Sports Management Final

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Youth athletic participation in the US was first recognized during what time period

…Before the signing of the Constitution

The Native Americans played a game that the French Jesuit priests called


Formally organized athletic participation, particularly those programs run under the auspices of secondary educational institutions, emerged during what time period

…During the mid-nineteenth century

The interscholastic football association was formed in 1888 by

..Students from several Boston-area public and private schools

The progressive movement promoted athletics as a tool to

…Prepare for the rigors of modern life and democracy and to assimilate immigrants into American culture

During and immediately following WWI, schools sports for males were promoted as a tool to

…Train students for the armed forces

Educators took control of athletics from students during which time period

…During and immediately following WWI

Historically, the most prominent private agency (or non-school) to promote youth athletics was


The administration of school and youth sports, in particular the final authority in determining athletic eligibility, is primarily performed by

…Local and state governing bodies/athletic associations

The final authority in determining athlete eligibility

…State athletic associations

State athletic associations are

…The organizing body for state championships and competitions

Which initial national youth league organization was founded in 1939 as a three-team league

…Little league baseball

The little league governance structure

…Organized on four levels: local, district, regional, and international

Knowledge of injury and physical training, equipment knowledge, and bus-driving skills are highly recommended for this position


Most school districts and state associations require medical personnel and emergency medical transportation to be present at

…Football games or other high-risk contact sports

Although employed by the school or league, the person filling this job is usually considered an independent contractor because the school or league exhibits no supervisory capacity over them


Which of the following is usually characteristics of an official/judge and their job

…Work on a part-time basis because compensation is not sufficient to cover full-time employment, submit their income figures to the IRS, have the authority to postpone or cancel games due to inclement and dangerous weather situations

Within a high school’s annual athletic expenses, costs associated with coaches can account for at least what percentage of the budget


Human resource management involves

…Analysis of compensation and consideration of employee wellness and relations; performing a job analysis and writing position descriptions

Coaching certification involves

…Usage of independent organizations to ensure competency in basic coaching and educational skills

What concerns do critics have with children participating in highly organized youth athletics

…Let kids be kids, growing up too soon, higher risk for injury

Predominantly, the largest expense item in a high school athletic budget is

…Coach salaries

As financial circumstances for schools and leagues become more strained, these job areas are being asked to perform more fundraising activities

…Coaches and administrators

The main concerns regarding corporate sponsorship involvement in school and youth sports include

Most sex discrimination challenges in high school athletics have been based on

…Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972; state or US Constitution equal protection clauses; state equal rights amendments

The NFHS endorses the concept of gender equity by

Which of the following youth programs would not have to be Title IX compliant

…Private basketball league

Increased opportunities for participation in sports for students with disabilities has been by

What are the concerns with use of performance enhancing drug use

…Infertility, cancer, psychological effects, anger

The primary responsibility for any administrator when dealing with risk management should be to

…Inform his or her staff of the risks and dangers inherent in their profession

The first intercollegiate athletic contest was

…Crew race between Harvard and Yale

The first intercollegiate athlete contest was held in what time period


The initial collegiate athletic contests were

…Student-run events

The "power" schools during the initial collegiate athletic contests were the

…Ivy League schools

The intercollegiate football association was formed to regulate

…Playing and eligibility rules

The first intercollegiate athletic coach was

…William Wood

The university president was a pioneer at the turn of the century in reforming college football and the number of deaths and injuries that were occurring

…President McCracken of New York University

The NCAA took on its present day name in 1912. The birth of the NCAA, though, actually occurred in 1905 and the initial name of the organization was the

…Intercollegiate Athletic Association of the United States

What was the prevailing reason for the push for reform in college football in the late 1800s and early 1900s

…The number of injuries and deaths occurring

The Knight commission was formed in 1989 to propose a reform agenda for intercollegiate athletics. All of the following were legislative rules passed by the NCAA from recommendations proposed by the Knight commission except

…Conference alignment

Which of the following is a true statement regarding women’s participation in collegiate sports

…The very first intercollegiate sport competition for women was in the sport of basketball in 1892, but the rules were changed from a men’s game to make it more appropriate for women

Under the new organizational structure of the NCAA which took effect in August 1997, which NCAA membership division uses a board of directors

…Division I

Which of the following is not one of the three main components in the basic purpose of the NCAA

…The collegiate model of athletics in which students participate as an avocation, balancing their academic, social and athletics experiences; The highest levels of integrity and sportsmanship; The pursuit of excellence in both academics and athletics.

