Psy 101 Chap. 7&8

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Human Development

The scientific study of the changes that occur in people as they age from conception to death is called_________

Longitudinal Design

In a __________design, one group of participants is followed and assessed as the group ages.

cross-sectional design

The local Health department of a small town has hired a research firm to study the development of cancer in residents in the town, due to a suspected cancer-causing agent and environmental pollution. The researcher will compare data on the same participants at age 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 years in order to see if there are increasing rates of cancer in the town. This type of research study is called a ____________.

Cross-Sectional Design

A researcher who selects a sample of people of varying ages and studies them at one point in time is, by definition, using the _________ method. p. 230

Look at real age-related changes as those changes occur in the same individuals

Unlike other types of research, a cross-sequential design allows researchers to___________. p. 230


refers to heredity and __________ refers to environmental influences. p. 230

Behavioral Genetics

What relatively new field investigates the influence of genes and heredity on a person’s actions?


The science of heredity is called___________.


A special molecule, __________, contains the genetic material of the organism


An____ is a section of DNA containing a sequence of amines.


A gene that only influences the expression of a trait when paired with an identical gene is called___________. p. 232


Rod-shaped structures in the cell nucleus that contain genes are referred to as_______

Down Syndrome

In — syndrome, the 21st pair of chromosomes contains an extra chromosome resulting in symptoms such as wide-set almond-shaped eyes and mental deficiencies. p. 232

Klinefelter Syndrome

Steve was born a male with an extra X chromosome on the 23rd pair. As a result, he has reduced masculine characteristics, enlarged breasts, obesity, and excessive height. Which disorder is likely to be diagnosed? p. 232

Turner’s Syndrome

Sheila was born a female with only one X chromosome on the 23rd pair. As a result she is infertile, has difficulty learning, and did not develop breast tissue and rounded hips as her female peers did. Which disorder is likely to be diagnosed? p. 232

Female Sex Cells, Eggs

Ovum is a term used to describe___________. p. 234


In the process of fertilization the __________ and _________ unite, resulting in a single cell.


At fertilization, the chromosomes from the father’s sperm unite with the chromosomes from the mother’s egg, creating a new cell called an——– p. 234


Humans have a total of _______chromosomes in normal developmental cases. p. 234

Mono-Zygotic Twin

Kat and Crystal are twins who are genetically identical. What type of twins are they? p. 234

Dizygotic Twins

——-develop when two eggs each get fertilized by two different sperm, resulting in two zygotes in the uterus at the same time. p. 234

joined at the point where the two cells masses remained "stuck"

Conjoined twins are ———-twins. p. 234-235


The specialized organ that provides nourishment and filters away waste products from the developing baby is called the———- p. 235

Critical Period

The prenatal period during which tremendous growth occurs and the organs continue to develop and become functional is called the ———-period.


Greta’s child has facial deformities, a smaller than normal head, heart defects, mental retardation, learning difficulties, and delayed growth. If these defects can be traced to a teratogen used by Greta when she was pregnant, which was she most likely abusing?— p. 237

First three months

The most likely time for a miscarriage is during the _________months.p.237

Genetic Defect

The most likely cause for miscarriage during the first three months of pregnancy is———– p. 237


—–Which sense is the most functional at birth?—- p. 238

four months

——By what age do infants develop a preference for salty tastes?—– p. 238


—Which sense is the LEAST functional at birth?—- p. 238

Raising Head, Rolling Over, Sitting up-right

—-What is the correct order of development of the Six Motor Milestones according to research?—- p. 240

Four Stages of Cognitive Development

Jean Piaget is noted for his theory of———- p. 240

The Sensorimotor Stage

In Piaget’s theory, the stage of development between birth and 2 years of age, in which the individual uses senses and motor abilities to interact with objects in the environment, is called the ———–stage.

Object Permanence

Piaget’s term for the knowledge that an object exists even when it is out of sight is ———– p. 241

Preoperational Stage

According to Piaget, the stage of cognitive development between 2 and 7 years of age, in which the child learns to use language as a means of exploring the world, is the ———-stage. pp. 241-243


—–What term is used to describe a child’s inability to see the world through anyone else’s eyes except his or her own?—— p. 242


According to Piaget, the ability to understand that simply changing the appearance of an object does not change the object’s nature is known as ——– p. 242

Concrete Operations Stage

——Which of Jean Piaget’s stages of cognitive development is characterized by abstract thinking and the creation of hypotheticals? —— p. 243

abstract thinking becomes possible

A characteristic that first shows up in the formal operational stage is ——- p. 243

Cognitive Development

In contrast to Piaget, Vygotsky stressed the importance of others, or ___________ ___________________.p.244


