Animal Cells and Tissues

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the part of the neuron that carries the cell’s message away from the cell

cell body

the part of the neuron that contains the nucleus and cytoplasm


the part of the neuron that receives the message


a thin layer of tissue that covers surfaces and lines hollow organs


a red blood cell


a red pigment that allows the erythrocytes to pick up and drop off oxygen molecules


point of skeletal muscle attachment on the body part the muscle moves


a white blood cell

muscle fiber

a very long, contracting cell that makes up the muscles of our body


a nerve cell


point of skeletal muscle attachment on an anchored body part


the process of a cell engulfing its food; literally, "cell eating"


the junction between two nerve cells

What fluid contains all of an animal cell’s organelles?


What organelle controls a cell’s activities?


What organelle controls a cell’s packaging, storage and shipping functions?

Goli body

When glucose is needed by the cell, which organelles secrete enzymes in order to begin glucose breakdown?


If a neuron were a tree, the trunk would represent the _____ and the small branch extensions would represent the _____.

axon; dendrites

Match the following terms and definitions ***********

1. powerful enzymes used to process cellular activity

lysosomes and peroxisomes

2. small storage sacs containing water, food, and waste


3. chains of protein fibers that provide support and shape


4. whip-like structures on cells that are used for movement


5. tiny sacs at the end of the ER which contain protein


6. bundles of microtubules that separate to opposite poles of a cell


7. rough and smooth organelle that produces protein, steroids, and lipids

endoplasmic reticulum (ER)

8. produces and assembles proteins


9. prepares protein-packed vesicles for release outside of the cell

Golgi complex

A neuron’s __________ contains the nucleus and cytoplasm of the cell.

cell body

Unlike erythrocytes, leukocytes have a nucleus and do not contain hemoglobin


The red pigment in erythrocytes is _____, which transports oxygen.


Blood cells are ____________ in shape because they lack a nucleus.


Cells responsible for body movement are _____ cells.


Epithelial cells grow close together to form the body’s _________.


Which kind of tissue lines the inside of hollow organs?


Which kind of tissue is made of contracting fibers?


Which kind of tissue transmits signals across a synapse?


One function of _____ tissue is to hold organs and other tissue in place.


Select all that apply.
Cells function together to form tissues. The four main types of tissues in animals are _____.

epithelial connective muscular nervous

Animals Body Communication & Response **********

Match the following terms and definitions……

1. action potential

an electrical nerve impulse sent by nerve fibers to the central nervous system for interpretation

2. chemoreceptors

neurons that detect chemicals such as those found in food

3. compound eyes

type of eyes many arthropods have; eyes that protrude outward and consist of many lenses

4. effector

the structure that gives the response to an environmental change

5. electroreceptors

neurons that detect electrical fields

6. endocrine

secretion of hormones into the blood stream to affect distant processes

Match the following terms and definitions……

1. exocrine

outward secretion of chemicals through ducts

2. generator potential

a stimulus that must reach a certain threshold before a nerve impulse is sent

3. hormone

a chemical messenger produced in one part of the body and having an effect on another part

4. mechanoreceptors

neurons that detect mechanical stimuli like touch and pressure

5. olfactory receptors

neurons that detect smells and other airborne chemicals

6. photoreceptors

neurons that detect light stimuli

Vocabulary continued…………………………………….


the structure that is sensitive to an environmental change and relates the change to the central nervous system


structures on roundworms that contain its mechanoreceptors


neurons that detect temperature changes

Sensory organs receive a stimulus, and their sensory _________ change the stimulus to a nerve impulse for the central nervous system (CNS) to process.


After the CNS interprets a stimulus, the _________ send a response to the area being stimulated.


An example of an internal chemical transmitter is a(n) _______ .


The __________ secretes hormones externally to the skin or mouth.


Receptors that provide animals with information from their internal environment are located in _____.

blood vessels and organs

Sharks have highly developed _____.

olfactory receptors

Birds and fish don’t necessarily use their tongues for taste.


Fish have mechanoreceptors along the sides of their body called _____.

a lateral line system

Animals have tactile sensors located at different parts of their bodies. For example, cats have sensitivity in their _____.


Animals with photoreceptors have good vision.


Match the following terms and definitions…………………..


neurons that detect chemicals


neurons that detect touch

olfactory receptors

neurons that detect smells


neurons that detect light


neurons that detect temperature

Select all that apply.
Receptors that provide animals with information from the external environment are located in the _____.

ears skin tongue eyes nose

All vertebrates have ear-like structures to hear.