Which of the following best describes the difference between a major and secondary violation

…Major: provides a school with an extensive recruiting or competitive advantage; secondary, provides a minimal recruiting or competitive advantage and may be inadvertent or isolated in nature

Which group determines responsibility and assesses penalties for NCAA infractions?

…Committee on infractions

Which of the following is not one of the philosophy principles followed by Division I institutions:

…Maximize the number and variety of athletic opportunities available to students

Which of the following is a false statement regarding NCAA member conferences and their institutions.

…NCAA member conferences are allowed to set conference rules that can be less restrictive than an NCAA rule as long as the conference makes sure the member institutions abide by that rule

Reasons why schools decide to change conference affiliations or join a conference include all of the following except:

…Wanting to move from D III level to the Division 1-A level

When asked what they looked for in the hiring process, athletic directors in a 1992 study said they placed more emphasis on:

…The applicant’s educational background

Which best describes the coaching profession at the Division III level

…An ability to wear many hats as they may be asked to teach or perform many administrative duties on top of coaching

Which best describes the athletic director profession at the Division III level?

…An ability to wear many hats as they may be asked to perform many administrative duties

Which of the following is a false statement regarding Division I athletic directors?

…Supports philosophy of competitiveness, generating revenue through athletics, and national success.

Students interested in pursuing a position with student-athlete services in an athletic department may find coursework in which area helpful to their preparation:

…Educational counseling courses

Which position/area of responsibility oversees adherence to NCAA and conference rules and regulations:

…Compliance director

What has been the most prevailing issue affecting collegiate athletic departments over the past couple of decades?

…Title IX

Which is not an allowable method an athletic department may use when out of compliance with Title IX standards regarding participation opportunities?

…Showing that a lack of funding, institutional financial limitations, prevents the athletic department from complying with Title IX

The National Wrestling Coaches Association has been concerned about the effects Title IX has had including:

…The discrimination that male student athletes are experiencing as a result of Title IX directly causing a reduction in men’s sports

Which percentage accurate portrays the representation of African Americans working as athletic directors and head coaches


APR stands for:

…Academic Progress Rate

Approximately what percent of male athletes reported wagering on sporting events?


What is the only sports league to ban corporate ownership?


In professional sports, the Commissioner has discretionary power in all of the following areas except:

…Rule making

Strikes are much more disruptive in pro sports than in mainstream business because:

…Players have unique talents and cannot be replaced with temporary replacement workers

As a general rule, league revenues include which of the following?

…Revenue from national TV and radio contracts, league-wide licensing, and league-wide sponsorship programs

The response to an impasse in labor negotiations is usually:

…A lockout or strike

A collective bargaining agreement covers:

…Wages, hours, terms and conditions of employment

What percentage of NBA television revenues and merchandise sales come from foreign markets?


In 2005 how many international players declared themselves eligible for the NBA draft?


What league has made the most strives in the global market?

…National Basketball League

Many individuals in the management of professional sports leagues are not fans of salary caps because they:

…Routinely force teams to cur veteran players earning higher salaries to get under the ceiling of the cap,and routinely provide teams with spending floors so low-revenue teams are prevented from cutting salaries in order to stay competitive

What are the two most important factors in determining a sports franchise’s value?

…The degree of league revenue sharing and the stability of a league’s labor situation

Although the NFL bans public ownership, it has made an exception for what team?

…The Green Bay Packers

What league first adopted the Commissioner to govern the best interests of the sport?


League think is the concept

…Introduced by Pete Rozelle that owners needed to do what was best for the league as opposed to their individual franchises

The NFL Trust is responsible for which of the following activities?

… the group will assist players in areas such as brain and body evaluations; health and nutrition; physical fitness; career transition; and financial education. All of the services will be provided with no out-of-pocket costs to players

What is the current going rate for a franchise in the NFL?

…1 billion

Which of the following is not a revenue that is shared under league revenue sharing systems?

…Luxury seating revenue

Cross-ownership is

…Ownership of more than one sport franchise

Professional golfers must earn a right to compete on the PGA Tour annually. How do professional golfers qualify for the PGA Tour?

…Tour card

According to the textbook, which of the following is a true statement regarding diversity in professional sports?

…In 2003, the NBA and MLB welcomed their first minority owners

After the 1996 Olympics, a few women’s professional sports leagues emerged. What women’s sport was not among those to become a professional sport league?

…Women’s fast pitch softball

While the NFL bans corporate ownership it has made one exception. For what team was its exception?

…San Francisco 49s

Who was the first Commissioner hired in all of professional sports?

