Psych 2

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What is the birthing method that provides training that allows women to cope with painful contractions by concentrating on their breathing and producing relaxation response, rather than by tensing up, which can make pain more acute?


During the 1970s and 1980s, psychologists and physicians argued that _____ was a crucial ingredient for forming a lasting relationship between parent and child.


Gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT) and zygote intrafallopian transfer (ZIFT) are forms of what type of procedure?

in virto fertilization (IVF)

Which childbirth method is quite controversial because it discourages the use of traditional medical interventions?


What is the major reason why very-low-birthweight babies are in grave danger from the moment they are born?

There is an immaturity of their own systems

From puberty until menopause, a female will ovulate about every ____ days


The developmental psychologist ________ speculated that the underlying temperament of a given society, determined genetically, may predispose people in that society toward a particular philosophy


When the newborn’s behavior meshes with the parental behavior, this helps the ________ to grow

baby’s social relationship skills

In the United States in the 1990s, the average hospital stay for a normal birth was _____ days in large part because of insurance companies.


Along with schizophrenia, all of the psychological disorders below have been shown to be related, at least in part, to genetic factors. Which of the following disorders is least likely to have a genetic factor, according to the text?


One of the highlights of the _______ stage is the development of the major organs and basic anatomy


Which procedure, in combination with ultrasound, can detect more than 80% of all malformations during the second trimester?


What is the term for an infant who has not yet been born two weeks after the mother’s due date?


What procedure is used to detect abnormalities in the first trimester of pregnancy, and involves high-frequency transvaginal probes and digital visual processing?


An infant who learns that smiling at his or her parents brings positive attention, and therefore begins to smile more often, is demonstrating what type of learning?

operant conditioning

Studies have found that the pregnant mother’s consumption of an average of ___ alcoholic drink(s) a day during pregnancy is associated with adverse effects on intelligence, psychological functioning, and behavior in her children.


Melissa is two weeks past her due date, but her baby has not yet been born. Melissa’s baby is


Which of the following is NOT considered a medical risk predating pregnancy?

onset of menstruation

An 8-week-old embryo is only ___ inch(es) long with what appears to be gills and a tail-like structure, as well as rudimentary eyes, nose, lips, teeth, and stubby bulges that will form into arms and legs.


For parents who experience a stillbirth, which of the following is NOT a common reaction?

an ease in accepting and handling the loss

Which procedure produces a visual image of the uterus, fetus, and placenta?


All of the following reflect the visual skills of a newborn EXCEPT

perfect visual acuity

Alisha was born earlier than 25 weeks, and as such would be classified as


Elaine is reading a fairy tale to her newborn baby as she feeds the baby its bottle. Although the milk in the bottle is gone, the baby continues to suck on the nipple as the mother continues to read the baby the story. This is an example of what type of conditioning?

operant conditioning

About ___________ babies born to mothers over 40 have ________.

1 out of 100; Down syndrome.

Eric has blue eyes. Since the gene for blue eyes is recessive, Eric must be ______ for that trait.


In parts of the world other than the United States, midwives help deliver about _______ of babies, often in the ________.

80% home

Postpartum depression may be triggered by pronounced swings in hormone production that occur after birth. These hormones are

estrogen and progesterone

What is the term for the process of fertilization in which a man’s sperm is placed directly into a woman’s vagina by a physician?

artificial insemenation

It is not until the final period of prenatal development, the _____ stage, that the developing child becomes easily recognizable.


The percentage of low-birthweight infants born to African American mothers is ______ times that for Caucasian American mothers.


In the embryonic stage, what is the term for the layer that forms the muscles, bones, blood, and circulatory system?