Animals Body Plans ***************************

Match the following terms and definitions………………….

1. acoelomate

an animal without a body cavity

2. cephalization

development of an apparent head end of an animal

3. choanocyte

flagellated cell lining the inside of a sponge

4. coelomate

an animal with a fluid-filled body cavity that lies within the mesoderm

5. deuterostomes

the first indentation of the gastrula stage of embryonic development; includes echinoderms, chordates, and vertebrates

6. ectoderm

"outer skin"; layer of cells that develop on the outside of the embryo

Match the following terms and definitions………………

1. endoderm

"inner skin"; layer of cells that develop on the inside of the embryo

2. gastrulation

process in early embryonic development that forms layers of cells

3. mesoderm

"middle skin"; layer of cells that develops between the ectoderm and endoderm; turns into organs, muscle, and circulatory vessels

4. protostomes

from the first indentation of the gastrula stage of embryonic development; includes most invertebrates

5. pseudocoelomate

an animal with a false body cavity separating the mesoderm and endoderm

6. segmentation

a characteristic of animals that have subdivisions of repeated body parts

The difference between protostomes and deuterostomes is _____.

protostomes develop a mouth first and then an anus

The __________ is the layer of tissue that forms during gastrulation and becomes the animal’s organs.


During embryonic development of animals, tissue layers form. This process of embryonic tissue development is called _____.


Flatworms have layers of tissue that surround the gut and organs in one solid body. They are _____.


Almost all animals except _____ have either radial or bilateral symmetry.


A coelom is _____.

layers of tissue

Sponges have flagellated cells called _____ that line their internal chambers and create water flow to capture food.


Which of the following are examples of the first specialized tissues?


Some of the first organisms to show cephalization were _____.


Most coelomates possess a _____.

circulatory system

If you rub your finger across the body of an earthworm, you may notice little ripples. Earthworms were among the first organisms to display _____.


Many insects have a tough outer shell called _____.

an exoskeleton

Some of the first animals to develop an endoskeleton were _____.


Vertebrates have a notochord during early embryonic development.


Organs And Organ Systems ***********************

Match the following terms and definitions………………….

1. hemolymph

a fluid of lymph and blood that circulates within invertebrates

2. interferons

protein cells that assist in fighting infection and disease

3. lymphocyte

type of leukocyte that makes up the specific immunity system; capable of building immunity to a disease

4. Malpighian tubules

excretory tubules in insects and spiders that empty into the intestine

5. nephron

the functioning unit of the kidney that produces urine

6. nephridia

tubes in flatworms and earthworms that excrete waste

Match the following terms and definitions……………………

1. alveoli

tiny sacs within the lungs which increase the surface available for gas exchange

2. amylase

a digestive enzyme that breaks down starches and glycogen into sugars

3. atria

the two thin-walled chambers that receive blood into the heart from the veins

4. bronchi

the two tubes into which the trachea divide to go into each lung

5. capillary

a tiny vessel through which diffusion takes place between the blood and the body tissues

6. ganglia

a mass of nerve tissue not part of the brain

Most arthropods and some mollusks and tunicates have _________ circulatory systems, which means fluid transporting nutrients and oxygen flow directly into internal organs.


In a _________ circulatory system, fluid is pumped through specialized, enclosed vessels.


A _______ nervous system is found in simpler animals like jellyfish.

nerve net

Both invertebrates and vertebrates, with the exception of the _____, have a nervous system


Which of the following animals possess a central nervous system?


Simpler organisms conduct ____________ digestion with the help of lysosomes.


Birds and earthworms have _____, containing bits of sand or gravel that mechanically break down food.

a gizzard

Most aquatic animals have _____ for breathing while most land-dwelling animals have _____.

gills; lungs

The respiratory system of most insects and spiders is called the _____ system.


Amphibians can breathe through their skin.


The excretory organs found in flatworms and earthworms are called _____.


Unicellular organisms excrete waste by _____.
active transport
all of the above

all of the above

The length of a vertebrate’s ______ determine its ability to concentrate urine.


Humans and other vertebrates have both specific and nonspecific immunity while invertebrates have only immunity.


