stress managment

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The name of the noted physiologist who was employed at Harvard Medical School and first described the body’s reaction to stress is

Walter Cannon

The body’s stress reaction that includes an increase in heart rate, respiration, blood pressure, and serum cholesterol is called

fight-or-flight

Stimuli with the potential to cause stress are collectively called

stressors

The general adaptation syndrome has three stages, which are, in order

alarm reaction, stage of resistance, stage of exhaustion

The series of bodily changes that are the opposite of the stress reaction is called
Answer

relaxation response

A relaxation technique that involves a sensation of heaviness, warmth, and tingling in the limbs is called

autogenic training

The contraction of muscles for no obvious purpose is called

bracing.

Which of the following people are known for studying stress and headaches

Stewart Wolf, Thomas Budzynski, and Howard Wolff

The theory developed by Kobasa and her colleagues that if you perceive potentially stressful events as a challenge instead of a threat, less stress will result, is known as the

hardiness theory

The cumulative biological wear and tear that results from responses to stress that seek to maintain body equilibrium is known

allostatic load

Toxins, heat, and cold would be examples of what kind of stressor?

enviromental

Threats to self-esteem or depression would be examples of what kind of stressor?

psychological

The physical, psychological, and behavioral outcomes of stress reactivity are called

strains

"Tend-and-friend" behaviors are nurturing activities that

girls tend to use more than boys

The goal of stress management is to

limit the harmful effects of stress

Which one of the following pioneers developed a meditative technique that was successfully employed to help reduce his patients’ levels of high blood pressure?

Herbert Benson

Progressive relaxation is also known

neuromuscular relaxation

Thomas Holmes and Richard Rahe showed

that the more significant the change in someone’s life, the greater the chance of the onset of illness.

The lower part of the brain responsible for various physiological processes necessary to stay alive is called the

subcortex.

Part of the subcortex responsible for coordination is called the

cerebellum

What are the two major components of the brain

cerebral cortex and subcortex

The part of the subcortex responsible for regulation of heartbeat and breathing is called the

medulla oblongata.

The part of the subcortex responsible for regulating sleep is called the

pons

The part of the subcortex responsible for the regulation of emotions is called the

diencephalon

The part of the diencephalon that activates the autonomic nervous system is called the

hypothalamus

The system that produces emotions, which is also known as the "seat of emotions," is called the

limbic system.

The system that is comprised of hormones that regulate physiological functions is called

endocrine system

The part of the brain that "sounds the alarm" when stress is present is called the

hippocampus

What is released by the hypothalamus and results in the release of adrenocorticotropic hormones?

corticotropin releasing factor

What is released by the hypothalamus and stimulates the pituitary gland to secrete thyrotropic hormone?

thyrotropic hormone releasing factor

What stimulates the thyroid gland to secrete thyroxin?

thyrotropic hormone

The part of the adrenal gland that secretes corticoids is called the

adrenal cortex

_____________ regulates metabolism of glucose

Glucocorticoids

The primary glucocorticoid is called

cortisol.

The primary mineralocorticoid is called

aldosterone

The inner portion of the adrenal gland that secretes catecholamine is called the

adrenal medulla

A catecholamine, often called adrenalin, is

epinephrine.

A catecholamine, often called noradrenalin, is

norepinephrine.

An endocrine gland that secretes the hormone thyroxin that is involved in the stress reaction is called the

thyroid gland

The part of the autonomic nervous system responsible for conserving energy is called the

parasympathetic nervous system

When you encounter a stressor, the sympathetic nervous system regulates the body to

all of the above

Which of the following is NOT an example of an involuntary function

muscle contraction

A substance found in the digestive system that helps break down food for digestion is called

hydrochloric acid.

Muscles attached to the bone are called

skeletal muscle

The electrodermal response, or the electrical conductance of the skin, is called

galvanic skin response.

The average blood pressure for a young adult is

120/80

Cortisol is secreted from the adrenal cortex and is responsible for

an increase in blood sugar

The stress response initiates increased levels of the hormone testosterone causing

hostility

The effects of cortisol and epinephrine are mediated by the hormones

oxytocin and estrogen.

People who react to stress with an all-out physiological reaction are

hot reactors

Conditions that have a mind and body component are called

psychosomatic

A physical disease caused by emotional stress without a microorganism involved is

psychogenic.

