Sociology Exam 3

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What term is used by sociologists to describe a group that is set apart from others because of physical differences that have taken on social significance?

racial group

Characteristics of national origin or distinctive cultural patterns are used primarily by a society to set apart
minority groups.
ethnic groups.
racial groups.
polarization groups.

ethnic groups

A minority group is a group

whose members have significantly less control over their own lives than the members of a dominant group.

In sociological terms, members of a minority group

all of these

Which of the following is not considered a minority group in the U.S.?
Native-American women
African-American men
White men
Jewish-American women

White men

Sociologists have identified five basic properties—unequal treatment, physical or cultural traits, ascribed status, solidarity, and in-group marriage—to describe

minority groups

In 2100, white non-Hispanics will make up what percentage of the population following the Census estimates?


Which of the following statements about racial groups in the U.S. is true?

all of these

Ethnocentrism refers to

the tendency to assume that one’s own culture and way of life are superior to all others.

Racism is defined as

a belief that one race is supreme and that all others are innately inferior.

When racism prevails in a society, members of subordinate groups generally experience

all of these

Which of the following victim statuses may motivate a hate crime?

all of these

The use of the principle of race neutrality to defend a racially unequal status quo is referred to as

color-blind racism.

Prejudice is to discrimination as

attitude is to behavior

An invisible barrier that blocks the promotion of a qualified individual in a work environment because of the individual’s gender, race, or ethnicity is known as

a glass ceiling

Institutional discrimination is the

denial of opportunities and equal rights to individuals or groups that results from the normal operations of society.

The term "racial group" is used to describe a group that is set apart from others because of obvious cultural distinctions.


The "one-drop rule" stipulated that if a person had even a single drop of "Indian blood", that person was viewed as Indian.


In the view of sociologists, the distinction between racial and ethnic minorities is clear-cut.


Which sociological perspective views race from the macrolevel and purports the economic structure as a central factor in the exploitation of minority groups?

Conflict perspective

An approach to racism which emphasizes that racism keeps minorities in low-paying jobs, thereby supplying the capitalist ruling class with a pool of cheap labor, is based on the work of which classical theorist?

Karl Marx

A sociologist argues that the capitalist ruling class is willing to tolerate high rates of illegal immigration because these immigrants serve as a cheap labor pool. This sociologist is most likely to draw upon

exploitation theory

The practice of assuming that people who fit certain descriptions are likely to be engaged in illegal activities is referred to as

racial profiling

Acts of racial profiling are

initiated by law enforcement officers.

Interactionists would be concerned about the impact of racial profiling on

intergroup relations.

Which sociologist suggested that interracial coalitions would most likely reduce racial and ethnic stereotyping and prejudice?

William Julius Wilson

Genocide refers to the process of

deliberately and systematically killing an entire people or the members of a nation.

The contact hypothesis suggests that if an African-American boss and her Italian employee work together for several years in the same office, they will become more prejudiced toward one another.


Which of the following equations represents assimilation?

A + B + C → A

Which of the following would be an example of segregation?

confining Japanese Americans to relocation camps during World War II

Which of the following terms refers to a political philosophy, promoted by many younger Blacks in the 1960s, which supported the creation of Black-controlled political and economic institutions?

Black Power

The civil rights movement of the 1960s had little impact on

institutional discrimination.

How many of the recognized Indian tribes are involved in gambling ventures since Congress passed the Indian Gambling Regulatory Act in 1988?

about one-third

Which of the following group makes up the largest percentage of the Asians and Pacific Islanders group?


Which racial or ethnic group has the highest rate of welfare dependency in the U.S.?

Southeast Asians

Which of the following terms refers to first-generation Japanese immigrants?


Which sociologist did fieldwork on women in the roller derby?

Nancy Finley

Expecting a woman to be nuturing would be an example of:

gender roles

Which of the following terms refers to expectations regarding the proper behavior, attitudes, and activities of males and females?

gender roles

Which of the following would be a violation of the male gender role?

Joining a knitting circle

A small body of scholarship suggests that traditional gender roles may be disadvantageous to men in that

All of these

Which sociologist discussed the concept and coined the term "multiple masculinities"?

R.W. Connell

In a transgendered person the following is true of gender:

Gender and physical identity do not match.

Functionalists would view gender roles in which of the following ways?

Gender roles are necessary to keep the family in balance.

According to Talcott Parsons and Robert Bales, the expressive role is performed by


Although it does not explicitly endorse traditional gender roles, which sociological perspective implies that dividing tasks between spouses is beneficial for the family unit?

functionalist perspective

Which perspective suggests that men may originally have become powerful in preindustrial times because their size, physical strength, and freedom from childbearing duties allowed them to dominate women physically, but in contemporary societies such considerations are not so important?

conflict perspective

Some radical feminist theorists view the oppression of women in male-dominated societies as


Which sociological perspective has influenced the creation of the feminist perspective the most?

conflict perspective

Who argued that women’s subjugation coincided with the rise of private property during industrialization?