Select all that apply.
Various lines of defense from disease or infection include _____.

leukocytes the skin mucous membranes interferons

Select all that apply.
Animal organ systems include:
skeletal system
phloem system
muscular system
reproductive system

skeletal system muscular system reproductive system

Animals Movement, Reproduction, & Development *****************************************

Match the following terms and definitions……………………

1. metamorphosis

the transformation of a larva to an adult; occurs only in animals having great differences in form between the larva and adult

2. monotreme

type of mammal that lays eggs

3. nymph

the part of certain insect life cycles in which the young animal has no wings or reproductive organs

4. pupa

the developmental stage between larva and adult in insects undergoing metamorphosis

5. testes

the male gonad which produces sperm

Match the following terms and definitions……………………

1. chitin

a polysaccharide-based substance that forms the exoskeleton of arthropods

2. embryo

an early stage in the development of an animal or plant

3. gestation period

the period of time offspring is carried in the womb before birth

4. gonad

gamete-producing organ in animals

5. hydroskeleton

support and movement structure of animals that is maintained by water or body fluid

6. larva

an early growth stage or phase of life of an organism that undergoes metamorphosis

Select all that apply.
Which animals have an endoskeleton?

monkeys fish starfish gecko

An earthworm receives support and shape from its fluid-filled cavity. It has _____.

a hydroskeleton

As an arthropod gets bigger and grows, its exoskeleton gets bigger and grows as well.


Earthworms have_________ muscles that help them move

circular and longtitudinal

Asexual reproduction is widespread in animals.


The time it takes a mammal baby to develop before it is born is called the _____ period.


Fish and amphibians commonly conduct ________ fertilization.


When an invertebrate reaches the _____ stage, it most likely stops growing and can begin reproduction.


Some invertebrates, after hatching from eggs, look completely different from their parents and are probably in a _____ form.


Some vertebrates can go through nymph and pupa forms.


In order, the four life stages of a butterfly are _____.

egg, larva, pupa, adult

Select all that apply.
Many insects go through different physical changes during growth. These insects include the _____.

butterfly cricket housefly silverfish

Frogs go through metamorphosis.


Animal Structures *******************************

Cartilage, found in the ears and nose, is a rubbery type of _____ tissue.


_________ transmit impulses from other neurons to the cell body while _______ transmit impulses away from the cell body.

dendrites; axons

Microtubules, microfilaments, and intermediate filaments make up the _____, which lies beneath the plasma membrane and provides support, movement, and shape for the cell.


Sponges have collar cells that trap food and ingest it by or by the enzymes of lysosomes.


Three types of _____ tissue are skeletal, smooth, and cardiac.


Neurons are not connected; they transmit signals across a space called a _____.


The main function of _____ tissue is communication between different parts of the body.


Leukocytes _____.

make antibodies that attack foreign invaders

The earthworm’s _________vessel acts as a pump to push blood throughout the body.


_______ tissue can be liquid, solid, or semi-solid.


Echinoderms, like sea stars, have a ______ nervous system.


Arthropods, like spiders and lobster, don’t have blood like mammals do; instead, they have _____.


Birds and earthworms have a _____ that stores and softens food.


Squamous cells are part of _____ tissue and are _____ shaped.

epithelial; irregularly

Annelids, like the earthworm, and arthropods, like insects or spiders, have three main structures in their nervous systems: _____.

segmented ganglia, a dorsal nerve cord, and a ventral nerve cord

______________ is the only effective way invertebrates fight disease.


Tissues arranged together make up _____, which, when functioning together in groups, make up _____.

tissues; organs

If your skin swells up from a splinter, or puss forms in a cut, your _____ system is working to treat the area.


The main excretory organs of insects and spiders are ________.

Malpighian tubules

Most insects have small holes in the exoskeleton called _____, which open and close to regulate air flow.


Leukocytes that respond to nonspecific foreign invaders are called ________ while _______ respond to


In mammals, air enters lungs through tubes called _____, which branch into smaller tubules called _____, which extend out to tiny air sacs called _____.

bronchi; bronchioles; alveoli

Sponges have a _____ that squeezes out waste.

contractile vacuole

Skeletal muscle is attached to bones or other body parts by fibrous _____ tissue.


Animal Anatomy And Physiology Quiz 2**************

Like plants, some vertebrates reproduce only once before death.


Organisms with a false coelom, like roundworms, are called _____.


Select all that apply.
All animals, except for _____, develop as a protostome.


Instead of hearing with ears, fish and most reptiles rely on their sense of _____.


Some reptiles, like snakes, have olfactory receptors _____.

on the roof of their mouths

Octopus and squid have chemoreceptors on their _____.


The _______ potential must be strong enough to send a(n) _________ potential to the CNS.

generator ; action or effector?

Developing a(n) _________ made absorption of nutrients more efficient for roundworms.

coleom anus mouth

Match the receptor to the place it is most commonly found on an animal’s body.

