that African Americans cannot contract malaria, even if they go to endemic areas, because of a genetic trait that confers protection from the disease. Your response is that this article is incorrect because: a. African Americans have lost the allele for normal red blood cells through genetic drift from their ancestral African population. b. balanced polymorphism means that not all African Americans are heterozygous for the sickle-cell trait. c. protection from malaria cannot be conferred by genes. d. African Americans are more likely to have thalassemia, which does not protect a person completely from contracting malaria.

a. deme.

Another name for a reproductive population is: a. deme. b. species. c. haplogroup. d. genus.

d. species.

Members of a population that can breed and produce viable offspring are considered to be of the same: a. allogroup. b. matriline. c. patriline. d. species.

c. 91%

p2 + 2pq + q2 = 1.

If 70% of the hypothetical population passed along allele B, the dominant allele for brown eyes, and 30% passed along allele b, the recessive allele for blue eyes, the proportion of the subsequent generation with brown eyes would be ___________ given Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. a. 28% b. 70% c. 91% d. 99%

a. disruptive selection.

Over the course of the semester, you observe a colony of flies living in a container in your classroom. At the beginning of the course, the flies had wings of different lengths—short, medium, and long. By the end of the semester, only the short- and long-winged flies remained. This demonstrates the fly population was undergoing: a. disruptive selection. b. stabilizing selection. c. directional selection. d. stasis, or lack of change.

c. spontaneous and induced.

The two main types of mutations are: a. synonymous and nonsynonymous. b. frameshift and transposable. c. spontaneous and induced. d. point and synonymous.

d. stabilizing, directional, and disruptive.

The three patterns of natural selection are: a. one-way, disruptive, and stabilizing. b. disruptive, equilibrium, and directional. c. mutation, stabilizing, and directional. d. stabilizing, directional, and disruptive.

b. Leucism

Which of the following abnormalities is not linked to malaria? a. Sickle-cell anemia b. Leucism c. Thalassemia d. Favism

a. owing to a founder effect, many Native American populations have high frequencies of the O blood type.

Your cousin just started a part-time job at a blood bank. He tells you that a surprisingly large number of Native Americans come in to donate blood. You explain to him that, based on what you learned in physical anthropology class, this is not all that surprising because: a. owing to a founder effect, many Native American populations have high frequencies of the O blood type. b. gene flow between Native Americans and European Americans but not vice versa means that Natives are the universal donors. c. the AB blood type was selected for in the Native American population as a genetic adaptation in response to the smallpox that Europeans brought. d. many Native American lands are on toxic waste dumps that cause a higher frequency of mutations and result in a high proportion of people with the A blood type.

b. the onset of the disease after prime childbearing years means it is largely unaffected by natural selection.

Huntington’s chorea is a genetically linked debilitating degenerative disorder with an onset usually after the fourth decade of life. This disease is quite prevalent among communities in Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela. The reason that this disease has not been eliminated through natural selection is: a. the mutated gene is recessive and therefore tough to eliminate from a population. b. the onset of the disease after prime childbearing years means it is largely unaffected by natural selection. c. gene flow between the populations around Lake Maracaibo and European settlers maintains the gene in a balanced polymorphism. d. there has not been enough time since the introduction of the disease for genetic drift to isolate the gene.

d. stabilizing selection.

At the end of last semester, your professor had a baby. In class, she notes that her baby weighed 7.2 lbs at birth. The other babies in the nursery that week weighed 7 lbs, 6.8 lbs, 9.2 lbs, 7.5 lbs, and 7.3 lbs. When she asks what phenomenon this pattern of birth weights represents, you raise your hand and correctly answer: a. no selection. b. disruptive selection. c. directional selection. d. stabilizing selection.

c. change in frequency of the nonmelanic genotype.

The case of the peppered moth and industrial melanism during the Industrial Revolution in England illustrates: a. directional selection favoring the nonmelanic over the melanic form of the moth. b. greater fitness of the nonmelanic form of the moth. c. change in frequency of the nonmelanic genotype. d. all of the above.

b. AS.

