Sport Psychology Unit 2 (Quiz 5)

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Which of the following is NOT a stage in Martens’ model of competition?

social comparison

Which of the following behaviors would not support a cooperative learning environment?

extrinsic rewards emphasized

Which of the following is (are) characteristic of cooperative games?

They require little equipment or money and Players learn from mistakes rather than hide from them.

In the field experiments conducted by Sherif and Sherif, the experimenters first

created strong group identity

In Kelley and Stahelski’s study using the prisoner’s dilemma game, they found that

competitors drew cooperators into competition

True or False: Competitors cause cooperators to compete.


Indicate any principle here that is NOT derived from the psychological studies on competition and cooperation.

People are born either competitive or cooperative.

TRUE or FALSE: Boys play competitive games more frequently than girls and girls play games in predominantly male groups more often than boys play games in predominantly female groups.


According to Johnson and Johnson, appropriate competition has the following characteristics

Everyone must have a reasonable chance to win and the rules must be clear and fair.

In the field experiments by Sherif and Sherif, the only thing that worked to bring the campers back together was

superordinate goals

Deutsch’s study on competition and cooperation found that

Communication patterns differed significantly based on whether subjects were given cooperative or competitive instructions and students receiving cooperative instructions communicated openly and shared information.

Competition and cooperation require similar attributes as noted by Charles Garfield. These include

A strong preparation ethic and a love of challenge and change.

In his study of the effects of a 14-week program of cooperative games, Orlick found that

Kids exposed to cooperative games engaged in three times as much cooperative behavior during free play as did kids in the control group and games played by the control group tended to emphasize individualistic concerns.

One athlete looks forward to competition while another dreads the upcoming event. This is an example of

the subjective competitive situation

Which of the following is a competitive situation according to Martens’ definition of the objective competitive situation?

a runner competing in a 100-yard dash and a swimmer working out with his coach watching him

Coakley defines competition as

a social process that occurs when rewards are distributed on the basis of comparative performance

True or False: Varsity athletes are no different from nonathletes in terms of eventual career success outside of competitive sport.


Competitiveness of athletes appears to be enhanced when

social comparison is high

The key part of Martens’ definition of competition is

social comparison

According to Mariah Burton Nelson

To be a winner, women have to do everything men do, but also be kind, nurturing, non-threatening, pretty, small, FEMININE.

In relation to the subjective competitive situation (stage 2), True or False: Athletes score higher than non athletes in competitive orientation.


Which of the following is NOT a type of competitive orientation measured by the Sport Orientation Questionnaire?

fear-of-failure orientation

According to Coakley, which of the following is (are) characteristic of unstructured youth sport?

Personal involvement in the action is maximized, it provides opportunities to reaffirm friendships, and teams are relatively even.

The first experiment investigating the effects of competition on performance was conducted in 1898 by


The team sports of basketball and football are examples of which of the following classification of games?

cooperative means-competitive ends

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