Sport in World Cultures Test 3

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The author notes that sport development experts worldwide agree that

d. children under 8-years old should not play highly organized sports.

The author points out that in comparison with today’s children, people who grew up during the 1950s and 1960s were more likely to informal sports more often than they played than organized sports.

An overall comparison of informal sports and organized sports shows that

a. informal sports are action-centered while organized sports are rule-centered.

A sign that some children reject structured, adult-controlled sport programs is the

a. increased interest in alternative sports.

Parental involvement in and concern about youth sports have increased because

d. parental moral worth is now associated with the success of children.

Child labor laws in most post-industrial societies prevent adults from using children as sources of financial gain in

b. the film and advertising industries but not in sports.

Different sponsors of youth sport programs have different goals. The programs that are most likely to be inclusive and emphasize overall participation are those

c. sponsored by public, tax-supported community recreation organizations

In organized youth sport programs that emphasize the performance ethic there often is a corresponding emphasis on

c. sport specialization among children

An emphasis on the performance ethic is most likely in programs sponsored by

d. private commercial clubs.

The trend toward privatization in organized youth sports has

a. made youth programs more selective and exclusive.

Which of the following is NOT among the five changes that have encouraged participation in organized youth sports?

a. Many parents today see the world as a dangerous place for their children. b. The expectations for parents today are more demanding than ever before. c. Families with both parents working outside the home is common today. d. Parents know that playing informal games will harm child development. Answer: D

Organized youth sports in the United States were originally developed to teach lower-class boys how to work together peacefully and to help middle-class boys

a. counteract the "feminized" values they learned at home from their mothers.

Developmental research indicates that creating excellent athletes requires that children be put in highly organized and specialized programs as young as possible.


Informal, player-controlled games are more common today than they were one or two generations ago


Informal games are organized to maximize to keep alive the spirit of play.


Children seek out alternative sports because of the joy they have experienced in structured, adult-controlled sport programs.


U.S. parents have become increasingly concerned about the sport participation of their children because parental moral worth depends on effectively controlling their children 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.


An emphasis on the performance ethic is most likely to be found in private commercial clubs where membership and participation fees are costly.


Privatized youth sports programs reproduce the economic and ethnic inequalities that exist in the larger society.


The growth of organized youth sports since the 1950s has been influenced more by television than by changes in family life.


When male athletes engage in physical assaults off- the-field, they are most likely to target people who they define as unworthy of their respect.


Research shows that spectator violence is associated with perceived violence on the field of play


Research shows that boys and men who play power and performance sports learn that brutal body contact should be avoided so they can stay healthy and keep playing.


Commercialization and greed are the primary causes of violence in contact sports


Athletes may be marginalized or punished by other athletes in their sports and if they engage in quasi-criminal or criminal violence.


Rates of violence in sports today are nearly double what they have been at any other time in history.


Aggression and violence both refer to actions that violate laws designed to protect the security of people and their possessions.


Research has shown that spectators are most likely to be violent when they interpret the actions of the players on the field to be


Spectator violence varies with many factors. Which of the following is NOT one of those factors?

a. The location of the event. e. Alcohol consumption by the spectators. f. The importance of the teams as a source of identity for the spectators. g. The personality profiles of regular spectators at an event. Answer: g

The author suggests that violence against women by male athletes is associated with at least five specific aspects of the culture of men’s sports. Which of the following is NOT one of those aspects?

a. Collective hubris that separates athletes from the rest of the community. b. A general failure to hold athletes accountable for violating community norms. c. Support for the view that violence is a useful interpersonal tool. d. Repressed feelings of hostility created by failures on the field. Answer: D

It is difficult to say that playing violent sports causes people to be violent off the field because

a. violent sports may attract people who already have records of being violent.

It is difficult to reduce the injuries that occur in power and performance sports because

a. most serious injuries occur within the rules in these sports.

Research on pain and injury in sports suggests that

b. professional contact and collision sports are dangerous workplaces

Information on violence in women’s contact sports suggests that women are

c. less likely than men to use violence as proof of their sexual identity.