The genotype that confers protection against malaria while allowing an individual to survive and reproduce is: a. AA. b. AS. c. SS. d. all of the above.

d. one more X chromosome.

Compared to the normal male karyotype, a man affected by Klinefelter’s syndrome has: a. one more Y chromosome. b. an extra X and an extra Y chromosome. c. two extra X chromosomes. d. one more X chromosome.

a. endogamous.

Populations in which reproduction within the group is encouraged are called: a. endogamous. b. exogamous. c. bigamous. d. polygamous.

b. False

The gene pool includes only the beneficial traits in a population. a. True b. False

a. True

A change in allele frequencies from one generation to the next is an example of evolution. a. True b. False

a. True

Lactase deficiency is an example of natural selection. a. True b. False

a. True

Mutation is the only source of new genetic material. a. True b. False

b. False

Recent research indicates malaria was present in the Americas prior to Columbus. a. True b. False

c. phenotype; directional selection

The different appearance of these two moths illustrates a change in _____________ caused by _______________. a. phenotype; genetic drift b. genotype; gene flow c. phenotype; directional selection d. genotype; mutation

b. mutation.

The coloring of this alligator represents: a. natural selection. b. mutation. c. gene flow. d. genetic drift.

d. macroevolution.

This figure shows significant genetic change in horses over millions of years, which is also called: a. directional evolution. b. nondirectional evolution. c. microevolution. d. macroevolution.

b. False

These long, thin blood cells confer protection against malaria. a. True b. False

a. True

This diagram represents founder effect, when a population moves into a new area and becomes reproductively isolated. a. True b. False

b. during the Renaissance.

The concept of race began: a. with the ancient Greeks. b. during the Renaissance. c. in antebellum America. d. when the Romans discovered Egypt.

d. Blumenbach

In the 1700s, _____________ developed a scientific classification of race. a. Lewontin b. Linnaeus c. Boas d. Blumenbach

c. races; clines

Frank Livingstone, a noted physical anthropologist, is famous for having said about human diversity in appearance: "There are no _________; there are only ___________." a. skin colors; races b. clines; variations c. races; clines d. phenotypes; genotypes

d. all of the above.

In high school, your parents insisted that you were an adolescent and therefore incapable of living an adult life. You argued, on the other hand, that although you were not yet 18: a. the onset of puberty had already signaled your adult reproductive capabilities. b. your brain was already full size. c. your complete permanent dentition meant you could eat all adult food. d. all of the above.

a. diaphysis.

The medullary cavity of a bone exists in the: a. diaphysis. b. epiphysis. c. growth plate. d. minerals.

d. All of the above.

cause her mother broke her hip and needed help around the house. This is not the first time the student has been absent for this reason. What would you ask her in an attempt to figure out if her mother is predisposed to osteoporosis? a. Has your mother already gone through menopause? b. Is your mother a heavy smoker? c. Does your mother take a calcium supplement? d. All of the above.

c. childhood

The eruption of the first permanent molar and the completion of brain growth happen during ____________ development. a. juvenile b. adolescent c. childhood d. neonatal

a. prime.

The period of time from about 20 years old to the end of the reproductive years is called: a. prime. b. adolescence. c. senescence. d. none of the above.

d. none of the above.

Your older sister recently had a baby and is confused about when she should wean her daughter. Based on what you learned in physical anthropology class about the timing and characteristics of life history stages in humans, you tell her: a. she should wean your niece by 6 weeks of age. b. the neonatal period is the ideal time for weaning. c. weaning marks the transition to juvenile status. d. none of the above.

b. the Inuit in Greenland are tall and long-limbed.

According to Bergmann’s and Allen’s rules, all of the following are true except: a. the Berbers of Morocco have long limbs to dissipate heat. b. the Inuit in Greenland are tall and long-limbed. c. the Yupik of Alaska have short, squat bodies to retain heat. d. the Igbo of Nigeria have narrow bodies.

d. vitamin D.

