Stress & Coping Midterm 2

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Lazarus perceived stress to be a function of

demands exceeding resources.

Activities to prevent a stressor from resulting in negative consequences are known as

interventions.

Interpretation of a stressor is known as

cognitive appraisal.

After a life situation is perceived as stressful, what occurs next?

emotional arousal

In the stress model, emotional reaction leads to

physiological arousal.

All of the following are examples of physiological arousal, EXCEPT

feeling overwhelmed.

An unhealthy roadblock might consist of

all the choices are correct.

Which of the following is an example of eustress?

These are all examples of eustress.

Source management refers to:

reducing or eliminating the source of stress.

An appropriate way of "making a committment" to stress management might be:

Making a contract with rewards and punishments, according to reasonable goals.

Stress that results in negative consequences such as decreased performance growth is called

distress.

Which of the following would be an example of taking control?

All of the above.

Outcome efficacy is a form of appraisal

regarding the ability of others.

If someone’s response to stress proves to be ineffective, he or she should engage in

reappraisal.

Which of the following is NOT one of Robert Epstein’s four trainable competencies for effective stress management?

interpersonal interventions

Which of the following is NOT an example of eustress?

Staying up late to study for a test the night before and as a result, not getting enough sleep.

The Yerkes-Dodson Curve shows that as stress increases, task performance decreases.

false

Incomplete stress management programs teach participants only one or just a few stress management techniques.

true

The goal with stress management is to eliminate all of your stress.

false

You are in much greater control over yourself than you may realize.

true

Managing stress is accomplished by exercising control rather than giving it up to others or the environment.

true

Trying very hard to control stress will create stress.

true

Lazarus’ idea of task-oriented coping and emotion-focused coping does NOT require an appraisal of demand.

false

Primary appraisal is the determination of resources available to manage a stressor or threat.

false

Taking notes from a text book to prepare for an exam is an example of emotion-focused coping.

false

Coping is a necessary function of managing demands.

true

Self-efficacy is the perception of confidence in the ability to meet a demand.

true

The stress model consists of a single feedback loop.

false

You can meditate anywhere

true

Both distress and eustress can be defined as stress that encourages optimum performance.

false

You are in much greater control of yourself than you have ever realized.

true

Managing stress is more about giving up control to others or to your environment than it is about exercising control yourself.

false

An intrapersonal matter is between

you and you.

Being malnourished means you

do any of the above.

Examples of foods high in saturated fats would include

all of the above.

Self-imposed starvation is known as

anorexia nervosa.

Food substances that produce a stress-like response are known as

both pseudostressors and sympathomimetics.

Examples of sympathomimetics include all the following, EXCEPT

fruit.

A deficiency in B complex and Vitamin C can result in which condition?

all of the above

A condition in which bones become weak and brittle and the sufferer is at an increased risk for fractures is known as

osteoporosis.

A condition of low blood sugar is known as

hypoglycemia

All of the following can be an effect of unpleasant noise, EXCEPT

sleepiness.

Noise that helps you relax and also drowns out other sounds that may interfere with relaxation is called

white noise

A word that is the focus of meditation is called

a mantra.

The presence of significant others with whom one can discuss stressors is called

social support

Daily interactions that are essentially negative are known as

hassles.

Positive events that make us feel good are known as

uplifts

According to Lazarus,

daily hassles are more harmful than significant life changes.

Some examples of bulimic behavior are

all of the above.

What percentage of American adults have prehypertension?

36%

Carrying excess body fat increases the risk for which of the following diseases?

All of the above

Which of the following registers at around 85 decibels, the noise level at which stress responses usually start to develop?

heavy city traffic

Diets high in saturated fats increase the amount of cholesterol in the blood.

true

An overemphasis on dieting can itself be unhealthy.

true

Some diets are unhealthy and can lead to even more stress.

true

Chronic stress can deplete the absorption of vitamins that we take into our bodies.

true

Stress can interfere with calcium absorption in the intestines.

true

BMI is the only measure of obesity

false

waist-hip ratio has been linked to hypertension.

true

Success does not commonly lead to improved self-esteem.

false

"Unique stressors" are defined as those that one specific person experiences often.

false

Healthy foods are low in saturated fat, trans fat, cholesterol, sodium, and added sugar.

true

Over 10% of Americans aged 20 and over have diabetes.

true

One out of every four women and one our of every two men aged 50 and over will have an osteoporosis-related fracture in their lifetime.

false

Expressing yourself and satisfying your own needs, feeling good about this, and not hurting others in the process is known as

assertive behavior

Seeking to dominate or to get your own way at the expense of others is known as

aggressive behavior.

