Sport Psych Chapter 22

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Which of the following is NOT a negative dimension of friendship as identified by young athletes?

lack of empathy

Gould and Martens found that, on average, children participated for ____ hours per week in their specific sport.


Sport participation for youth peaks at what age?

12 years old

Which of the following statements is (are) true?

The benefits of sport participation depend on the quality of the adult leadership.

Dropout rates for youth sport participants have been estimated to be about what percentage each year?


Which of the following is the number one reason that young athletes give for participating in school and other youth sports?

to have fun

Which of the following is NOT one of the top five reasons given for participating in youth sport?

to make new friends

Which is the major reason that young athletes give for dropping out of sport?

other things to do

According to the swimming study by Gould and colleagues, what percentage of young athletes dropped out of competitive sport because of negative experiences (e.g., too much pressure, no fun)?


Research has indicated that participants in youth sport differ from dropouts in what psychological attribute?

perceived competence

A good way to enhance young athletes’ perceptions of their abilities is to have them

focus on improving their own performance

In the study by Klint and Weiss on former competitive youth gymnasts, what percentage were still participating in gymnastics or in another sport?


The reasons given most often for participating in youth sport are

intrinsic in nature

Approximately how many children under the age of 18 are involved in school and other sport Programs?

45 million

Which of the following statements regarding peer relationships is (are) true?

a. Female participants, as compared to their male counterparts, identify emotional support as a positive aspect of friendship. b. Children who have more positive relationships with peers in physical activity reported more positive feelings toward physical activity.

In reviewing the literature that had reported personal accounts of burnout among young athletes, Gould found which of the following to be important factors associated with the Burnout?

a. overtraining b. parental pressure c. very high self- and other-imposed expectations

The positive "sandwich" approach to correcting errors involves

positive statement, corrective feedback, positive statement

According to recent research on early specialization and participation in competitive sport, elite athletes

start out playing many sports at an early age

Which of the following is NOT a coaching guideline put forth by Smoll and Smith (1980) and Weiss (1991)?

Reward outcome more than effort.

Which of the following is (are) an aspect of the Sport Friendship Quality Scale developed by Weiss and Smith?

a. loyalty and intimacy b. conflict resolution c. self-esteem enhancement and supportiveness

According to the study by Gould and colleagues, what percentage of youth wrestlers displayed high levels (i.e., upper 25%) of precompetitive anxiety?


Which of the following did Orlick and McCaffrey recommend for modifying arousal regulation strategies in children?

a. Keep strategies fun. b. Prepare multiple approaches for the same exercise. c. Use concrete physical strategies.

According to the code of ethics developed by the American Sport Education Program, which of the following is NOT part of a sport parent’s responsibility?

Act as a coach as well as a parent if you know the sport.

According to the study by Coakley on youth sport burnout, which of the following was (were) found to be characteristic of children who have burned out in sport?

a. They viewed themselves only as athletes. b. Coaches and parents made all the important decisions with little input from the young athletes.

Which of the following is (are) NOT among situational variables that cause increased state anxiety in young athletes?

coaching style

Based on research with elite high school wrestlers and distance runners, which of the following are the two major sources of the stress experienced by junior elite athletes?

fear of failure and feelings of inadequacy

A young athlete is "at risk" for developing heightened state anxiety if he has which of the following characteristics?

a. low self-esteem b. frequent worries about failure c. low self-performance expectations

According to research, which of the following statements concerning trait anxiety and young athletes is (are) true?

Young athletes have only slightly elevated levels of trait anxiety.

According to the study by Simon and Martens comparing state anxiety before competitive sports with that before other childhood evaluative activities, the activity with the highest state anxiety levels was

band solo

Based on the research on peer friendships, what implication(s) can you draw for practice?

b. Teamwork and group goals should be emphasized. c. Time should be provided for children to be with their friends.

Smith, Smoll, and Curtis, in phase 2 of their study comparing an experimental group of coaches (using a positive approach) with a control group of coaches, found that players who played for experimental coaches

a. rated their coaches as better teachers b. liked their teammates and coaches more

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