The disease rickets, which affects bone mineralization, results from a deficiency in: a. vitamin A. b. vitamin B. c. vitamin C. d. vitamin D.

d. overnutrition is linked to an increase in diabetes, cholesterol, and blood pressure.

There is an old adage that "a fat baby is a healthy baby." A critique of this statement might be that: a. the health of an infant is based on the health of the mother and her breast milk. b. large baby body size is healthy only in cold climates. c. baby fat can prevent the body from synthesizing vitamin D, leading to rickets. d. overnutrition is linked to an increase in diabetes, cholesterol, and blood pressure.

b. your classmate and his sister are both much shorter than their parents.

One of your classmates moved to the United States from Somalia as a kid in the late 1990s. After seeing a picture of his family, you notice that he and his sister must have been undernourished for several years. You arrive at this conclusion because: a. your classmate always brings a large sandwich to class. b. your classmate and his sister are both much shorter than their parents. c. your classmate has brown hair, while his sister has black hair. d. your classmate and his sister are both obese.

a. cline.

A gradual change in phenotype over a geographical area is called a: a. cline. b. race. c. divergence. d. group.

c. his five types did not take into account thousands of years of human evolution.

A major criticism that can be leveled against Johann Blumenbach’s racial typology is that: a. he only had two major categories: light-skinned people and dark-skinned people. b. Mongoloids and Malays are geographically close together and therefore should not be separate races. c. his five types did not take into account thousands of years of human evolution. d. his taxonomy was not Linnaean in nature.

b. False

The growth and development of females is more sensitive to stressors in the environment than the growth and development of males. a. True b. False

a. True

Human adaptation occurs at four levels: genetic, developmental, acclimatization, and cultural. a. True b. False

a. True

Hair loss and sweating are both thermoregulatory adaptations to heat in humans. a. True b. False

b. False

Vasoconstriction results in the red face of a person in a hot environment. a. True b. False

b. False

In general, populations living between 0°-20°N latitude have the darkest skin color. a. True b. False

a. a professional quarterback

This figure shows the cross section of upper arm bones that may belong to: a. a professional quarterback. b. a member of the Olympic rowing team. c. a casual soccer player. d. a distance swimmer.

b. 6 and 12 years old.

You visit your uncle, a dentist, over winter break. He hands you this X-ray and instructs you to estimate the age of this child, given the eruption time of the permanent molars (6 years old for the first molar, 12 years old for the second, and 18 years old for the third). You correctly reply that the child is between: a. birth and 6 years old. b. 6 and 12 years old. c. 12 and 18 years old. d. none of the above.

b. be short.

People who live in the areas of the world highlighted in red have adapted to these particular geographical conditions and are likely to: a. lack red blood cells. b. be short. c. have a small chest cavity. d. possess long limbs.

b. False

These lower leg bones are from Ötzi, the Iceman who died at age 45 around 5,000 years ago and was found mummified in the Alps. a. True b. False

b. False

These children are suffering from hypoxia. a. True b. False

b. Primates inhabit every continent

Which of the following is not true of primates? a. Primates are adapted to live in diverse climates. b. Primates inhabit every continent. c. Primates eat many different foods. d. Primates spend time with their offspring.

b. their good sense of touch lets them grip trees.

On a visit to the zoo, you overhear a teacher telling a young student that the chimpanzees climb and swing on branches because: a. their inability to move bipedally requires them to stay in the trees. b. their good sense of touch lets them grip trees. c. their poor sense of smell means moving around on the ground is dangerous. d. their visual acuity functions best at the tops of trees.

a. overlapping vision fields.

Visual differences between primates and other animals include: a. overlapping vision fields. b. eyes on the side of the head. c. monochromatic vision. d. all of the above.

c. 2/1/2/3.