Sacrificing your own needs or wants to meet someone else’s needs or wants is known as

nonassertive behavior.

Aggressive nonverbal communication would include which of the following?

All the choices are correct.

The acronym DESC stands for all the following terms, EXCEPT

Consider.

Relating your feelings regarding another person’s behavior is which component of the DESC form?

Express

Paraphrasing a speaker’s words and feelings is known as

both active and reflective listening.

Which of the following is TRUE about nonverbal body language?

All the choices are true.

When trying to resolve a conflict, you should do all of the following, EXCEPT

use "but," not "and."

All of the following are TRUE about "I" statements, EXCEPT

when we use "I," the other person is less likely to listen to us.

A time management technique in which tasks are prioritized is known as

A, B, C lists.

If the items on this list never get done, you would be just fine.

C list

Getting others to do those things that need to be done, but that do not need your personal attention, is known as

delegating

Time management skills include

all of the above.

Social support consists of all the following, EXCEPT

imitative support

Social support results in which of the following benefits

all of the above

Which of the following is an essential component of communication?

A medium of communication

Studies have found that technology causes __ hours stress per week.

5

The assertion theory is based upon the premise that every person has certain basic rights.

true

The purpose of the communication process is to convince someone that your point of view is correct.

false

Communication by body posture often says as much as the spoken word.

true

As a first step in managing time better, you might want to analyze how you are currently spending your time.

true

All of your goals should be equally important.

false

People that never say "No" are rarely stressed.

false

Assertiveness is not only a matter of what you say but of how you say it.

true

When resolving a conflict, the more you agree, the more passive you appear

false

you are so pressed for time that you believe you don’t even have time to organize, you are in need of time management skills.

true

Social support is believed to protect against stress-related illness or disease.

true

Social support can help prevent stressors from occurring in the first place, but it cannot help once a stressor has been encountered.

false

In communication, it is normal and effective to use the same message and medium for different senders.

false

When working out a disagreement with someone, it is best to communicate through email rather than in person.

false

Lazarus was the first person to define and popularize emotional intelligence.

false

"Why?" questions are good to use during arguments or disagreements

false

Emotional intelligence involves the ability to accurately identify and understand and regulate one’s own emotions and those of others.

true

Modern advances have positively impacted our ability to become emotionally intelligent.

false

Goleman recommends meditation as a way to counteract technology’s negative influences upon emotional intelligence.

true

Polyphasic behavior is a good way to battle technostress.

false

The first step of selective awareness is to

recognize positive and negative elements.

Humor has been shown to

do all of the above.

which of the following is NOT a characteristic of Type A behavior?

confidence

A behavior pattern that is not excessively competitive, with no free-floating hostility and no sense of urgency, is called

Type B.

Researchers have developed two components of Type A behavior that appear to operate in opposing directions. These two components are

impatience/irritability and achievement striving

How highly you regard yourself is known as

self-esteem

The perception that one has little control over events that affect one’s life is known as

external locus of control

The perception that one has control over events that affect one’s life is known as

internal locus of control

The belief that one is either the victim of circumstances or the master of circumstances, each of which is erroneous, is known as

co-creator perception deficiency.

An unrealistic fear that manifests itself in physiological arousal and is accompanied by the behavioral signs of escape or avoidance is

anxiety

Anxiety that is either temporary in nature or specific to a particular stimulus is known as

state anxiety

A general sense of anxiety not specific to a particular stimulus is known as

trait anxiety

Feelings of terror that strike suddenly and repeatedly with no warning are known a

panic disorder

If you are having a panic attack, which of the following will most likely occur?

