Stress & Coping Midterm 2

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Lazarus perceived stress to be a function of

demands exceeding resources.

Activities to prevent a stressor from resulting in negative consequences are known as


Interpretation of a stressor is known as

cognitive appraisal.

After a life situation is perceived as stressful, what occurs next?

emotional arousal

In the stress model, emotional reaction leads to

physiological arousal.

All of the following are examples of physiological arousal, EXCEPT

feeling overwhelmed.

An unhealthy roadblock might consist of

all the choices are correct.

Which of the following is an example of eustress?

These are all examples of eustress.

Source management refers to:

reducing or eliminating the source of stress.

An appropriate way of "making a committment" to stress management might be:

Making a contract with rewards and punishments, according to reasonable goals.

Stress that results in negative consequences such as decreased performance growth is called


Which of the following would be an example of taking control?

All of the above.

Outcome efficacy is a form of appraisal

regarding the ability of others.

If someone’s response to stress proves to be ineffective, he or she should engage in


Which of the following is NOT one of Robert Epstein’s four trainable competencies for effective stress management?

interpersonal interventions

Which of the following is NOT an example of eustress?

Staying up late to study for a test the night before and as a result, not getting enough sleep.

The Yerkes-Dodson Curve shows that as stress increases, task performance decreases.


Incomplete stress management programs teach participants only one or just a few stress management techniques.


The goal with stress management is to eliminate all of your stress.


You are in much greater control over yourself than you may realize.


Managing stress is accomplished by exercising control rather than giving it up to others or the environment.


Trying very hard to control stress will create stress.


Lazarus’ idea of task-oriented coping and emotion-focused coping does NOT require an appraisal of demand.


Primary appraisal is the determination of resources available to manage a stressor or threat.


Taking notes from a text book to prepare for an exam is an example of emotion-focused coping.


Coping is a necessary function of managing demands.


Self-efficacy is the perception of confidence in the ability to meet a demand.


The stress model consists of a single feedback loop.


You can meditate anywhere


Both distress and eustress can be defined as stress that encourages optimum performance.


You are in much greater control of yourself than you have ever realized.


Managing stress is more about giving up control to others or to your environment than it is about exercising control yourself.


An intrapersonal matter is between

you and you.

Being malnourished means you

do any of the above.

Examples of foods high in saturated fats would include

all of the above.

Self-imposed starvation is known as

anorexia nervosa.

Food substances that produce a stress-like response are known as

both pseudostressors and sympathomimetics.

Examples of sympathomimetics include all the following, EXCEPT


A deficiency in B complex and Vitamin C can result in which condition?

all of the above

A condition in which bones become weak and brittle and the sufferer is at an increased risk for fractures is known as


A condition of low blood sugar is known as


All of the following can be an effect of unpleasant noise, EXCEPT


Noise that helps you relax and also drowns out other sounds that may interfere with relaxation is called

white noise

A word that is the focus of meditation is called

a mantra.

The presence of significant others with whom one can discuss stressors is called

social support

Daily interactions that are essentially negative are known as


Positive events that make us feel good are known as


According to Lazarus,

daily hassles are more harmful than significant life changes.

Some examples of bulimic behavior are

all of the above.

What percentage of American adults have prehypertension?


Carrying excess body fat increases the risk for which of the following diseases?

All of the above

Which of the following registers at around 85 decibels, the noise level at which stress responses usually start to develop?

heavy city traffic

Diets high in saturated fats increase the amount of cholesterol in the blood.


An overemphasis on dieting can itself be unhealthy.


Some diets are unhealthy and can lead to even more stress.


Chronic stress can deplete the absorption of vitamins that we take into our bodies.


Stress can interfere with calcium absorption in the intestines.


BMI is the only measure of obesity


waist-hip ratio has been linked to hypertension.


Success does not commonly lead to improved self-esteem.


"Unique stressors" are defined as those that one specific person experiences often.