The person who plays the role of "enforcer" on a contact sport team is expected to

b. intimidate and use violence against opponents.

In the culture of heavy contact sports, there is a general norm emphasizing that

d. violence is part of the game.

The author argues that players in noncontact sports are

a. seldom rewarded for aggressive behaviors.

Learning to use violence as a strategy in sports tends to be highest in

b. heavy contact sports

Using violence in sports comes to be defined as "normal" by many people when the ability to "do" violence is seen as

a. a means for males to prove their "manhood."

When playing power and performance sports boys and men learn that

b. being violent will help them avoid labels such as "wimp" and "fag."

Research shows that boys and men who play power and performance sports learn that they will be

c. rejected by peers if they use borderline violence in sport

Rates of violence are higher in men’s sports than in women’s sports because

a. violence is tied to issues of masculinity for many men in sports.

Instead of saying that commercialization causes violence, the author states that it is more accurate to say that

d. commercialization enables more people to play violent sports.

A study by Nancy Theberge found that elite women ice hockey players have a difficult time controlling all forms of brutal body contact in their sport because

b. they love the physicality of ice hockey

Deviant overconformity is associated with some forms of violence in sports. The roots of this violence are grounded in

c. the desire to gain reaffirmation for one’s identity as an athlete.

Athletes may be marginalized or formally punished if they engage in

b. quasi-criminal or criminal violence

Some forms of violence are accepted widely by athletes and even used as a basis for gaining status among fellow athletes. These include

c. borderline violence and brutal body contact.

The chapter is organized partly around a typology of violence developed by Mike Smith. Which of the following is NOT one of the categories in his typology?

a. Criminal violence. b. Borderline violence. c. Intentional violence. d. Brutal body contact. Answer: C

Social historians suggest that violence remains an issue in sports because

a. sports are designed to create tension and excitement

Studies show that in comparison with sports today, the tournaments and sport activities in medieval and early modern Europe were

d. more violent.

As defined in the chapter, intimidation refers to

c. words, gestures, or actions that threaten violence or aggression.

Research findings as well as popular ideas about sports and violence are often full of contradictions. One of the reasons for this is that

c. all sports are lumped together regardless of their purpose or organization.

As defined in the chapter, aggression refers to

d. verbal or physical actions intended to control or do harm to another person.

When violence occurs in connection with widespread rejection of norms it often is described as anarchy; when it occurs in connection with blind obedience to norms and autocratic leaders, it is described as

c. fascism.

As defined in the chapter, violence refers to

a. using excessive physical force that can cause harm or destruction.

Which of the following characterizes the state of gender equity in US high schools and colleges?

c. Neither high schools nor colleges have achieved equity.

When Title IX became law in 1972

b. men received about 99% of public school the resources devoted to sports

The U.S. government law, Title IX, prohibits gender discrimination in

c. any educational institution receiving federal money

Which of the following is NOT a reason for increased sport participation rates among girls and women?

a. New publicly funded child care programs. b. New opportunities for sport participation. c. The global women’s rights movement. d. The health and fitness movement. Answer: a

The most dramatic change in the world of sport over the past two generations has been the increase in the number of

d. girls and women who play sports around the world.

Sports are culturally important in many societies, because they

c. celebrate masculine virility and power and reproduce hegemonic masculinity.

The history of "fem testing" in the Olympics and other international sports shows that

b. human bodies don’t fit neatly into two distinct sex categories.

Most female athletes today manage gender issues by

a. using a "reformed apologetic" to appear both tough and feminine.

To avoid appease men and discourage men from seeing them as invaders of male spaces in sports, female athletes during the 20th century

d. chose to call themselves "ladies" when they played sports.

The myths surrounding women’s participation in sports during the first half of the 20th century

c. were widely accepted because they were seen to protect women’s bodies.

Until the 1980s few girls and women played sports because they had no interest in physical activities.