Marta is pregnant and consumes substantial quantities of alcohol. She runs the risk of having a baby born with

fetal alcohol syndrome FAS

Which is not a good reason why mothers and their newborns should NOT be sent home within 24 hours after birth?

it saves costs

What is the term for the determination of traits by a combination of both genetic and environmental factors, in which a genotype provides a range within which a phenotype may be expressed?

multifactorial transmission

What disease, when contracted by a pregnant woman, increases the possibility that the fetus may develop a birth defect?

chicken pox

At which stage of labor does the baby’s head emerge?

second stage

A hungry baby who stops crying when his mother picks him up because he has learned to associate being picked up with being fed demonstrates what type of learning?

classical conditioning

What is the term for a delivery of a child who is not alive? This type of birth occurs in less than 1 delivery in 100.


Parents in the United States are more likely to encourage higher _______ levels, while Asian parents are more likely to encourage greater

activity; pssivity

The American College of Medical Genetics recommends that all newborns be screened for ___ disorders ranging from hearing difficulties to extremely rare conditions.


The different degrees of sleep and wakefulness through which newborns cycle, ranging from deep sleep to great agitation, are called

states of arousal

The type of learning in which an organism responds in a particular way to a neutral stimulus that normally does not bring about that type of response is called

classical conditioning

A standard measurement system that looks for a variety of indications of good health in newborns is called


What is the process in which high-frequency sound waves scan the mother’s womb to produce an image of the unborn baby, whose size and shape can then be assessed?

ultrasound sonography

Newborns also can distinguish different colors, and they seem to prefer

blue and green

Difficulties in which type of learning signal the development of problems, such as mental retardation?


What sexually transmitted disease can be transmitted directly to the fetus, and will cause the fetus to be born suffering from the disease?


In the embryonic stage, every part of the body is formed from ____ distinct layers.


What is the basic unit of genetic information?


What type of gene is considered recessive and located only on the X chromosome?


Because a neonate’s liver does not work effectively at first, almost half of all newborns develop a yellowish tinge to their bodies and eyes called

neonatal jaundice

In __________, a mother voluntarily terminates a pregnancy.


What type of a physician specializes in delivering babies?


Which test is carried out 15 to 20 weeks into the pregnancy and allows the analysis of fetal cells that can identify a variety of genetic defects with nearly 100% accuracy?


According to the text, what could be considered the best option for women who experience depression during pregnancy?

nondrug-based psychotherapeutic intervention

What illegal drug, when used during pregnancy, can restrict the oxygen that reaches the fetus and lead to infants who are irritable, nervous, and easily disturbed?


Which childbirth method is known as "husband-coached childbirth"?


What is the term applied to studying the effects of heredity on psychological characteristics and behavior?

behavioral genetics

A neonate enters the world with unlearned, organized, and involuntary responses that occur automatically in the presence of stimuli; these responses are called


Approximately ___% of Caucasian American women and approximately ____% of African American women receive no prenatal care early in their pregnancies.

20, 40

If a baby is being born feet first, this is called

breech position

Jamal has an extra chromosome on the twenty-first pair of chromosomes, causing him to have

Down syndrome

Other countries do significantly better than the U.S. in preventing infant mortality by providing services listed below EXCEPT

social programs for birth control

By age six, approximately ____ of preterm infants have mild problems, such as learning disabilities or behavior disorders.


The fact that the ______determines the gender of the child is leading to the development of techniques that will allow parents to increase the chances of choosing the child’s gender.

men’s sperm

Which test procedure is recommended if either parent carries Tay-Sachs, spina bifida, sickle-cell, Down syndrome, muscular dystrophy, or Rh disease?


The key feature to classical conditioning is

stimulus substitution

Three days after fertilization, the organism consists of some ___ cells, and by the next day the number doubles.


Corleta’s newborn has died. While obviously suffering from depression, she may also develop which of the following disorders?

Post Traumatic Stress Disorder

What is the process by which a sperm and an ovum join to form a single new cell?


Tiffany Field’s research suggests that infants can discriminate between all of the following basic facial expressions except one. Which expression is NOT discriminated by newborns?


What is the profession that focuses on helping people deal with issues relating to inherited disorders?

genetic counseling

In the embryonic stage, what is the term for the inner layer that produces the digestive system, liver, pancreas, and respiratory system?