Healthy foods are low in saturated fat, trans fat, cholesterol, sodium, and added sugar.


Over 10% of Americans aged 20 and over have diabetes.


One out of every four women and one our of every two men aged 50 and over will have an osteoporosis-related fracture in their lifetime.


Expressing yourself and satisfying your own needs, feeling good about this, and not hurting others in the process is known as

assertive behavior

Seeking to dominate or to get your own way at the expense of others is known as

aggressive behavior.

Sacrificing your own needs or wants to meet someone else’s needs or wants is known as

nonassertive behavior.

Aggressive nonverbal communication would include which of the following?

All the choices are correct.

The acronym DESC stands for all the following terms, EXCEPT


Relating your feelings regarding another person’s behavior is which component of the DESC form?


Paraphrasing a speaker’s words and feelings is known as

both active and reflective listening.

Which of the following is TRUE about nonverbal body language?

All the choices are true.

When trying to resolve a conflict, you should do all of the following, EXCEPT

use "but," not "and."

All of the following are TRUE about "I" statements, EXCEPT

when we use "I," the other person is less likely to listen to us.

A time management technique in which tasks are prioritized is known as

A, B, C lists.

If the items on this list never get done, you would be just fine.

C list

Getting others to do those things that need to be done, but that do not need your personal attention, is known as


Time management skills include

all of the above.

Social support consists of all the following, EXCEPT

imitative support

Social support results in which of the following benefits

all of the above

Which of the following is an essential component of communication?

A medium of communication

Studies have found that technology causes __ hours stress per week.


The assertion theory is based upon the premise that every person has certain basic rights.


The purpose of the communication process is to convince someone that your point of view is correct.


Communication by body posture often says as much as the spoken word.


As a first step in managing time better, you might want to analyze how you are currently spending your time.


All of your goals should be equally important.


People that never say "No" are rarely stressed.


Assertiveness is not only a matter of what you say but of how you say it.


When resolving a conflict, the more you agree, the more passive you appear


you are so pressed for time that you believe you don’t even have time to organize, you are in need of time management skills.


Social support is believed to protect against stress-related illness or disease.


Social support can help prevent stressors from occurring in the first place, but it cannot help once a stressor has been encountered.


In communication, it is normal and effective to use the same message and medium for different senders.


When working out a disagreement with someone, it is best to communicate through email rather than in person.


Lazarus was the first person to define and popularize emotional intelligence.


"Why?" questions are good to use during arguments or disagreements


Emotional intelligence involves the ability to accurately identify and understand and regulate one’s own emotions and those of others.


Modern advances have positively impacted our ability to become emotionally intelligent.


Goleman recommends meditation as a way to counteract technology’s negative influences upon emotional intelligence.


Polyphasic behavior is a good way to battle technostress.


The first step of selective awareness is to

recognize positive and negative elements.

Humor has been shown to

do all of the above.

which of the following is NOT a characteristic of Type A behavior?


A behavior pattern that is not excessively competitive, with no free-floating hostility and no sense of urgency, is called

Type B.

Researchers have developed two components of Type A behavior that appear to operate in opposing directions. These two components are

impatience/irritability and achievement striving

How highly you regard yourself is known as


The perception that one has little control over events that affect one’s life is known as

external locus of control

The perception that one has control over events that affect one’s life is known as

internal locus of control

The belief that one is either the victim of circumstances or the master of circumstances, each of which is erroneous, is known as

co-creator perception deficiency.

An unrealistic fear that manifests itself in physiological arousal and is accompanied by the behavioral signs of escape or avoidance is


Anxiety that is either temporary in nature or specific to a particular stimulus is known as

state anxiety

A general sense of anxiety not specific to a particular stimulus is known as

trait anxiety

Feelings of terror that strike suddenly and repeatedly with no warning are known a

panic disorder

If you are having a panic attack, which of the following will most likely occur?