The study of the illness-causing and healing effects of the mind on the body is known as

psychoneuroimmunology

____________ are a type of lymphocyte whose purpose is to destroy substances foreign to the body by puncturing invaded body cells and killing the cells and foreign substances.

t cells

Cells left in the bloodstream and the lymphatic system to recognize and respond to future attacks to the body by the same invader are called

memory t and b cells

The pressure of the blood as it leaves the heart is known as

systolic blood pressure.

The pressure of the blood against the arterial walls when the heart is relaxed is known as

diastolic blood pressure

Hypertension with no known cause is called

essential hypertension.

The total blood pressure is given in the formula:

systolic/diastolic

Hypertension can be caused by which of the following?

all the choices are correct

A rupture of a blood vessel in the brain is known as a

cerebral hemorrhage

When a part of the heart dies because of lack of oxygen, it is known as

myocardial infarction

The debris that clogs coronary arteries is known as

plaque

A behavior pattern associated with the development of coronary heart disease is

type a

Fissures or cuts in the wall of the stomach, duodenum, or other parts of the intestines are known as

ulcers

The constriction phase of a migraine headache, also called preattack, is called

prodrome

Treatments for tension headaches would include all the following, EXCEPT

ignoring it

Cancer-causing agents are called

carcinogens

A foreign substance irritating to the body is a(n)

antigen

In order to have a healthy level of cholesterol in your blood, you want to have

high levels of HDL and low levels of LDL.

Substances produced by the body to fight antigens are called

anitbodies

A physiological response in which the body turns on itself is known as

autoimmune response

The interference with the smooth functioning of the jaw is known as

temporomandibular joint syndrome (TMJ

The Whitehall study indicated_______ was directly related to a person’s level of stress.
Answer

rank

Which of the following can decrease the harmful effects of stress

all of the above

Lazarus perceived stress to be a function of

demands exceeding resources

Activities to prevent a stressor from resulting in negative consequences are known as

interventions

Interpretation of a stressor is known as

cognitive appraisal

After a life situation is perceived as stressful, what occurs next

emotional arousal

In the stress model, emotional reaction leads to

physiological arousal

All of the following are examples of physiological arousal, EXCEPT

feeling overwhelmed

If someone’s response to stress proves to be ineffective, he or she should engage in

reappraisal

An intrapersonal matter is between

you and you

Being malnourished means you

all of the above

Examples of foods high in saturated fats would include

all of the above

Self-imposed starvation is known as

anorexia nervosa

Food substances that produce a stress-like response are known as

both pseudostressors and sympathomimetics

Examples of sympathomimetics include all the following, EXCEPT

fruit

A deficiency in B complex and Vitamin C can result in which condition

all of the above

A condition in which bones become weak and brittle and the sufferer is at an increased risk for fractures is known as

osteoporosis

Noise that helps you relax and also drowns out other sounds that may interfere with relaxation is called

white noise

A word that is the focus of meditation is called

a mantra

The presence of significant others with whom one can discuss stressors is called

social support

Daily interactions that are essentially negative are known as

hassels

Positive events that make us feel good are known as

uplifts

According to Lazarus

daily hassles are more harmful than significant life changes.

Some examples of bulimic behavior are

all of the above

Expressing yourself and satisfying your own needs, feeling good about this, and not hurting others in the process is known as

assertive behavior

Aggressive nonverbal communication would include which of the following

all of the above

Paraphrasing a speaker’s words and feelings is known as

active listening

Which of the following is TRUE about nonverbal body language

all of of the choices

When trying to resolve a conflict, you should do all of the following, EXCEPT

use "but," not "and."

A time management technique in which tasks are prioritized is known as

abc list

A time management technique in which tasks are prioritized is known as

a,b,c list

Which of the following are aspects of most relaxation techniques?

all of the above

Social support consists of all the following, EXCEPT

imitative support

The first step of selective awareness is to

recognize positive and negative elements

Humor has been shown to

all of the above

Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of Type A behavior?

confidence

Researchers have developed two components of Type A behavior that appear to operate in opposing directions. These two components are

impatience/irritability and achievement striving.

