Psyc 312 Chapter 3

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Which of the following is not one of the areas of fundamental change in adolescence

social redefinition

Kaji, a 16-year-old male, has gone through the rite of passage and is now considered a warrior by his tribesmen. This change in Kaji’s role and status may be referred to as

social redefinition.

The universal process through which an individual’s position or status is changed by society is called

puberty; school

Today, people go through ______ earlier than 100 years ago, but tend to stay in ______ longer.

a relatively long period of time

In contemporary America, the process of social definition, which typically begins at age 15 or 16, is something that occurs over

lengthened; prolonged

Compared to 100 years ago, the adolescent period has been _____ and the transition into adulthood _____.

later development of emotional maturity

Notable contributing factors to the elongation of adolescence compared to previous eras include all except which of the following:

exists in very few cultures.

Jeffrey Arnett, the psychologist who created the term "emerging adulthood", believes that the developmental period between adolescence and adulthood (emerging adulthood):

the subjective feeling of emotional immaturity

Psychologist Jeffery Arnett has suggested that 18- to 25-year-olds are caught between adolescence and adulthood in "emerging adulthood," which is characterized by all but which of the following

the age of majority

Jacob is looking forward to the upcoming presidential election because he is now able to cast his vote. Based on your knowledge of the social redefinition of adolescence, what has Jacob attained?

inventionist perspective.

Dr. Jones argues that adolescence is primarily a social invention rather than a biological or cognitive phenomenon. Her view that the broader environment influences our conception of adolescence is most in line with the

Adolescence is a separate period that has been largely determined by the broader social environment

Which of the following statements about the inventionist perspective is true

argues that adolescence as a period in the life cycle is mainly a social invention

Among those who study adolescence, an inventionist is one who:

anyone under age 18 or 21.

Before the Industrial Revolution, the term "child" referred to

the industrial revolution

Adolescence was not considered a distinct transitional period until:

whether they owned property

In the 19th century, what distinguished children from adults?

since the 19th century

The term "adolescent" became widely used at what time

increased opportunities for adolescents in the workplace

Which of the following was not an outcome of the Industrial Revolution?

the Industrial Revolution

The status of adolescents as full-time students arose as a result of:

ages 12-24.

Before industrialization, the term "youth" referred to

economic freedom

Which of the following contributed to the invention of the "teenager"?

preparation; participation

Today, adolescence has been redefined as a time of _____ , rather than _____.

child protectionist

The Boy Scouts is an example of an organization that grew out of the _____ school of thought.

young people needed to be kept away from the labor force for their own good.

During the industrial revolution, child protectionists argued that:

less, more

Contemporary adolescents spend _____ time working with their parents and _____ with their peers preparing for the future.


Popularized about 50 years ago, this expression refers to young people in a more frivolous and lighthearted manner than the term adolescent.

not all people in their mid-20s fit the profile

Which of the following statements is true about Arnett’s concept of emerging adulthood

less time in school

Which of the following was not a result of industrialization?

increased materialism among college students

Which of the following did not contribute to the redefinition of the term "youth"


Which of the following terms is often used to describe individuals who are in many ways more mature than adolescents, but not as mature as adults?

the legal boundary between childhood and adulthood is very clear and consistent

All of the following are true regarding the legal boundary between childhood and adulthood except:

about 1/5 of 14 and 15 year olds are not competent to stand trial

One finding that emerged from the competence to stand trial research described in the text was that:

nearly all juveniles under 15 years old are competent to stand trial in a criminal proceeding

Research described in the text indicates all of the following except:

privileges; expectations

A double shift in social status takes place during adolescence with an increase in both _________ and ___________.

it is a time of positive and improving mental health for most people.

Recent research on psychological well-being in emerging adulthood suggests:

a status offense.

Jennifer, who is 16, ran away with her friend Tonya, who is 18. The police, however, only arrested Jennifer for running away because for a minor, running away is considered:

juvenile; criminal

Adolescents who are convicted of crimes become part of the _________ justice system, whereas adults convicted of the same crimes are part of the ________ justice system

viewed as having potential benefit

Legal decisions have tended to support adolescent autonomy when the behavior at issue is

obtaining a driver’s license

Which of the following would not be considered an initiation ceremony?

expected to sleep in other households

The phenomenon of extrusion is the practice in which children are


In contemporary society, many young people are sent off to summer camps, boarding schools, or colleges. An analogous practice in traditional societies is known as


Typically, the social redefinition of young people occurs in groups of peers who are approximately the same age, known as:

the separation of adolescents experiencing menarche from elder members of the community

Which of the following themes is generally not a universal element in the process of social redefinition?

-the physical changes of puberty
-adult work roles are highly sex-differentiated
-adult family roles are highly sex-differentiated

The accentuation of differences between sexes during the social redefinition of adolescence occurs partly because of

subject to the control of adults; freedom and autonomy

According to the textbook, in non-Western cultures, there is huge discrepancy in the extension of privileges to males and females. In general, girls’ behavior is more _____, whereas boys are given more ____.

initiation ceremonies.

