Sociology Final Chapter 7

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"Crime" differs from "deviance" in that crime ________

refers to a violation of norms enacted into law.

According to Durkheim, functions of deviance include ________

The idea that responding to deviance promotes social unity

A judge orders that an offender be sentenced to prison for a short time, with most of the sentence served on probation. This sentence reflects a policy called ________

shock probation.

According to Robert Merton’s strain theory, how would you classify a low-paid, yet compulsively conforming bank teller who never seems to want to get ahead but never seems to do anything wrong?


Cloward and Ohlin extended Merton’s theory of deviance, stating that crime ________

reflects both limited legitimate opportunity as well as accessible illegitimate opportunity.

Criminal statistics gathered by the Federal Bureau of Investigation reflect ________

offenses known to the police.

Feminist theory states that gender figures into the study of deviance because ________

every society in the world applies stronger normative controls to females than to males.

In legal terms, a crime is composed of which two components?

The act and criminal intent

Of all the property crimes discussed in the chapter, one crime occurs far more than all the others. Which one is it?


One of the social foundations of deviance is that ________

deviance exists only in relation to cultural norms.

Reducing prison overcrowding, the costs of dealing with offenders, and helping offenders avoid the stigma of incarceration are all advantages of ________

community-based corrections.

The concept "retrospective labeling" refers to the process of ________

interpreting someone’s past consistent with present deviance.

The correct view of the role of biology in causing people to commit crimes is that ________

biological factors may have a real but small effect in causing some people to commit crimes.

The likelihood a person will be arrested for a street crime rises sharply ________

during the late teenage years.

Using a Marxist approach, Steven Spitzer claims that prime targets for deviant labeling include ________

people who try to take the property of others.

Durkheim claimed that deviance is a

normal element of society that affirms cultural norms and values

Merton’s strain theory explains deviance in terms of society’s cultural goals and ______________________________________________

means available to achieve them.

Labeling theory claims

that deviance depends less on what someone does than on how others react to that behavior.

Sutherland’s differential association theory links

deviance to how much others encourage or discourage such behavior.

Hirschi’s control theory states

that imagining the possible consequences of deviance often discourages such behavior

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