Psychology Exam 2 Practice

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Recollections of John’s first family vacation to Disneyland are part of John’s _____. (repeat)

episodic memory

Elaine is writing a paper about reactions to the tragedy that occurred at the Twin Towers on September 11, 2001. She interviews ten of her classmates and asks them to remember that day. She is surprised to learn that nearly all of the students she interviewed offer very detailed, vivid accounts of where they were and what they were doing when they first learned of the terrorist attacks. Elaine has discovered that most of her classmates have _____ of September 11, 2001.

a flashbulb memory

*A person’s knowledge about the world is known as _____ memory.


*The adage most appropriate to memory function and aging is _____.

"Use it or lose it"

*_____ is the activation of information that people already have in storage to help them remember new information better and faster.


An individual’s autobiographical memory forms the core of the individual’s _____.

personal identity

Implicit memory, procedural memory, and priming are all part of _____.

nondeclarative memory

*_____ memory involves the conscious recollection of facts and events whereas, _____ memory involves non-conscious knowledge derived from past experience.


Which of the following involves memory for skills?

Procedural memory

*_____ refers to auditory sensory memory, whereas _____ refers to visual sensory memory.

Echoic memory/iconic memory

Lucy sustained a brain injury in a car accident. Although Lucy’s memories of her life before the accident are intact, she is no longer able to form new, long-term memories. Every night when she goes to bed, her memories of what she had done that day are lost. Lucy suffers from _____.

anterograde amnesia

According to, _____ repression’s main function is to protect the individual from threatening information.

psychodynamic theory

You go to a hypnotist to help you quit smoking. The hypnotist asks you to remember and describe things that you did differently before you started smoking. Which memory system will you use most to comply with this request?

Your episodic memory system

The _____ is the tendency to recall the items at the beginning and end of a list more readily than those in the middle.

serial position effect

*_____ has to do with remembering who, what, where, when, and why. _____ has to do with remembering how.

Explicit memory/implicit memory

Information can last up to a lifetime in _____.

long-term memory

Short-term memory has a _____ capacity than sensory memory and a _____ duration.

more limited/longer

*Having a better memory for items at the beginning of a list demonstrates the _____, whereas having a better memory for items at the end of a list demonstrates the _____.

primacy effect/recency effect

According to _____, memory for pictures is better than memory for words because pictures, at least those that can be named, are stored as both image codes and verbal codes.

the dual-code hypothesis

_____ refers to a language’s rules for combining words to form acceptable phrases and sentences.


Maria is extremely active in politics. She has strong conservative beliefs about what is correct and what is not. Each day when she reads the newspaper, she pays close attention to the editorial section in particular. According to the confirmation bias, what will she do when she reads them?

She will read the editorials that she agrees with, but not the ones that she disagrees with.

*According to _____, when people evaluate whether a particular object reflects a certain concept, they compare the most typical item(s) in that category and look for a "family resemblance" with that item’s properties.

the prototype model

*According to _____ there are three forms of intelligence, whereas according to _____ there are nine types of intelligences.

Sternberg’s triarchic theory/Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences

Bertha met two students from another school at a convention. She enjoyed their company a great deal and was very impressed with how nice they were. Bertha now believes that all of the students from that school must also be nice and is considering transferring there. Bertha is using _____.

inductive reasoning

People who are gifted have an IQ of _____.

130 or higher

In everyday situations, finding and framing problems can be difficult because many real-life problems _____.

are vague and/or ill defined

Cognitive psychology studies all of the following except _____.


_____ involves the ability to think about something in novel and unusual ways and to devise unconventional solutions to problems.


*When the scores on a measure relate to important outcomes, we say the test has high _____.

criterion validity

The sense of _____ is the most dangerous aspect of adolescent egocentrism.


Which of the following statements best describes moral reasoning at the conventional level?

"What I did was illegal, but saving a life is what a good person is expected to do."

Which of the following refers to a period of rapid skeletal and sexual maturation that occurs mainly in early adolescence?


Sam is a participant in a study of moral development. In response to the Heinz moral dilemma story, Sam says that "Heinz shouldn’t steal the drug because if he steals he will go to jail. Jail is a bad place so Heinz shouldn’t take the risk of such harsh punishment." Sam appears to be operating at which of the following stages of moral development?