The Bas Mitzvah, the confirmation, and the quinceañera are all examples of:

brushing teeth

Which of the following is not an example of the contemporary version of scarification


The Bar Mitzvah and Bas Mitzvah are contemporary examples of traditional society’s practice of:


Societies in which hunting, fishing, and farming are the primary work activities tend to exhibit a more _____ transition between adolescence and adulthood.


For Sally’s 13th birthday, her mother has agreed to let her get her ears pierced. In traditional societies, this type of body ritual may be equated to:

the completion of formal schooling

All of the following are aspects of social redefinition described in the text except

unclear and inconsistent.

The messages that society sends adolescents are

child protectionist

In Marley’s society adolescents are expected to attain adult roles, however, they are provided with little training for such responsibilities. Additionally, adolescents tend to be segregated from the workforce and receive little training in school for the types of jobs they will hold as adults. What type of society does Marley most likely belong to?

greater achievement in school.

Charles feels older than most of the other kids in his grade. He is more likely to engage in all of the following activities except:


Initiation ceremonies for young women in traditional societies most often coincide with:

accepting responsibility for oneself.

Among American adolescents, the most frequently mentioned criterion for being an adult is:

is associated with negative outcomes for females but not for males.

Research has established that circumcision:

although the risks are well-known, the prevalence of circumcision in the U.S. has grown to 18% of female adolescents

According to the textbook, all of the following statements about female circumcision are true except:

baby-boom generation.

Individuals who were adolescents in the late 1950s and 1960s are known as members of the:

20; 26

In 1960, the average age of marriage for women was _____; today it is _____:

continuous transition.

Dr. Ramirez believes that the passage into adulthood is a gradual process in which the adolescent assumes the roles and status of adulthood bit by bit. This view is most closely associated with the:

long and disorderly

Compared to the situation 50 years ago, today’s transition to adulthood is:

discontinuous transition.

Dr. Goodrich believes that the passage into adulthood is a sudden change in which adult roles and statuses are abruptly assumed. This view is most closely associated with the:


Since Mark was 5 years old, he has been helping his father maintain the family farm. Now, 30 years later, Mark owns the farm and is teaching his own son how to manage it. Based on your knowledge about the continuity of adolescence, how would you describe Mark’s transition?


In contemporary society, the transition into adult work roles is fairly

discontinuous transition.

The current school-to-work transition in America is considered a

youth apprenticeships.

Critics of the American educational system have proposed to reduce the discontinuity in the school-to-work transition by establishing

youth apprenticeships

Besides going to college, what can aid the transition from high school to adult work?


Approximately what percentage of American 20- to 22-year-olds live with or are supported financially by their parents

more; more

The transition into adulthood 50 years ago was characterized by _____ prior preparation for family roles and _____ prior preparation for work roles.

discontinuous transitions

In 1934, anthropologist Ruth Benedict suggested that the turmoil experienced during adolescence was caused by:

all of the above might result from the lack of clarity and continuity in the transition into adulthood

Researchers have suggested that the lack of clarity and continuity in the transition into adulthood may contribute to our relatively high rate(s) of:

later; less

Compared to 100 years ago, contemporary adolescents take on full-time employment _____ and live under adult supervision _____ than adolescents in earlier times.

be involved in adult-like tasks at an earlier age.

Elder’s study of the Great Depression revealed that adolescents who experienced hardship during those years were more likely to:

lack of clarity and continuity in the transition from adolescence to adulthood

The National Research Council suggests that high rates of youth unemployment, juvenile delinquency, and teenage alcoholism may all stem from the:

Charlie, a Hispanic American

Which of the following students will have the most difficulty negotiating the transition into adolescence?

45%; 2/3

According to the textbook, today, about _____ of American adolescents are from ethnic minority groups; and, by the end of this century, it is estimated that nearly _____ of American adolescent will be nonWhite.

are more likely to grow up poor.

The transition into adulthood is more likely to be impeded among minority teenagers because they:

White and Asian youth

Black, Hispanic, and American Indian youth have more trouble negotiating the transition into adulthood than do their counterparts of which race(s)?

smoke cigarettes or binge drink

According to research presented in the textbook, the longer a foreign-born adolescent has lived in the United States, the more likely he or she is to:

spending a lot of time with peers

Which of the following is not associated with transition difficulties in adolescence?

-Social problems are contagious and can spread from one adolescent to another.
-Poverty in neighborhoods breeds social isolation.
-Adolescents growing up in poverty are more likely to be exposed to violence.

How does poverty adversely affect the behavior and development of adolescents?


Tamika and Theresa both live in single-parent households and survive on welfare. Tamika, however, lives in a better neighborhood than Theresa. According to community researchers, who is more likely to drop out of school or become pregnant?

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