A network TV sport announcer refers to "The World Cup" and The Women’s World Cup." This vocabulary suggests that the announcer views sport in terms that are

b. male-identified

A woman coach is hired in an all-male athletic department. The search committee concluded that she was qualified because she coached like a man. This shows that the athletic department is

a. male-dominated.

When sport worlds are male-centered it means that

a. men and men’s lives are the expected focus of attention and stories

When sport worlds are male-identified it means that

c. people assume that it involves men and is about men.

When sport worlds are male-dominated it means that

d. ability and qualifications are associated with manhood and men.

The dominant gender ideology associated with mainstream sports tends to

a. celebrate traditional ideas about masculinity.

During times when there are struggles between gender defenders and gender benders, most people

c. find it difficult to give up ideas and beliefs they use to make sense of the world.

Homophobia will continue to exist in some form in a society as long as

a. the two sex system is widely accepted.

The diagram of the two-category classification model indicates that

b. men have a better chance of gaining power in society than women have.

One of the problems with a two-category classification model is that it

d. leaves no normative space for those who don’t fit into either category

The diagram of the two-category classification model indicates that

c. gays and lesbians are considered out of normative bounds.

The gender ideology used in many cultures assumes a two-category model for classifying sex and gender. When such a model is used, people

b. ignore real physiological variations among males and among females.

Dominant gender ideology in many societies today is organized around three ideas and beliefs. Which of the following is NOT one of the ideas or beliefs?

a. men are more naturally suited to possess power and be leaders than women are. b. women are destined by fate to be inferior to men in family structures. c. human beings are either male or female in terms of sex. d. forms of sexuality other than heterosexuality is considered abnormal or deviant Answer: b

The author of our book claims that achieving full gender equity in sports requires

c. changes in orthodox gender ideology.

Research on media audiences shows that

a. men and women who live together often watch sports together.

Most media coverage of sports today represents the interests of

a. those who control and profit from sports.

Tensions between elite athletes and sportswriters has intensified as

b. salary differences between athletes and sportswriters have increased

It you regularly watch women’s sports on network TV, the sport you see most often is


Golf and tennis are frequently covered sports on television because they

c. attract revenues from companies hoping to reach high-income consumers.

The amount of news space given to the coverage of sports in major city newspapers is

b. about 25 percent.

The media most dependent on sports are

c. newspapers and television.

According to data, rights fees for major sports have

b. increased steadily through 2013.

According to data, the rights fees for the Olympic Games have

d. increased consistently and dramatically since the 1970s

Rights fees for certain sports have increased dramatically. This has

b. increased the profitability of certain commercial sports.

Research on video games that simulate real time sports shows that

b. gamers often create their own narratives that fit their interests in sports.

Fantasy sport leagued give media sport consumers an opportunity to put themselves in the position of

a. an owner of a sport team.

At this point in time, people generally use online access to

a. extend and complement what other media already provide.

The Internet is different from traditional television in that it

d. gives users control that can radically alter their media experiences.

New media, including all digital and social media, have impacted sports primarily by

b. altering relationships in the production and consumption of sport content.

Nearly all television broadcasts of sport events are sponsored by

c. large capitalist corporations and other for profit businesses.

The images and commentary in a televised representation of a sport event are

d. carefully edited and selected for many different reasons.

When the media are privately owned and depend on audience ratings, televised sport events are "re-produced" in a way that usually emphasizes

a. forms of soap opera storytelling.

In the case of sports, those who control the media influence sports because

c. they decide which sports and events to cover and how they are covered.

Most media content is tied to power relations in the sense that they

b. emphasize images and messages consistent with dominant ideologies.

The people who make media content decisions as they select the images and messages to be re-presented to us are best described as

a. image and message "filters".

When media are privately owned, their major interest is profit making; when media are controlled and operated by the state, their major interest is

a. shaping values and providing a public service.

Which of the following is NOT provided by the media?

a. Entertainment. b. Interpretation. c. Information. d. Deregulation. Answer: d

Which of the following is an accurate statement about sports and the media?

a. All media coverage involves selective re-presentations of sports.

The chapter on sports and the media is based on the assumption that

c. media content informs people’s lives and social worlds.

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