Samantha gives both her 3-year-old and her 4-year-old children identically shaped glasses of juice in order to avoid conflict over who has the most. Samantha is showing her awareness of what limitation in her children’s thinking skills?

Problems with conservation

Juan is a child with low activity level and tends to withdraw from new situations. He is inflexible, and displays low mood intensity. Juan is said to have what type of temperament?


According to Arnett, all of the following except _____ are features of emerging adulthood.


*Which of the following represents the correct chronological sequence of Piaget’s stages of cognitive development?

Sensorimotor, preoperations, concrete operations, formal operations

Four-month-old baby Oscar is a participant in a preferential looking experiment. Researchers show Oscar two photos, one of which is of his mother’s face, and the other which is of a female stranger’s face. The photos are presented repeatedly in differing locations, and the amount of time Oscar spends looking at the photos is recorded. What will researchers conclude if Oscar shows a reliable preference for his mother’s face over the stranger’s face?

Oscar can discriminate his mother’s face from a stranger’s face.

*You arrange two rows of pennies so they are equal in length. A child views the rows and states that they have the same amount of pennies. You spread out the pennies in the bottom row so it is longer than the top row. The child now states that the bottom row has more pennies. This child is in which of Piaget’s stages?


What is the biggest challenge faced by psychologists who study infant perception?

Because infants can’t speak, psychologists who study infants rely on what infants can do to understand what they know.

*Developmental psychologists study physical, cognitive, and _____ changes throughout the human life cycle.


You tried to play peek-a-boo with your 6-month-old nephew, but whenever you hid your face, he would cry. You try it again three months later, and now he laughs and enjoys the game, trying to uncover your face with his hands. Your nephew has begun to develop _____.

object permanence

*Which of the following is true with regard to development?

Development is the product of nature, nurture, and the complex interaction of the two.

In the _____ week, the neural tube, which eventually becomes the spinal cord, starts to take shape.


Most adults reach their peak physical development during their _____.


Most children successfully acquire conservation skills during the _____ stage of cognitive development. (repeat)

concrete operational

"Out of sight, out of mind" can describe the behavior of a child who lacks the concept of _____.

object permanence

*Behavior that is intended to benefit other people is called _____.

prosocial behavior

_____ are differences between individuals that stem not necessarily from their ages but from the historical period and society in which they were born and developed.

Cohort effects

A major criticism of drive reduction theory is that _____.

people sometimes behave in ways that increase drives

Which of the following is true of the sympathetic nervous system?

It prepares the individual for fighting or running away.

Motivated behavior is _____.

energized, directed, and sustained

*The body’s tendency to maintain an equilibrium, or steady state, is known as _____.


*The Cannon-Bard theory predicts that after witnessing a shocking event, a person will

experience physical and emotional reactions simultaneously

*Heritability estimates for happiness range from _____ percent.

50 to 80

Adding external rewards to a situation in which the person is already intrinsically motivated to perform usually results in _____.

reduced intrinsic motivation

The hormone _____ helps start the digestion of food, travels to the brain through the bloodstream, and signals us to stop eating.


A(n) _____ is a deprivation that energizes the drive to eliminate or reduce the deprivation.


According to Maslow, self-actualization is possible _____.

only after all other needs have been fulfilled

According to self-determination theory, competence motivation involves _____.

self-efficacy and mastery

*Motivation for sexual behavior is centered in the _____.


*Autonomy refers to _____.

the sense that one is in control of one’s own life

*Which of the following brain structures plays a central role in the experience of fear?

The amygdala

When considering the human sexual response pattern, how does the male refractory period compare to that of the female refractory period?

Females do not have a refractory period.

Don places a great deal of value on money, prestige, and his physical appearance. According to your textbook, compared to someone who values the organismic needs, Don will be more likely to experience _____.

lowered self-actualization and physical illness

Which of the following is most related to extrinsic motivation?


*According to self-determination theory, people are most fulfilled when they satisfy which three fundamental needs?

Competence, autonomy, and relatedness

Professor Rothbaum surveys students about their motivation for attending college. Which of the following responses is the best example of strong intrinsic motivation?

"I’m in college because I love learning. Education satisfies my curiosity and makes me feel like a confident well-informed person."

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