…Judge Kennesaw Mountain Landis of Major League Baseball

The NBA has the broadest representation of foreign players on its rosters. In the 2005-2006 season, for example, your textbook notes that opening night rosters included ___ players from ____ different countries and territories.

…82; 38

As of 2007, how many professional women’s football teams existed in North America?


For what NFL owners was the cross-ownership ban in the NFL eased?

…Seattle Seahawks

What league operated for a number of years without a permanent commissioner?

The privileges granted to owners that come with team ownership are called.

…Franchise rights

________________ has emerged as a method for leagues to establish themselves in a manner that avoids antitrust liability and creates centralized fiscal control.

…The labor exemption

John Montgomery Ward founded the first baseball players union in 1890 to fight what practice(s) by baseball team owners?

…Salary caps, reserve system, practice of selling players with the players receiving a share of profits

Approximately how many athletes are in the four (4) major sports leagues?


In the four major sports leagues how many agents are registered or certified with the respective players associations


Who is often called the first sports agent:

…BCC Pyle

The two players who staged a joint holdout for a higher salary were?

…Sandy Koufax and Don Drysdale

One of the first agents to represent individual athletes and a pioneer of the sport marketing industry is:

…Mark McCormack

The first players association to negotiate the right for players to be represented by agents was the:

…Major League Baseball Players Association

A collective bargaining agreement is:

…A contract for all players in the league

The reserve system in Major League Baseball was:

…A rule that limited a free and open market for players

Which one of the following companies is not currently one of the three (3) largest sport management companies?


The three models for a sport agency business does not include

…A players association and a sport management firm

Which one does not describe the ways that Players associations support players?

Which of the following does not describe the functions performed by a sport agent?

…Negotiating and collective bargaining contract for the player or coach

Which of the below factors that influences an athlete’s market value is the least significant?

The Professional Golf Association (PGA) restricts individual golfers from entering into endorsement unless they are:

…In good taste

Five key problems in the sport agency profession do not include

…The agents lack of understanding the rules of the game

The most devastating problem that an athlete may have with his agent is probably:

…Income mismanagement

Tank Black is:

…A football agent who was sentenced to five years in prison for swindling NFL players he represented

A conflict of interest occurs most probably if:

…An agent’s own interests are furthered over that of an athlete’s interests

What is the most likely unethical behavior to occur by agents in college athletics?

…Overly aggressive client recruitment

How many agents has the NFLPA disciplined in recent years?


How many states regulate agents?


What is SPARTA?

…A federal law signed by President George W. Bush regulating the conduct of sport agents

What is UAAA?

…Uniform agent regulation law

The MLBPA limits agent’s fees to what percentage of the player’s income?

…No limit to fees charged

One of the significant factors in the growth of sports agencies was:

…Development of competing leagues

Who was the "endorsement king of the pre- Michael Jordan era?"

…Arnold Palmer

All of the following are objectives of person-centered branding EXCEPT:

…Branding based on who someone is as a person rather than on their performance

When negotiating an endorsement contract the agent should be certain to maintain the client’s exclusive rights and control over his or her:

…Image and other endorsements

An athlete earning a multimillion-dollar salary should adopt a:


An agent must help an athlete with the transition from a professional playing career as an athlete and with

…Post career planning and retirement

When the Dayton Dragons opened the gates of their new field in April of 2000 with what the team dubbed the "world’s largest outdoor billboard" they were using the strategy of:

…Dominant identity

The continuing influx of new sport leagues, teams, and events has created:

…More and more options for companies large and small to engage in sport sponsorships; the growing need for sport organizations to think outside the box; the increasingly competitive sport marketplace for sponsorship dollars

The most successful sport organizations in attracting and retaining sponsorship partners are those that do all of the following except:

…Sign as many sponsors as possible

For the major professional sport leagues and associations, sponsorships involve:

…A variety of marketing mix elements designed to send messages to a targeted audience

Sponsorship provides a company with all of the following except:

…Opportunities to receive revenue back from the team or league based on success on the field/court

Which of the following has been described as a watershed in the evolution of sport sponsorship?

…Los Angeles Olympic Games

Based on corporate sponsorship involvement, which Olympic Games was able to turn a profit for the host city?