Friedrich Engels

Which sociological perspective emphasizes that patterns of male dominance in cross-sex conversations that express themselves in day-to-day exchanges represent one more battleground in the struggle for gender equality as women try to get a word in edgewise?

interactionist perspective

Which sociologist coined the term "matrix of domination"?

Patricia Hill Collins

Which of the following would be included in the matrix of domination?

all of these

Which of the following images is commonly used by the media to portray Black women?

all of these

Which of the following would be an example of men traditionally "doing masculinity"?

opening a door for a female

Which of the following statements is true?

In 2009, six of the nation’s 50 states had a female governor.

Muslim countries are exceedingly varied and complex and do not often fit the stereotypes created by the Western media.


The overwhelming majority of people begin with a definite sex and quickly receive societal messages about how to behave.


Most people do not display strictly "masculine" or "feminine" qualities all the time.


The ideology that one sex is superior to the other is known as


A scientific company lays off employees by seniority. The majority of the female employees had been hired in the last 10 years and were educated as part of the push to get more females into math and sciences. This would be an example of

institutional discrimination.

Women do the majority of housework in which of the following?

All countries

Which of the following statements about the status of women throughout the world is true?

All of these

If a male physician earned $140,000 in 2004, his female counterpart is compensated how much for the


Women earn what percent of every dollar a man earns?


Though male nurses, grade school teachers, and librarians may experience some scorn in the larger society, within the position.

they more encouraged to become administrators.

Which of the following terms refers to an advantage that men have when employed in female-dominated occupations?

Glass escalator

The "second shift", which refers to the double burden borne by many women—work outside the home followed by child care and housework—was the subject of analysis by

Arlie Hochschild.

Where was the feminist movement born in the U.S.?

Seneca Falls, NY

Which amendment gave women the right to vote in national elections?

19th amendment

In what year did women win the right to vote in national elections?


57 percent of women considered themselves feminists in 1987. What percent considered themselves feminists in 2001?


Which Supreme Court decision granted women the right to terminate pregnancies?

Roe v. Wade

Which of the following countries have outlawed all forms of abortion including procedures performed to save a pregnant woman’s life?

All of these

Which sociological perspective views the closure of clinics that would perform abortions in rural areas another instance of an extra financial burden and possible deterrent for lower income women to have an abortion due to the extra expense of traveling to an out-of-town clinic as their best option?


Latin American countries generally have the strictest measures against the practice of abortion.


Taking into account age, education, marital status, children, occupational specialization, work experience, and hours worked in a year reduced the pay gap between men and women by only 3 cents.


Worldwide, women hold about 10 percent of corporate managerial positions.


Members of Congress have successfully blocked foreign aid to countries that might use the funds to encourage abortion.


Which of the following is correct regarding age?

Age is a socially constructed ascribed status.

Which trait(s) of a minority group can also be used to characterize the elderly?

All of these

The elderly are categorized as a subordinate group or minority because

All of these

hat age do people have to be in order for writers to commonly refer to them as "young old"?


Gerontology is

the scientific study of the sociological and psychological aspects of aging and the problems of the aged.

The functionalist perspective maintains that

elderly people passing social roles on from one generation to another ensure social stability.

Which sociologists were responsible for developing the disengagement theory?

Elaine Cumming and William Henry

In analyzing the elderly as a minority, one crucial difference between older people and other subordinate groups is that

if we live long enough, we will all become members of this minority.

Disengagement theory is a

functionalist theory of aging, which argues that society and the aging individual mutually sever many of their relationships.

Activity theory is a(an)

interactionist theory of aging, which argues that elderly people who remain active will be best-adjusted.

Which theory of aging stresses the fact that old people have essentially the same need for social interaction as middle-aged people?

activity theory

Unlike race or gender, age is not socially constructed.


All societies have some system of age stratification and associate certain social roles with distinct periods in life.


Conflict theorists have suggested that the transition from agricultural economies to industrialization and capitalism has always been beneficial for the elderly.


Approximately what percent of the world’s population is age 65 and older?


Which country is considered "the oldest" compared to the U.S. from statistics available?


A midlife crisis is best defined as

the second transitional period experienced by men and women, according to Daniel Levinson.

The sandwich generation occurs when

adults try to meet the competing demands of their parents and their own children.

Which one of the following is NOT a phase of the retirement experience as outlined by Robert Atchley?

disengagement phase

Which of the following would best fit the definition of a NORC?

A community in Arizona where many 65 + people have relocated to due to the nice weather and multiple facilities that cater to their needs.

Which sociologist noted that dying people pass through stages of denial, anger, bargaining, depression, and acceptance on their journey to death?

Elisabeth Kübler-Ross

Which practice was first introduced in London, England in the 1960s?

hospice care

Anticipatory socialization for retirement is most systematic for White men, since they have most likely participated in a formal retirement preparation program.


People over 100 are considered:


Which of these racial and ethnic groups has the longest life expectancy?