The dental formula for Old World primates, including humans, is: a. 3/1/3/3. b. 2/1/3/3. c. 2/1/2/3. d. 3/1/4/3

d. vision; smell

Primates’ enhanced ___________ led to a reduced sense of ___________. a. hearing; smell b. vision; touch c. hearing; vision d. vision; smell

a. in the superfamily Hominoidea.

The fact that humans are related to chimpanzees can be seen in Linnaean taxonomy, where both are: a. in the superfamily Hominoidea. b. from the family Cercopithecidae. c. of the suborder Prosimii. d. all of the above.

c. lemurs exist in the wild only in Madagascar, so she probably hit a raccoon.

Your sister calls you crying because she just hit an animal with her car and she thinks it was a ring-tailed lemur. You calm her down by saying that: a. she should not worry about it because lemurs are not endangered. b. lemurs are extinct, so she definitely did not hit one. c. lemurs exist in the wild only in Madagascar, so she probably hit a raccoon. d. of all the primates, only lemurs are afraid of asphalt and would not be in the road.

b. have more teeth than prosimians.

Anthropoids differ from prosimians in all the following ways except that they: a. have larger brains than prosimians. b. have more teeth than prosimians. c. are more sexually dimorphic than prosimians. d. see in color, and prosimians do not.

d. all of the above.

Hominoids include: a. orangutans. b. chimpanzees. c. gorillas. d. all of the above.

c. the foramen magnum was not located at the bottom of the skull.

One of your friends is originally from Ecuador. When he was a kid, he would sneak into the forest and watch howler monkeys. On one of these trips, though, he insists that he and his friends found a human skull. As he describes it, you realize it was not human because: a. it lacked a sagittal crest. b. the eye sockets were at the front of the face rather than on the side. c. the foramen magnum was not located at the bottom of the skull. d. all of the above.

a. sagittal crests.

Primates that are adapted for eating large amounts of plants and leaves can be distinguished by their: a. sagittal crests. b. incisor-like canines. c. lack of a diastema. d. tooth combs.

d. all of the above.

It is possible to tell an ape skeleton from a human skeleton based on: a. the position of the foramen magnum. b. the shape of the pelvis. c. the length of the limbs. d. all of the above.

c. the ability to eat a wide variety of foods; investing time and effort into offspring; and adaptations to life in the trees.

According to British anatomist Wilfrid Le Gros Clark, the main tendencies that help to define what a primate is include: a. parental investment; similar dental specializations; and small brains. b. prehensile fingers, toes, and tails; dietary plasticity; and enhanced sense of vision. c. the ability to eat a wide variety of foods; investing time and effort into offspring; and adaptations to life in the trees. d. all of the above.

a. apes have a Y-5 pattern of cusps, whereas Old World monkeys have a bilophodont pattern.

The teeth of Old World monkeys and apes differ in that: a. apes have a Y-5 pattern of cusps, whereas Old World monkeys have a bilophodont pattern. b. Old World monkeys have a 2/1/3/3 dental formula, whereas apes have 2/1/2/3. c. apes have a tooth comb, but Old World monkeys do not. d. Old World monkeys have a diastema, whereas apes do not.

a. True

Fingerprints help enhance primates’ sense of touch. a. True b. False

b. False

All primates have opposable toes. a. True b. False

a. True

Male primates use their canines for eating food and for scaring enemies. a. True b. False

a. True

Hominoids do not have tails. a. True b. False

c. a chimpanzee.

Based on molar form, this jaw comes from: a. a baboon. b. a howler monkey. c. a chimpanzee. d. a lemur.

a. diastema.

One of the main differences observable between human dentition and the dentition of other primates is humans’ lack of a/an: a. diastema. b. loph. c. occlusion. d. cusp.

b. Antarctica.

According to the map of primate distribution throughout the world, there are no primates in: a. Asia. b. Antarctica. c. Europe. d. South America.

b. False

This ape skeleton is optimized for bipedal locomotion. a. True b. False

a. True

This jaw is from a primate with a canine/premolar honing complex. a. True b. False

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