…Los Angeles

The man behind the success of the new commercial mind-set brought to the Los Angeles Olympics was:

…Peter Ueberroth

The "2-2-1 Plan" instituted by Major League Baseball and its baseball commissioner Peter Ueberroth did which of the following:

…Required companies to commit 2 million in advertising, 2 million in promotion spending, and 1 million in cash or in kind fees annually; required al sponsors to commit to MLB for no less than three years

Reasons for the tremendous growth in sport sponsorship over the past two decades include:

…The commercial success of the LA olympics, the increased media interest in sport, sponsorship being viewed as a way for companies to break through the clutter of traditional advertising

Targeted sponsorships enable corporate marketers to reach:

…Reach specific groups that have similar demographics, psychographics, or geographic commonality, reach specific segments, such as heavy users, research shareholders and investors

One major reason why Golden Flake Snack Foods selected the Southeastern Conference (SEC) as a

…Female and family demographic

PepsiCo’s Mountain Dew brand has built a sponsorship franchise with Dew Tour specifically to reach the:

…Younger generations

Today’s sport sponsorship can be described as:

…A discipline involving serious research, large investments, and strategic objectives in some measurable way

Return on investment (ROI) in the sport sponsorship world is defined as:

…Meeting the company’s specific marketing and sales objectives in some measurable way

The concept requiring that the sponsor commit financial resources in support of its sponsorship through promotion and advertising that thematically includes the sport property’s imagery is known as:


Sales promotions in sport sponsorships are designed to:

…Stimulate immediate product demand

Sales promotions may be aimed at

…INcreasing brand awareness, broadening the sales distribution channels for a company’s product or service, getting new consumers to sample a company’s product or service

No other sport has utilized in-stadium promotion as widely as:


Continuity promotions refer to the concept of:

…requires fans to attend multiple games in order to receive full promotion (ex. Complete Team Card Set)

The success of in-venue promotions varies widely based on a number of factors including:

…Value added benefits, traditional giveaways, continuity promotions, day of promotion, opponent, perceived quality, success rate

A cereal company activates its NASCAR sponsorship by offering consumers a free mini-car for consumers who purchase specially marked boxes. This is an example of what type of promotion:


One of the most effective sales promotion tools often used with a new product to induce consumers to try a product is:


The joining together of two or more companies to capitalize on a sponsorship is known as:


Which of the following are typical of the contractual commitments made by sport sponsors?

Which type of sponsorship platform would be more appropriate for larger, national companies with large financial resources

…Governing body sponsorship

Which type of sponsorship platform would be more appropriate for local or regional companies or companies with smaller marketing budgets?

…Team sponsorship

One of the fastest-growing sponsorship platforms is:

…Facility sponsorship

In measuring return-on-investment (ROI) from sport sponsorships, companies have used all of the following methods except:

…Qscores Scale

More and more corporations are directing a portion of their sport sponsorship spending to ethnic marketing because of:

…Growth of Hispanic population, ESPN Deportes

______________________ is the attempt by a person or organization to benefit from media


_________ are groups and individuals that have a stake in an organization.


Of the following, who are stakeholders?

…Media, fans sponsors

In times of crisis, why is the Internet a useful tool for a sport communications practitioner?

…Potential to reach largest audience

The three disciplines Integrated Marketing Communications combines are:

…Advertising, marketing, public relations

Which of these statements about community relations is true?

…The development of substantive programs to benefit charitable causes, educational and outreach programs in an organization’s area of business

A video news release (VNR) is:

…A video segment made to look like a news report, but is instead created by a PR firm, advertising agency, marketing firm, corporation, or government agency

______________ combines elements of computing, technology, telecommunications, and content to create products and services to be used interactively by consumers and business users.

…New media industry

An __________________ is an interchange of information between two or more parties that has a specific purpose or goal.


According to Neilsen/NetRatings, ____ % of active home Web users connected to the Internet via broadband.

According to Neilsen/NetRatings, sports internet sites reach _____ % of the active online population.

According to Neilsen/NetRatings, sports internet sites reach approximately ___ million active online visitors.


A ______________ is a basic interpretive mechanism to let people know what an organization is doing and are sent out to editors and reporters in hopes of stimulating favorable stories about their organizations.

…Press release

Electronic ________________ sent via e-mail, as compared with printed versions, are generally less costly, easier to produce, more timely, and can include additional links to other Web-based information.


One of the most recent trends in public relations activities by sport teams, leagues, players associations, and college athletics is government relations. Government relations is another term for

…Lobbying of state and federal officials

The success rate of a direct marketing campaign is where a positive response comes from approximately ___ % of respondents.


_________________ is information placed in the media by an identified sponsor that pays for the time or space. It is a controlled method of placing messages in the media.