1. chemoreceptors – body chemicals (homeostatsis) 2. mechanoreceptors – skin 3. olfactory receptors – nose 4. photoreceptors – eyes

Select all that apply.
Besides annelids, segmentation is also seen in _____.

arthropods vertebrates

Humans have jointed appendages.


Select all that apply.
During gastrulation, cnidarians develop which tissue layers?

ectoderm endoderm

Some fish and amphibians have _____, which detect electrical fields that help them navigate through dark, murky waters.


A part of a(n) ________ organism can become diseased, the part can be removed, and the organism can continue to live.


The gestation period for all mammals is _____________.

not the same

Crickets go through a _______ form, in which they resemble the parent when hatched but develop other features like wings later on.


Chemical transmitters can stimulate any receptor site to initiate an action.


_____ have vision as good as that of humans.


Arthropods have an exoskeleton made of _____.


Rattlesnakes have thermoreceptors on the front of their faces called _____ organs, which allow them to detect infrared radiation.


Roundworms have mechanoreceptors called _____ on external bristles.


Animals that change greatly as they mature are said to undergo _____.


Jellyfish don’t have a true hydroskeleton, but they do use water for support and to help them move.


Flatworms were one of the first to develop a _______ , which allowed them to detect light, food, and mates.


Humans Acquisition And Excretion *****************

Match the following terms and definitions……………….

1. epidermis

outer layer of cells

2. esophagus

tube connecting the mouth to the stomach

3. hemoglobin

iron compound in red blood cells

4. ileum

the distal half of the small bowel

5. jejunum

the middle part of the small bowel

Match the following terms and definitions…………..

1. alimentary canal

parts of the body through which food passes

2. alveoli

tiny sacs within the lungs which increase the surface available for gas exchange

3. bronchi

the two tubes into which the trachea divide to go into each lung

4. capillary

a tiny vessel through which diffusion takes place between the blood and the body tissues

5. diaphragm

muscle below the lungs used for breathing

6. duodenum

the first piece of the small bowel into which the bile and pancreatic juices empty

The digestion process starts in the _____.


The stomach breaks down food with the help of acids called _____.

gastric juices

Select all that apply.
The small intestine _____.
churns and mashes food into smaller pieces
breaks down food to a thin, watery mixture
absorbs dissolved food with hundreds of villi
stores food

breaks down food to a thin, watery mixture absorbs dissolved food with hundreds of villi

The upper part of the large intestine is called the ______ , and the lower part is called the _______.


Cellular respiration involves the use of _______ and the release of _________.

oxygen ; carbon monoxide

Oxygen and carbon dioxide pass back and forth between the alveoli and the blood through _____.


Which organ controls breathing?


Select all that apply.
Hemoglobin _____.
picks up oxygen
has an attraction for carbon monoxide
has an iron ion
is found in erythrocytes

picks up oxygen has an attraction for carbon monoxide has an iron ion is found in erythrocytes

The right ventricle pumps blood to the _________ while the left ventricle pumps blood to the ________ .


The right atrium of the heart receives blood from the ________ , while the left atrium receives blood from the ________ .

body ; lungs

What type or types of blood flow through the heart?
both A and B
none of the above

both A and B

The main organs of the excretory system are the _____.

skin and kidneys

Solid waste and methane are excreted by the _____ system while carbon dioxide is excreted by the _____ and respiratory systems.

circulatory; excretory or vice versa

Select all that apply.

protects the body helps the body thermoregulate provides a sense of touch helps remove waste

*****Select all that apply.
The body is supplied with oxygen by the _____.
respiratory system
circulatory system
endocrine system
excretory system
digestive system

respiratory system? circulatory system?

Select all that apply.
The kidneys _____.
filter waste from the blood
reabsorb nutrients from the blood
oxygenate the blood

filter waste from the blood reabsorb nutrients from the blood oxygenate the blood

Human Anatomy And Physiology Quiz 3*********

An example of a ball-and-socket joint is the _____.


Bones act as a frame to which _____ are attached for movement.

striated muscles

When antibodies are produced by lymphocytes, the body is conducting ___________ immunity


When you spin around, you lose balance because of fluid spinning around in the _____.

semicircular canals

The are responsible for pumping blood while the receive the blood.

ventricles ; atria

Select all that apply.
Humans have eyes composed of three layers: _____.

sclera choroid retina

If you are dehydrated, your _____ will retain some water.