All the choices are equally likely to occur

A feeling of intense and disabling self-consciousness with an intense and persistent feeling of being watched, judged, and evaluated in a negative manner is called

social phobia.

An intense fear of something that poses little or no actual danger is known as a(n)

specific phobia

Either imagining or encountering an anxiety-provoking stimulus while practicing relaxation is known as

systematic desensitization.

A method of coping with anxiety that consist of examining irrational beliefs is known as

ABCDE technique.

A state of mind and body that includes three factors: commitment, control, and challenge, is known as


Self-efficacy is the personal belief that the self

can be successful.

Studies have shown that self-efficacy plays a role in

all of the above

Which of the following are techniques for managing anxiety?

all of the above

People with Type C behavior tend to exhibit all of the following traits, EXCEPT

an unusual ability to cope with high stress levels

People with Type D behavior tend to exhibit all of the following traits, EXCEPT

lack of inhibition

Resilient traits include all of the following, EXCEPT

a lack of inhibition

Hardiness has been shown to do all the following, EXCEPT

decrease one’s ability to access strong emotions

Which of the following statements about perception is true?

Both A and B are true.

Which of the following are associated with the Type A behavior pattern?

All of the above

Which of the following statements about Type A and Type B behavior patterns and heart attacks is true?

All of the above statements are true.

Polyphasic behavior…

Includes all of the above statements.

Someone with an external locus of control would be more likely to prefer which of the following games?


Someone with an internal locus of control would be more likely to prefer which of the following games?


This type of anxiety is either temporary in nature or specific to a particular stimulus.

State anxiety

This type of anxiety is a condition in which feelings of terror arise from unrealistic fear, resulting in symptoms such as feeling numb, sweaty, weak, and faint.

Panic disorder

This type of anxiety is a general sense of anxiety, not specific to a particular stimulus.

Trait anxiety

We may not be able to choose a situation, but we can choose how we perceive the situation.


Control and responsibility go hand in hand.


Phobias are irrational fears.


Anxiety only has a cognitive (thought) component.


Progressive relaxation and autogenic training are relaxation techniques directed toward cognitive stress.


Cognitive restructuring is NOT an effective technique for fear reduction or coping.


Being an optimist can keep you healthy.


There are two types of behavior patterns, Type A and Type B.


Panic disorder is twice as common in women as in men.


It is always counter-productive to adjust your life and environment to avoid anxiety-provoking stimulus.


Resiliency theory focuses on people’s strengths rather than their weaknesses or limitations


Resiliency is an inborn trait and not something that can be developed later in life.


Relabeling is a coping technique in which you attempt to stop negative or anxious thoughts.


Self-talk is a coping technique that requires some objectivity.


Thought stopping is a coping technique that involves shutting off negative thoughts when they occur.


In vivo desensitization involves imagining the stimulus in a relatively safe environment.


Resiliency refers to the ability to identify and make use of strengths and assets to respond to challenges, thereby growing as an individual.


Hardiness is a state of mind and body that involves three factors: commitment, change, and acceptance.


Which of the following has been associated with spiritual health?

All the choices are correct.

At stress reduction clinics, patients use which technique to learn how to live in the moment and become acutely aware of feelings, thoughts, and sensations?

mindfulness meditation

A person’s view of life’s meaning, direction, purpose, and connectedness to other things, other people, and the past and future is known as


An organized entity in which people have common beliefs and engage in common practices relevant to spirituality is known as


Attempts to change a situation (similar to problem-focused coping) are known as

primary control.

Prayer that seeks divine intervention either to prevent an occurrence or to help overcome it are known as

Prayer that seeks divine intervention either to prevent an occurrence or to help overcome it are known as

An attempt to control oneself or one’s emotional reactions is known as

secondary control.

Spirituality can function as

either primary or secondary control.

An individual who takes the "God helps those who help themselves" approach is


In a study conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), the most common form of CAM is


Turning over an entire situation to a source beyond the self is


Research investigations in which neither the research subject nor the data collectors are aware of who is in the control group and who is in the experimental group are known as


Forgiving others has been found to be associated with which of the following:

all of the above.