The neck of the uterus that separates it from the vagina is called the


What is the correct term for a newborn baby?


Research shows that which of the following senses are not only well developed but reasonably sophisticated at birth?

sense of touch taste and smell

What is the term for an environmental agent that produces birth defects?


Babies are typically able to crawl between _______ months of age.

8 to 10

What is the sum total of the enduring characteristics that differentiate one individual from another?


Infants who receive adequate nutrition but act as though they have been deprived of food because they are listless and apathetic are exhibiting

nonorganic failure to thrive

A child who does not seek proximity to the mother, and, after she leaves the room, does not look distressed is exhibiting

avoid ant attachment pattern

Alice has just delivered her baby; however, because of financial constraints, she has to go back to working both of her jobs. Since she can’t give her baby the attention and stimulation it needs, her baby could start to suffer from

nonorganic failure to thrive

When applying the Ainsworth Strange Situation, which child is most likely to demonstrate the appearance of being less securely attached to his/her mother?

children from Japan

By what age is an infant able to discriminate his/her own name from other familiar-sounding words?

4 months

At what age can a child hold crayon adaptively?

11 months

The concept that all of the world’s languages share a similar underlying structure was created by ________ and is called ________

chomsky; universal grammer

The systematic, meaningful arrangement of symbols, which provides the basis for communication, is called


The term for the mental process of sorting out, interpreting, analyzing, and integrating stimuli from the sense organs and brain is ______________.


What is the term for the smallest language unit that has meaning?


At what age are babies able to hold a cup to their lips and take a drink without spilling a drop?

24 months

The _________________refers to the degree to which a developing structure or behavior is modifiable due to experience.

brain’s plasticity

Maria and Thomas are preparing for the birth of their baby, and are trying to decide whether or not to breastfeed their new baby. Which of the following is NOT a reason for them to decide on breastfeeding?

Breast milk is cheaper than store-bought formula

What is the term for nonphysical aggression that is intended to hurt another person’s psychological well being?

relational aggression

In order to develop a(n) ___________, a child must develop a(n) ________

gender identity; gender schema

In its most extreme form, _________ parenting results in neglect.


Research suggests that the age at which toilet training takes place has risen over the years. In 1957, what percentage of children had been toilet trained by 18 months of age?


The philosophy of ______________ emphasizes personal identity and the uniqueness of the individual

individualistic orientation

Johnny is a 4-year-old who is having lunch with his mother and sister. When his mother pours the milk that is left in the carton into the children’s glasses, she finds that there is not enough to fill both glasses; so she carefully pours half of the milk in the shorter, fatter glass in front of Johnny and half into a thin, taller glass in front of Johnny’s sister. Immediately, Johnny complains that his sister got more milk than he did, and even when his mother tries to explain that they both got the same amount, Johnny insists he is right. In this example, Johnny is demonstrating a lack of development in the area of


Three-year-old Wendy is playing hide-and-seek with some older children. However, instead of running to find a hiding place away from the other children, Wendy simply covers her eyes. In this example, Wendy is demonstrating

egocentric thought

Which of the following are NOT considered likely sources for exposure to lead poisoning?

farm products such as fruits, vegetables and milk

Preschooler’s thoughts focus on all of the following EXCEPT

the ability to consider all available information

Which of the following is the best description of Piaget’s symbolic function?

a child is able to use a mental symbol, a word, or an object to stand for or represent something that is not physically present

According to Piaget, which stage occurs from approximately age 2 to age 7 in which children’s use of symbolic thinking grows, mental reasoning emerges, and the use of concepts increases?


All of the following may be a factor in how much a preschooler weighs and how tall he/she is EXCEPT

the quality of preschool; children who attend quality preschool programs receive better snacks and lunches.

What is the term for a memory of particular events from one’s own life?

autobiographical memory

After the age of 2, what is the maximum number of hours per day of television that the American Academy of Pediatrics recommends for children?