Choosing the correct medium to place advertising requires a thorough examination of each potential outlet’s ability to reach the most people fitting a target audience’s demographic profile. This is known as

…Media planning

_________________ is, according to Seitel (2001), the symbiosis of advertising, marketing, and public relations.

…Integrated marketing communications

A ___________ is a group of key individuals such as the president, general manager/athletic director, director of communications, director of marketing, director of finance, and legal counsel who are responsible for effectively managing a crisis.

…Crisis team

_____________ is created to reinforce an organization’s brand imagery in the minds of consumers.

…Media buyer

________________ aim to encourage consumers to do something, such as buy tickets.

…Call-to-action ads

Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA) sets the parameters for providing personal academic and medical information to the media. Which of the following statements is not a true statement regarding FERPA?

…Also known as the Buckley Amendment, FERPA sets the parameters for providing personal, academic, and medical information to the media, FERPA requires that student athletes at universities that receive federal funding consent to the release of their academic and medical information to non-university personnel, such as college conferences and the media

Why is it said that a video news release (VNR) is worth the price of production and distribution?

…Summary or press release that is edited for broadcast, making it more attractive for a TV producer to air

_________________ contain all the statistical information and biographical information about two teams competing in a game, both from an individual and team perspective.

…Media Notes Packages

A/an _____________ can help a sport organization decide how its advertising dollars can be effectively spent in the media of TV, print, and the internet.

…Media buyer

One of the most overlooked forms of communication is internal communications. Internal communications involve

…Daily/weekly e-mail from the president, athletic director or general manager

What statement below is not a true one regarding sport communications?

…Defined as all methods used by a sport organization to proactively deliver its key messages to a diverse universe of constituencies

Sport communication professionals may find themselves or their organizations in some legal trouble if they commit ________________ in the course of sharing "news" with a representative of the media.


The financial success of a sport organization and the media are inextricably linked. In fact some sports teams are in fact owned by media conglomerates. Which of the following is not owned by a media conglomerate?

…The Bost Red Sox

Alexander Graham Bell first demonstrated the telephone in what year?


In 1888, German physicist Heinrich Hertz published the results of an experiment proving that:

…Radio waves could be generated, transmitted and detected

Guglielmo Marconi patented what device in 1896?

…A wireless transmission system commonly called the radio

The first commercial radio broadcast was


In 1938 what team prevailed in a lawsuit against a radio station who had broadcast their games without permission?

…Pittsburg Pirates

What two men dominated the growth of sport broadcasting in the 1960s and beyond?

…Roone Arledge and Alvin Pete Rozelle

The Sports Broadcasting Act of 1961

…Granted professional sports immunity from antitrust actions regarding the pooling of broadcast rights

The NFL’s annual television revenues are over:

…25 billion

Who coined the phrase "the thrill of victory and the agony of defeat."

…Roone Arledge

In 1970 Monday Night Football debuted. It was a revolutionary concept because it was the first sports broadcast to

…package sports as entertainment, have three announcers in the broadcast both

Which term does not describe a typical rights arrangement?

…Shared exclusivity

CPM stands for:

…Cost Per Thousand

What federal agency, which was created in 1934, currently regulates the communications industry?


A television program’s "rating" represents:

…The percentage of TV households in the survey universe tuned into the program

A television program’s "share" represents

…The percentage of TV households watching TV at the time

Cume is

…Cumulative audience over time

The sports audience is on average:

…Typically made up of 60-70% men

The Arena Football League and NBC Sports agreed to

…pool and share costs and profits from telecasts of games

The YES network is

…owned by the New York Yankees, and it is a 24 hour sports network

Broadcasters say that revenue sharing is advantageous to them because

…Frees them from financial burdens, forces tams and leagues to become active partners with a vested interested in marketing and promoting the game, shares the risk of the venue

A haphazard broadcast has what effect?

…It reflects badly on the team, it alienates the audience, and it results in less advertising revenue and lower rights fees

The NBA’s television revenues for 2002 were

…618 million dollars

College Sports programs help ease the financial burden of their broadcast partners by:

…Underwriting production costs and travel expenses

A two-hour basketball broadcast can be professionally produced for as little as:


CBS paid what staggering amount of money to televise March Madness?

…6 billion dollars

The leading broadcast media research firm is

…The AC Nielsen Company

How many households in the Unites States have televisions?


What sporting event generates the largest television audience on a world scale?

…World cup soccer

A 22 rating for a television program means that it was viewed in how many homes in the Unites States?

…23.474 million

Today in the United States what percentage of homes are hooked up to cable television?


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