How highly you regard yourself is known as

self-esteem

The perception that one has little control over events that affect one’s life is known as

external locus of control

The perception that one has control over events that affect one’s life is known as

internal locus of control

The belief that one is either the victim of circumstances or the master of circumstances, each of which is erroneous, is known as

co-creator perception deficiency

An unrealistic fear that manifests itself in physiological arousal and is accompanied by the behavioral signs of escape or avoidance is

anxiety

Anxiety that is either temporary in nature or specific to a particular stimulus is known as

state anxiety

A general sense of anxiety not specific to a particular stimulus is known as

trait anxiety

Feelings of terror that strike suddenly and repeatedly with no warning are known as

panic disorder

If you are having a panic attack, which of the following will most likely occur?

all choices

An intense fear of something that poses little or no actual danger is known as a(n

specific phobia

Either imagining or encountering an anxiety-provoking stimulus while practicing relaxation is known as

systematic desensitization

A state of mind and body that includes three factors: commitment, control, and challenge, is known as

hardiness

Self-efficacy is the personal belief that the self

can be successful

Resilient traits include all of the following, EXCEPT

a lack of inhibition

Hardiness has been shown to do all the following, EXCEPT

decrease one’s ability to access strong emotions.

At stress reduction clinics, patients use which technique to learn how to live in the moment and become acutely aware of feelings, thoughts, and sensations?

mindfulness meditation

A person’s view of life’s meaning, direction, purpose, and connectedness to other things, other people, and the past and future is known as

spirituality

Prayer that seeks divine intervention either to prevent an occurrence or to help overcome it are known as

intercessory prayer

Spirituality can function as

either primary or secondary control

In a study conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), the most common form of CAM

prayer

Research investigations in which neither the research subject nor the data collectors are aware of who is in the control group and who is in the experimental group are known

double blind

Forgiving others has been found to be associated with which of the following

all of the above

The purpose of meditation is to

gain control over your attention.

A geometric figure used as the object of focus during meditation is called a(n)

mandala

Pranayama is

a Hindu practice that involves breathing as the object of focus during meditation.

Nadam is

imagined sounds used as the object of focus during meditation

Unanswerable, illogical riddles used as the object of focus during meditation are called

koans

Mantra is defined as

a word used as the object of focus during meditation.

A good time to meditate is

before rising

A relaxation technique that involves imagining one’s limbs to be heavy, warm, and tingling is called

autogenic training

The generalized warmth experienced during autogenics is a function of the dilation of

blood vessels

The sensation of heaviness experienced during autogenics is caused by

muscles relaxing

Autogenic means

self-generating

A(n) _________ in alpha brain waves, a sign of mental relaxation, occurs as a result of autogenics.

increase

Using as many senses as you can during imagery will

make the image as real as possible.

A process by which one muscle group is relaxed, then another muscle group is relaxed, is called

progressive relaxation

Other names for _________ are Jacobsonian relaxation and neuromuscular

progressive relaxation

The contraction phase of progressive relaxation is designed to help people better recognize when they are

bracing

The use of electronic instruments or other techniques to monitor and change subconscious activities, many of which are regulated by the autonomic nervous system, is called

biofeedback

Electromyographic (EMG) biofeedback measures

muscle contractions

Deep breathing that expands the belly rather than the chest is called

diaphragmatic breathing

A relaxation technique that searches for relaxed body parts and transports that sensation to less relaxed areas is called

body scanning

The most relaxing and healthy type of breathing is

diaphragmatic breathing

____________ is focusing your attention on the present moment.

mindfulness

The ability to do continuous muscular work, i.e., the amount of work that can be done over time, is called

muscular endurance

Brain neurotransmitters that are released during exercise and that reduce feelings of pain are called

endorphins

Reasons that interfere with someone engaging in behaviors that he or she wishes to engage in are called

barriers

I can take charge of my own health" is a statement made by someone exhibiting a(n)

internal locus of control

Something as simple as a smile from another individual is a form of

social reinforcement

The use of activities to feel better about a task is known as

emotion-focused coping

Which of the following in NOT a concern among college students?

all choices

The younger college student is confronted with which of the following tasks during that time in his or her life?

all choices

Having too many courses or courses too difficult to complete well during one semester is known as

course overload

What is one of the most significant stressors for college students?

money

What type of love is playful and flirtatious, involving no long-term commitment?

ludic love

Which of the following types of love is calm and companionate, conceiving of a long-term relationship?

storgic love

Which of the following types of love is a passionate, all-enveloping type of love, recognized by the heart racing and other signs of excitement?

erotic love

Which of the following types of love is a combination of passionate love and flirtatious love, characterized by jealousy and irrational joy, and unlikely to result in a long-term commitment?

manic love

____________ is a condition transmitted through sexual contact and the sharing of intravenous needles that leads to the mixing of blood or semen. It causes the immune system to become progressively ineffective

AIDS

Which of the following is not a high risk group for AIDS?

blood donors

AIDS can be transmitted in which of the following ways?