Freely giving of your talent and/or time without the expectation of a tangible incentive is


Research has hypothesized that volunteering is associated with which of the following:

all of the above

Forgiveness has been shown to have all the following health benefits, EXCEPT

lower levels of depression.

The intention to avoid a transgressor is called

decisional forgiveness.

A condition in which people are living a "life story" that is inconsistent with their beliefs and values is called

spiritual disease

An example of a spiritual question is:

All of the above are examples of spiritual questions

Approximately what percentage of people in the United States identify as Catholic?


Approximately what percentage of people in the United States identify as Jewish?


Approximately what percentage of people in the United States identify as Atheist?


Approximately what percentage of people in the United States identify as having no religion?


It is possible to be spiritual but not religious.


Spiritual and religious people are no healthier than those who are not spiritual or religious.


When people believe that something will help them, they often report that it actually does help them.


Feeling as if life has a purpose can be invaluable during times of stress.


The inability to forgive could lead to ill health.


Volunteering can give you a sense of control over your life.


Service learning allows students to apply what they learn in school to the real world.


Hardiness is a state of mind and body that involves three factors: commitment, change, and acceptance.


While it is recognized that spirituality is somehow linked to health, it is not yet included in medical school coursework.


Primary control refers to attempts to change a situation.


Secondary control refers to attempts to control others’ emotional reactions.


Studies have shown the forgiving oneself has a strong effect upon one’s health.


The purpose of meditation is to

gain control over your attention.

Mantra is defined as

a word used as the object of focus during meditation.

Another name for trophotropic response is

relaxation response.

A good time to meditate is

before rising.

Which of the following should be avoided before meditating?

All of these should be avoided

Guidelines offered for relaxation techniques in this text are based on

both cognitive and physical issues.

Relaxation techniques for cognitive issues include:

autogenic training

Relaxation techniques for physical issues include:

progressive relaxation.

The ability to switch off irrelevant brain networks and maintain an internal focus is


The object of focus for meditation should be:

Any of the above

This refers to the use of imagined sounds as the object of focus during meditation.


This refers to the use of a word as the object of focus during meditation.


This refers to the use of breathing as the object of focus during meditation


This refers to the use of illogical riddles as the object of focus during meditation.


Which of the following is NOT a requisite of Secular Meditation?

A determined attitude

The object of focus is called the figure, and the objects in the background are called the ground.


An early researcher of Zen masters found that they could slow respiration and could control their heart rates.


Meditation has been demonstrated to have positive effects on blood pressure, heart rate, and eating disorders.


When practicing meditation, it’s a good idea to try meditating in a noisy environment to see if you really know how to relax "under pressure."


Trying a relaxation technique for less than one week may not give you adequate practice to know if it’s a technique that is effective for you.


Meditation increases blood flow to the brain and decreases blood flow to the legs and arms.


There have been no scientific studies of the effects of meditation, only psychological studies.


Heart rhythm meditation requires one to experience all emotions simultaneously.


Consciousness meditation recognizes the importance of the boundary between the self and others.


Herbert Benson’s relaxation response is also known as secular meditation.


Regardless of the type of meditation, one of two approaches is used: opening up of attention or focusing of attention.


One of the key processes of meditation is learning to separate mind and body.


When meditating, try hard to get your muscles to relax.


When meditating, you should set an alarm to alert you when 20 minute has passed.


Meditation requires an object of focus.


Meditation decreases the amount of alpha brain waves.


When practicing meditation, it is important to try to relax.


It is best to meditate after eating a meal.


Research has found that meditators are less anxious than people who do not meditate.


Meditation has been shown to effectively treat drug addiction.


One of the essential prerequisites for meditation is a quiet environment.


Meditation has been found to be effective in decreasing different types of anxiety, including test anxiety.


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