All the choices are equally likely to occur

A feeling of intense and disabling self-consciousness with an intense and persistent feeling of being watched, judged, and evaluated in a negative manner is called

social phobia.

An intense fear of something that poses little or no actual danger is known as a(n)

specific phobia

Either imagining or encountering an anxiety-provoking stimulus while practicing relaxation is known as

systematic desensitization.

A method of coping with anxiety that consist of examining irrational beliefs is known as

ABCDE technique.

A state of mind and body that includes three factors: commitment, control, and challenge, is known as

hardiness

Self-efficacy is the personal belief that the self

can be successful.

Studies have shown that self-efficacy plays a role in

all of the above

Which of the following are techniques for managing anxiety?

all of the above

People with Type C behavior tend to exhibit all of the following traits, EXCEPT

an unusual ability to cope with high stress levels

People with Type D behavior tend to exhibit all of the following traits, EXCEPT

lack of inhibition

Resilient traits include all of the following, EXCEPT

a lack of inhibition

Hardiness has been shown to do all the following, EXCEPT

decrease one’s ability to access strong emotions

Which of the following statements about perception is true?

Both A and B are true.

Which of the following are associated with the Type A behavior pattern?

All of the above

Which of the following statements about Type A and Type B behavior patterns and heart attacks is true?

All of the above statements are true.

Polyphasic behavior…

Includes all of the above statements.

Someone with an external locus of control would be more likely to prefer which of the following games?

Roulette

Someone with an internal locus of control would be more likely to prefer which of the following games?

Poker

This type of anxiety is either temporary in nature or specific to a particular stimulus.

State anxiety

This type of anxiety is a condition in which feelings of terror arise from unrealistic fear, resulting in symptoms such as feeling numb, sweaty, weak, and faint.

Panic disorder

This type of anxiety is a general sense of anxiety, not specific to a particular stimulus.

Trait anxiety

We may not be able to choose a situation, but we can choose how we perceive the situation.

True

Control and responsibility go hand in hand.

True

Phobias are irrational fears.

True

Anxiety only has a cognitive (thought) component.

False

Progressive relaxation and autogenic training are relaxation techniques directed toward cognitive stress.

False

Cognitive restructuring is NOT an effective technique for fear reduction or coping.

False

Being an optimist can keep you healthy.

True

There are two types of behavior patterns, Type A and Type B.

False

Panic disorder is twice as common in women as in men.

True

It is always counter-productive to adjust your life and environment to avoid anxiety-provoking stimulus.

False

Resiliency theory focuses on people’s strengths rather than their weaknesses or limitations

True

Resiliency is an inborn trait and not something that can be developed later in life.

False

Relabeling is a coping technique in which you attempt to stop negative or anxious thoughts.

False

Self-talk is a coping technique that requires some objectivity.

True

Thought stopping is a coping technique that involves shutting off negative thoughts when they occur.

True

In vivo desensitization involves imagining the stimulus in a relatively safe environment.

False

Resiliency refers to the ability to identify and make use of strengths and assets to respond to challenges, thereby growing as an individual.

True

Hardiness is a state of mind and body that involves three factors: commitment, change, and acceptance.

False

Which of the following has been associated with spiritual health?

All the choices are correct.

At stress reduction clinics, patients use which technique to learn how to live in the moment and become acutely aware of feelings, thoughts, and sensations?

mindfulness meditation

A person’s view of life’s meaning, direction, purpose, and connectedness to other things, other people, and the past and future is known as

spirituality.

An organized entity in which people have common beliefs and engage in common practices relevant to spirituality is known as

religion.

Attempts to change a situation (similar to problem-focused coping) are known as

primary control.

Prayer that seeks divine intervention either to prevent an occurrence or to help overcome it are known as

Prayer that seeks divine intervention either to prevent an occurrence or to help overcome it are known as

An attempt to control oneself or one’s emotional reactions is known as

secondary control.

Spirituality can function as

either primary or secondary control.

An individual who takes the "God helps those who help themselves" approach is

self-directing

In a study conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), the most common form of CAM is

prayer

Turning over an entire situation to a source beyond the self is

deferring.

Research investigations in which neither the research subject nor the data collectors are aware of who is in the control group and who is in the experimental group are known as

double-blind.