The _____ nerve connects to the heart and adjusts its speed according to the body’s demands.


Sensory and motor neurons are connected to the _______ nervous system.


Foreign invaders have proteins called _____, which antibodies lock onto to neutralize.


The nerves that control voluntary responses like those connected to your muscles are part of the _____ nervous system.


The fight-or-flight response in humans is activated by epinephrine, a hormone secreted by the _____ glands.


Select all that apply.
Perspiration _____.

helps cool the body removes waste chemicals through pores in the skin

Unlike the woman, the man does not have all of the gametes in his testes at birth.


Each muscle fiber contains tiny threads called _____, which are made of myosin and actin.


The purpose of the menstrual cycle is to _____.

expel an unfertilized egg and endometrium

As you read this lesson and type on your computer, you are using the second largest part of your brain called the _____.


After sperm are produced, they move into a sperm storage area called the _____.


The alimentary canal consists of the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine.


At the base of the brain is the _____, which controls the pituitary gland and maintains homeostasis.


When you hear your stomach grumble, it is most likely influenced by the hormone _____.


Nerves at the roots of hair follicles to detect pain, temperature, itch, and hair movement are called _____.

free nerve endings

As blood flows through the capillaries in the lungs, it drops off _________ and picks up __________ .

carbon dioxide ; oxygen

The pituitary gland encompasses hormones that influence growth, metabolism, reproduction, and water balance.


Humans Body Communication & Response **********

Match the following terms and definitions……………………

1. androgen

male hormone

2. cerebellum

part of the brain that coordinates movement

3. choroid

layer of the eye between the sclera and retina that reduces the scattering of light

4. corticoid

hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex; regulates metabolism and balances salt and water within the body

5. epinephrine

an adrenal hormone (adrenaline) that stimulates autonomic nerve action

6. Meissner’s corpuscles

mechanoreceptors that are sensitive to light touch

Match the following terms and definitions…………………

1. Pacinian corpuscles

mechanoreceptors of the skin that are sensitive to deep pressure

2. pituitary gland

master endocrine gland that affects all hormonal functions

3. sclera

a structure composed of fibrous tissue surrounding the eye and giving it shape

4. tympanic membrane

the membrane in the outer ear that vibrates to sound

5. vagus nerve

the major autonomic nerve controlling the body’s automatic functions

The human nervous system is broken up into central and peripheral parts. The central system (CNS) is made up of _____.

the brain and spinal cord

If the sympathetic nervous system increases the production of saliva, the parasympathetic system _____.

decreases it

_____ neurons control voluntary or involuntary responses of the body.


The digestion of your food and homeostasis are uncontrolled functions in your body, happening automatically. These functions are part of your _____ nervous system.


Match the following parts of the brain with their functions…………………………………………………………………….

1. cerebrum

responsible for speech, emotion, and memory

2. cerebellum

responsible for muscle coordination and balance

3. brain stem

responsible for involuntary muscles like the heart

Which two of your senses are linked together (i.e., influence your perception of both)?

smell and taste

A single taste bud is capable of sensing all five tastes.


There are different types of nerves or mechanoreceptors located in your skin. Nerves that detect deep pressure are called _____.

Pacinian corpuscles

The third layer of the eye, the _________ , receives light rays and images and passes them on to the _______ nerve.

retina ; optic

The _________ located in the inner ear, translates sound vibrations into an impulse for the _________ nerve.

cochlea ; auditory

Your body’s "thermostat" is called the _____.


The _____ gland regulates the rate of body metabolism.


The blood sugar in your body is maintained by a gland that acts as an exocrine and endocrine gland. It is the _____.


Appetite is controlled by which hormone?


The master gland is the _____, which secretes hormones that stimulate other glands of the body.


Which gland does the hypothalamus control?

pituitary gland

Humans Movement, Reproduction, & Immunity ******

Match the following terms and definitions……………………

1. seminiferous tubules

sperm producing organs in the testes

2. spermatozoon

a sperm cell or male gamete

3. uterus

the organ in the woman’s body that contains the fetus during pregnancy

4. vas deferens

a duct in the male’s body that carries sperm from the epididymis

Match the following terms and definitions……………………


a protein produced by the body to combat foreign particles

2. antigen

a substance that stimulates the production of an antibody

3. endometrium

the lining of the uterus wall

4. epididymis

a narrow coiled structure that is attached to the testes and stores sperm

5. extensor

a muscle that straightens a joint

6. fallopian tube

one of the tubes taking the egg from the ovary to the uterus

Match the following terms and definitions…………………..