1 to 2 hours

Despite the fact that results are primarily correlational, overwhelming research evidence suggests that observation of televised aggression leads to

increases in aggressive behaviors that can extend into adulthood

Children who show evidence of high performance capability in areas such as intellectual, creative, artistic, leadership, or specific academic fields are referred to as

gifted and talented

According to psychologist Lawrence Kohlberg, what stage reflects a person’s use of moral principles, which are seen as broader than those of any particular society?

postconventional morality

According to Damon, when Martha (who is 8 years old) is asked, "How do you know that someone is your best friend?" it is highly likely that she will respond

"Because a friend is someone you can count on to help you when you need it."

Which of the following best describes the third of the three-stage process of women’s morality, as theorized by Carol Gilligan?

morality of nonviolence

In the United States, most variations in height and weight in children are the result of all of the following EXCEPT

inadequate nutrition

What is the name of an intelligence test that measures children’s ability to integrate different stimuli simultaneously and to demonstrate step-by-step thinking?

Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, Second Edition (KABC-II)

At which stage does a child learn phonological recoding skills and start to read?

Stage 1

During middle childhood years, it appears that children in immigrant families

often do quite well in the United States

Which of the following is considered to be the centerpiece of friendship during middle childhood?

mutual trust

What is the term for the use of more than one language?


Friends influence children’s development during the middle childhood years in all of the following ways EXCEPT

friendships provide more security than relationships with parents and other family members.

By definition, a remarried couple that has at least one stepchild living with them is called a

blended family

What is one significant reason for the advances in fine motor skills in children 6 to 8 years old?

The amount of myelin in the brain increases to protect, insulate, and surround the nerve cells, raising the speed at which electrical impulses travel between neurons.

With regard to children of divorced parents, all of the following are true EXCEPT

divorce is not beneficial to children living in households overwhelmed by parental strife.

Generally, overall self-esteem is high during middle childhood but begins to decline around the age of ___ due to

12; school transition.

All of the following female adolescents are more likely to develop an eating disorder EXCEPT

an adolescent who matured later than her peers.

Mrs. Valdez was concerned that her daughter was not getting adequate sleep and that, as a result, her daughter was failing classes and suffering from depression. Mrs. Valdez attended a school meeting with other concerned parents about adolescent sleep requirements and learned that

with increasing academic and social demands, adolescents are often leading their lives in something of a sleep-deprived daze.

The perspective that sees changes in adolescents’ cognitive abilities as evidence of gradual transformations in the capacity to take in, use, and store information is called

the information processing perspective.

According to James Marcia, which of the following four categories of identity development leads to "rigid strength," authoritarian behavior, and a high need for social approval?

identity foreclosure

If an adolescent has awareness of his/her self-concept, he/she would be considering all of the following EXCEPT

considering only traits he/she fully likes in himself/herself.

Undersocialized delinquents share several characteristics including all of the following except

likelihood of being successfully rehabilitated.

If a person is called or known as a "garbage head," that means that

the person will try anything, especially any kind of drug

Developmentalists suggest that along with early/late maturity, all of the following may be more pertinent in determining an adolescent’s behavior except

IQ development

The view held by some adolescents that what happens to them is unique, exceptional, and shared by no one else is called

personal fable

The phenomenon known as the "digital divide" is

the challenge involving socioeconomic status, race, and ethnicity, where poorer adolescents and members of minority groups have less access to computers than more affluent adolescents.

According to psychologist Judith Smetana, what is the most likely reason for more conflict between adolescents and their parents in the earlier stage of adolescence compared to the later stage of adolescence?

definitions of and rationales for appropriate vs. inappropriate conduct

Which of the following reflects the latest information regarding racial and ethnic differences in the timing of first intercourse?

African Americans generally have sex for the first time earlier than do Puerto Ricans, who have sex earlier than whites do.

The desire to have independence and a sense of control over one’s life is called


According to James Marcia, the status of adolescents who prematurely commit to an identity without adequately exploring alternatives is called

identity foreclosure

Early maturation in girls may result in all of the following EXCEPT

intellectual maturity beyond their peers.

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