sharing needles

The U.S. blood supply has been screened since

1985

Which of the following is a type of sexually transmitted infection

all choices

Forcible sexual intercourse between people who know each other is classified

acquaintance rape

Consenting sex involves

all of the above

Which of the following would not help relieve stress among college students?
Answer

drinking alcohol

Expressing yourself and satisfying your own needs, feeling good about this, and not hurting others in the process is known as

assertive behavior

Paraphrasing a speaker’s words and feelings is known as

active listening

Which of the following is TRUE about nonverbal body language?

all choices

Social support results in which of the following benefits?

all of the above

a(n) _________ in alpha brain waves, a sign of mental relaxation, occurs as a result of autogenics.

increase

A(n) _____________ is an example of a biofeedback instrument

basal body thermometer

Deep breathing that expands the belly rather than the chest is called

diaphragmatic breathing

A massage technique that massages a "reflex zone" in the foot in which damage to body parts is thought to be manifested is called

reflexology

____________ is focusing your attention on the present moment.

mindfulness

Gentle pressure massage applied across the width of a muscle is called

petrissage

Thermal biofeedback is effective at treating conditions related to

blood flow

The stress response will cause hands to be

cold and damp

Which of the following is NOT a benefit of regular exercise?

decreased high-density lipoproteins

The ability to do continuous muscular work, i.e., the amount of work that can be done over time, is called

muscular endurance.

Brain neurotransmitters that are released during exercise and that reduce feelings of pain are called

endorphins

Some of the by-products of stress that are used effectively during exercise are

all of the above

Your target heart rate range is sometimes referred to as

your exercise benefit zone

"I can take charge of my own health" is a statement made by someone exhibiting a(n)

internal locus of control

Something as simple as a smile from another individual is a form of

social reinforcement

__________ offers you a way to maximize your success in a behavior change program by allowing you to fit the change into your particular circumstances

tailoring

If you begin a new exercise program by exercising for 20 minutes one day each week and gradually increase the number of days you exercise, then increase the duration of each session, you are adopting a process known as

shaping

Proximal and distal goals, self-monitoring, social support, and self-efficacy are all part of which diet program

weight watchers

By the year 2050, it is expected that the U.S. population will increase by

52%

Of the 392 million people expected in 2050, how many of these U.S. citizens will be older than 65?

80 million

In general, which of the following is true about minorities?

comprehensive approach

The belief that one’s own race is superior to another’s race is known as

racial prejudice

Crimes against people based on their race, ethnicity, sexual orientation, or religion are known as

hate crimes

The rate of deaths among infants one year of age and younger is known as

infant mortality

The number of years a person is expected to live when born is known as

life expectancy

Families with children constitute what percentage of the homeless population

23

Which of the following is NOT an example of extraorganizational stress?

a bad boss

Racism, sexism, ecological shifts, political changes, military crises, and economic downturns would all be in which of the following contexts, according to the Occupational Stress Evaluation Grid?

sociocultural

An estimate by the International Labor Organization says that stress on the job costs over

$300 billion

How often in 2004 did workers call in sick when they were not sick?

more than 62% of the time

Heart attacks are most likely to occur on a _________ and least likely to occur on a _______, according to researchers

monday;friday

When job demands are so great that the worker feels an inability to cope, this is known as role

overload

When workers lack the training, education, skills, or experience to accomplish the job, this is known as role

insufficiency

When aspects of the job and workplace are unclear, this is known as role

ambiguity

Variables associated with job satisfaction, including working on stimulating tasks, being recognized for work well done, and positive relationships with work colleagues, are known as

motivational factors

According to Scott, Moore, and Miceli, which categorization of workaholic is so focused on work that high levels of anxiety, stress, and physical and psychological consequences occur?

compulsive-dependent workaholic

In what order do the stages of burnout belong

honeymoon, fuel shortage, chronic symptoms, crisis, hitting the wall

What percentage of women work outside the home?

59

A perception intervention could include all of the following steps, EXCEPT

linking your self-worth with the task at hand

Family stressors increase all the following, EXCEPT

cavities

The U.S. Census Bureau reports that the number of families maintained by one parent increased by __________ percent from 1970 to 1980

80

The first state supreme courts to rule bans of gay/lesbian marriages unconstitutional were those of

hawaii and alaska

Which of the following is the fastest growing population in the United States

elderly

The government is encouraging people to retire

later than usual

What percentage of the elderly, aged 65 and older, experience physical limitations caused by a chronic condition?

33

What is the most common way caregivers cope with stress?

prayer

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