The minority aged population is expected to:

Increase in the next 40 years

Which of the following statements is NOT correct in terms of wealth and income among elderly persons?

Older people as a group are homogeneous and poor.

Social Security provides what proportion of income for people in the United States?


Which sociological perspective would be likely to suggest that elderly minority women experience a double burden regarding income levels compared to non-Hispanic Whites?


The poverty level for older non-Hispanic whites was 6.8%. What is the percentage for older African Americans?


Poverty seems to impact which of the following groups the most?

African Americans

By old age, by what ratio do women outnumber men?


Ageism is defined as the

prejudicial and discriminatory behavior directed against the elderly.

The federal Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA) does which of the following?:

Protects those over 40 from being fired due to age and replaced with younger, cheaper employees.

Federal courts have upheld the practice of

laying off older workers for economic reasons.

The "act of bringing about the death of a hopelessly ill and suffering person in a relatively quick and painless way for reasons of mercy" is called


Florida currently has the highest proportion of elderly people in the United States.


Conflict theorists are interested in asking questions about the values raised by decisions involving physician assisted suicides.


A woman and her husband, her children, her parents, her mother-in-law, her sister, a parakeet, two Irish setters, a cow, and five chickens live together on a farm in the Midwest. This is an example of a


A married couple and their unmarried children living together constitute a(an)

nuclear family.

Which of the following is considered an extended family?

a married couple, their children, and the husband’s sister all living together in the same home

Monogamy refers to a form of marriage in which

one woman and one man are married only to each other.

Under which marital form can a woman have several husbands at the same time?


Which sociological perspective would be likely to suggest that polyandrous cultures devalue the social worth of women?

conflict perspective

Which of the following statements about family systems is correct?

All of these

What is the difference between a family and a kin group?

The family is a household unit, and kin do not always live together.

A matriarchy is a society in which.

women hold greater authority than men.

In which type of society do women hold greater authority than men?

a matriarchy

Friedrich Engels, a colleague of Karl Marx, noted that
the family is the ultimate source of social inequality.

the family is the ultimate source of social inequality.

Which of the following would be of interest to a conflict theorist?

all of these

Which sociological perspective would suggest that social change has influenced the family in that many traditional family activities, such as education, have been assumed by other social institutions?


Which sociological perspective would be likely to suggest that family decision making reflects the inequality of traditional gender stratification in which men have held a dominant position over women?

conflict perspective

Which sociological perspective would argue that the U.S. family contributes to social injustice and denies women opportunities that are commonly extended to men?


Feminists suggest that laws in the U.S. traditionally viewed wives and children as the property of the husband. This view reflects the concerns of which sociological perspective?


Polygyny is a social system in which women may have several husbands and in which women are more powerful than men.


Polyandry, a system in which women may have several husbands, is an example—albeit a rare one—of a social order in which women are more powerful than men.


In 2008, what was the median age for a woman in the U.S. at the time of her first marriage?


The requirement that individuals select mates from outside certain groups is known as


The term "incest taboo" refers to

the prohibition of sexual relationships between certain culturally specified relatives.

In most states in the U.S., an individual is not permitted to marry a parent, a sibling, an aunt or an uncle, a grandparent, or a first or second cousin.

both the incest taboo and exogamy.

n the U.S., endogamous rules stressed by many groups include marriage within

one’s own racial, ethnic and religious group.

The feminization of poverty refers to:
The disproportionate representation of women in the workforce.

The disproportionate representation of female-headed households among the poor.

According to your text women play a significant role in the economic support of the family:

When the family is among the poor.

Which of the following statements about the connection between love and marriage is not correct?

The connection between love and marriage is a cultural universal.

Overall single parent families are:

on the rise

The process that allows for the transfer of the legal rights, responsibilities, and privileges of parenthood


Which sociological perspective would be most likely to point out that policymakers have both a humanitarian and a financial stake in promoting adoption?


Which of the following factors has contributed to the rise of dual-income families in the U.S.?

all of these

What percentage of couples in the US will marry, divorce and remarry over the course of a lifetime?


Which of the following statements concerning stepfamilies is correct?

Children raised by stepmothers are likely to have less health care, education, and money spent on their food than children raised by biological mothers.

About what percentage of divorcees in the U.S. have remarried?


Cohabitation is least common among which racial or ethnic group in the U.S.?

Asian Americans

Which of the following statements about childlessness in the U.S. is correct?

There has been a modest increase in childlessness.

Which of the following factors has contributed to the amount of childlessness in the U.S.?

all of these

Which of the following factors have contributed the most to the shift in public attitudes for married couples to remain childless?

economic considerations

Which sociological perspective views marriage as a social institution closely tied to human reproduction?


hich sociological perspective suggests that denial of the right to marry reinforces the second-class status of gays and lesbians?


Which of the following is an example of a domestic partnership?

all of these

From the sociological perspective, sexuality includes which of the following? Check all that apply.


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