1. flexor

a muscle that bends a joint

2. lymphocyte

type of leukocyte that makes up the specific immunity system; capable of building immunity to a specific disease

3. macrophage

white blood cell that eats pathogens and cellular debris

4. myofibrils

components of a muscle

5. scrotum

bag of skin that contains the testes

Select all that apply.
The five major striated muscle groups in the body are _____.

arms chest abdominals legs back

Select all that apply.
Voluntary muscles include _____.

arm and leg muscles striated or skeletal muscle

The bones in your body are alive.


_____ looks like jelly and is responsible for making red blood cells

Bone marrow

Which of the following statements is true?

Bones protect internal organs and help the body move

Trace the path of an egg cell by filling in the blanks.
After the egg breaks through the ovarian wall, it travels into the _____, which overlies each ovary. From there, it reaches the _____, or womb. If the egg is fertilized by a sperm cell, it is implanted in the _____.

fallopian tube; uterus; endometrium

Sperm are produced in the _____.

Sperm are produced in the _____.

When you are sick, your lymph nodes swell with extra erythrocytes


Select all that apply.
Which of the following are part of the body’s first line of defense against pathogens?

hair nails skin

Lymphocytes produce special proteins against foreign invaders called _____.


Special organs that store leukocytes are the _____.

thymus and spleen

If you cut your knee, pus, which is caused by _____, may form.

the death of macrophages

Our bodies are born with __________ immunity.


UNIT 10 TEST***********************************

Antibodies that are passed on from mother to child are part of _____.

passive immunity

Asexual reproduction is not as widespread in________ as it is in _____________.

animals ; plants

Select all that apply.
The outer ear consists of the _____.
lateral canal
auditory canal
Eustachian tube
auditory canal

auditory canal auditory canal

The fibrous outer layer of the eye which retains the overall shape of the eye is the _____.


Adrenal glands in males release _____, which are secreted during puberty.


Select all that apply.
Our chemoreceptors are mostly for tasting while other animals use them for _____.
finding food
finding mates
sensing danger

finding food finding mates smelling

The only invertebrates known to hear are _____.


The _______ gland regulates the body’s metabolism while the _______ glands affect the metabolism of calcium.

thyroid parathyroid

The subunit (organelle) of the sperm that supplies the energy for motion is _____.

the mitochondria

Match the following types of nervous systems with their functions……………………………………………………………………..

1. central

main interpretation and processing center

2. peripheral

sensory and motor nerves running to and from the CNS

3. somatic

controls voluntary responses

4. autonomic

controls automatic responses

5. sympathetic

fight-or-flight responses

6. parasympathetic

relaxing responses

Which of the following tastes may be detected at very low concentration?


The breakdown of food into molecules small enough to enter the bloodstream is primarily accomplished by the _____.

small intestine

Mollusks like clams and snails have a simple heart that pumps _____ through open-ended vessels.


An insect has primarily _____ muscle attached to the exoskeleton.


Earthworms have a(n) ________ , birds have a(n) _______ , and spiders have a(n) ___________ .

hydroskeleton; endoskelton; exoskelton

Collar cells in the sponge digest food by _____ or by the enzymes of _____.

phagocytosis; lysosomes

If an animal has a set of organs held together and protected by surrounding fluid, the animal is a _____.


Erythrocytes, neurons, skeletal cells, and columnar cells are examples of _____ cells.


Select all that apply.
Invertebrates have only nonspecific immunity, which means _____.

immunity is inborn or innate

Birds and reptiles conduct _______ fertilization and lay the eggs outside of the body.


During gastrulation, two openings form in most animals. If the first opening becomes the mouth, the animal is a ___________ .


Review the following images and indicate the type of body symmetry each animal represents. Images are :
a- sponge, b- gold fish, c- starfish

a- asymmtery b- bilateral symmetery c. radial symmetery

Which unit of the brain is responsible for the sense of balance?


All vertebrates have general sensors in their skin for touch, pressure, and pain. These are called _____.


Humans have microscopic subunits in the kidneys called _____ to filter blood, and spiders have _____ to absorb salts and wastes.

nephrons; Malpighian tubules

Select all that apply.
The two bones of the lower arm are _____.

radius ulna

Many invertebrates die during the earlier stages of their life cycle because they are a major part of the food chain.


The excretory system is involved with eliminating _____.

solid, liquid, and gas waste

Chemicals that regulate many body functions are _____.


The primary nerve which transmits the sensations of smell is the _____ nerve.


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