Forgiving others has been found to be associated with which of the following:

all of the above.

Freely giving of your talent and/or time without the expectation of a tangible incentive is

volunteerism.

Research has hypothesized that volunteering is associated with which of the following:

all of the above

Forgiveness has been shown to have all the following health benefits, EXCEPT

lower levels of depression.

The intention to avoid a transgressor is called

decisional forgiveness.

A condition in which people are living a "life story" that is inconsistent with their beliefs and values is called

spiritual disease

An example of a spiritual question is:

All of the above are examples of spiritual questions

Approximately what percentage of people in the United States identify as Catholic?

24%

Approximately what percentage of people in the United States identify as Jewish?

2%

Approximately what percentage of people in the United States identify as Atheist?

1.5%

Approximately what percentage of people in the United States identify as having no religion?

12%

It is possible to be spiritual but not religious.

True

Spiritual and religious people are no healthier than those who are not spiritual or religious.

False

When people believe that something will help them, they often report that it actually does help them.

True

Feeling as if life has a purpose can be invaluable during times of stress.

True

The inability to forgive could lead to ill health.

True

Volunteering can give you a sense of control over your life.

True

Service learning allows students to apply what they learn in school to the real world.

True

Hardiness is a state of mind and body that involves three factors: commitment, change, and acceptance.

False

While it is recognized that spirituality is somehow linked to health, it is not yet included in medical school coursework.

False

Primary control refers to attempts to change a situation.

True

Secondary control refers to attempts to control others’ emotional reactions.

False

Studies have shown the forgiving oneself has a strong effect upon one’s health.

True

The purpose of meditation is to

gain control over your attention.

Mantra is defined as

a word used as the object of focus during meditation.

Another name for trophotropic response is

relaxation response.

A good time to meditate is

before rising.

Which of the following should be avoided before meditating?

All of these should be avoided

Guidelines offered for relaxation techniques in this text are based on

both cognitive and physical issues.

Relaxation techniques for cognitive issues include:

autogenic training

Relaxation techniques for physical issues include:

progressive relaxation.

The ability to switch off irrelevant brain networks and maintain an internal focus is

meditation

The object of focus for meditation should be:

Any of the above

This refers to the use of imagined sounds as the object of focus during meditation.

Nadam

This refers to the use of a word as the object of focus during meditation.

Mantra

This refers to the use of breathing as the object of focus during meditation

Pranayama

This refers to the use of illogical riddles as the object of focus during meditation.

Koan

Which of the following is NOT a requisite of Secular Meditation?

A determined attitude

The object of focus is called the figure, and the objects in the background are called the ground.

True

An early researcher of Zen masters found that they could slow respiration and could control their heart rates.

True

Meditation has been demonstrated to have positive effects on blood pressure, heart rate, and eating disorders.

True

When practicing meditation, it’s a good idea to try meditating in a noisy environment to see if you really know how to relax "under pressure."

False

Trying a relaxation technique for less than one week may not give you adequate practice to know if it’s a technique that is effective for you.

True

Meditation increases blood flow to the brain and decreases blood flow to the legs and arms.

False

There have been no scientific studies of the effects of meditation, only psychological studies.

False

Heart rhythm meditation requires one to experience all emotions simultaneously.

True

Consciousness meditation recognizes the importance of the boundary between the self and others.

False

Herbert Benson’s relaxation response is also known as secular meditation.

True

Regardless of the type of meditation, one of two approaches is used: opening up of attention or focusing of attention.

True

One of the key processes of meditation is learning to separate mind and body.

False

When meditating, try hard to get your muscles to relax.

False

When meditating, you should set an alarm to alert you when 20 minute has passed.

False

Meditation requires an object of focus.

True

Meditation decreases the amount of alpha brain waves.

False

When practicing meditation, it is important to try to relax.

False

It is best to meditate after eating a meal.

False

Research has found that meditators are less anxious than people who do not meditate.

True

Meditation has been shown to effectively treat drug addiction.

True

One of the essential prerequisites for meditation is a quiet environment.

False

Meditation has been found to be effective in decreasing different types of anxiety, including test anxiety.

True

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