Vygotsky stressed the importance of ——————————during development? p. 244


A baby’s language that consists of repetition of consonant-vowel combinations is called ——–


——–Shelley and Julie are mothers who each have a three-month-old infant. Shelley tells Julie, "My son is so fussy," to which Julie replies, "That is funny — my son is so easy." It appears that Shelley and Julie are discussing their newborns’————- p. 246


—-Shelby is very adaptable to change. She is on a regular sleeping, eating, and waking schedule. Thomas and Chess would describe Shelby as being a(n) ———child. pp. 246-247


According to Thomas and Chess, a child that is very irregular in sleeping and eating, resists change, and tends to be loud is labeled an————- child. pp. 246-247

Slow to warm up

———Ernie is a quiet child who is very slow to adapt to change. However, if he is introduced gradually to new people or situations, then eventually he will accept them without too much distress. Thomas and Chess would say his temperament is————– pp. 246-247


The emotional bond that forms between an infant and a primary caregiver is called———– p. 247


————-Which type of attachment style is characterized by babies who do not seem to care very much whether the mother is present or absent, and are equally comfortable with her and a stranger?——— pp. 247-248


——Mothers who were unresponsive, insensitive, and coldly rejecting were associated with ———–attached infants. p. 248

Erikson’s theory of social development viewed the period from ages 3 to 5, his third stage, as characterized by the major challenge of ————- versus —————-. p. 251

Second Stage

——–If a child successfully navigates this stage of Erikson’s psychosocial development, they will make decisions and act independently.——– p. 251


According to Erikson, if an elementary school child fails to succeed in learning new skills and knowledge, the result may be the development of a sense of ——— p. 251

Gender Identity

Jared and his sister Lea are opening their presents on Christmas morning. Lea opens up a beautiful doll with a dress and lovely blond hair. Jared says, "Eww, that is a girl’s toy." Jared clearly has some established gender ——–for playtime behavior. p. 252

Gender Role

A culture’s expectation of masculine and feminine behaviors can be defined as ————- p. 252

Social Learning Theory

——When children observe their same-sex parents behaving in certain ways and imitate that behavior, a psychologist uses which theory to explain the situation?—– pp. 252-253


Gender schema theory is based on ——— p. 253

Physical changes that occur in the body as sexual development reaches its peak

Puberty is defined as ————— p. 254


The growth spurt for boys typically begins at age——————– p. 254


———-The growth spurt for girls typically begins at what age? p. 254———-

Personal Fable

————Abe just got his driver’s license. He loves to speed around town going more than 20 miles per hour above the speed limit. He believes that he can speed through red lights due to his perfect timing. This is an example of———– p. 255

Imaginary Audience

——Michelle is an adolescent who currently has a small pimple on her cheek that is causing her to be overly self-conscious. She is convinced that everyone she meets stares at and talks about her pimple. Michelle’s behavior exhibits what? p. 255———

Conventional Morality

According to Kohlberg, most adolescents are at the ————- level of morality. p. 256

Kohlbergs Three Levels of Morality

——–What is the sequence of stages of moral development as identified by Lawrence Kohlberg? p. 256———-

Identity Versus Role Confusion

———Brad is 18 and is looking into career options. He is currently deciding whether he wants to become a gourmet chef or a race car driver. Brad is at what stage of Erik Erikson’s psychosocial development? p. 257———

Trivial Issues

———-Conflicts between adolescents and their parents tend to be over _________. p. 257———-


———The period of five to ten years during which a woman’s reproductive system begins to decline is called what? p. 258——-

Middle Adulthood

————-Older adults who look back on their lives with regrets and wish they could relive their lives have not successfully resolved Erikson’s psychosocial crisis of———— p. 261,

Activity Theory

The theory of adjustment to aging that assumes older people are happier if they remain active in some way, such as volunteering or developing a hobby, is called—————-


The correct sequence of the five stages of death and dying postulated by Kübler-Ross is ———–


Leticia has just learned that she is terminally ill. She is now always irritable, often throws things on the floor, and yells at members of her family and the nurses who care for her. According to Elisabeth Kübler-Ross, Leticia is most likely in the ——————–stage of dying. p. 263


The process by which activities are started, directed, and continued so that physical or psychological needs or wants are met is called —————-p. 272

Intrinsic Motivation

A desire to perform a behavior to obtain an external reward or avoid punishment is known as ——————- p. 272


Early psychologists were inclined to explain motivated behavior by attributing it to —————— p. 272,


Early in the twentieth century William McDougal proposed that there were ————-human instincts. p. 272,

Instinct Motivation

Salmon swimming upstream to spawn are an example of ———– p. 272


The state of tension created by biological needs is called an———– p. 273

Drive-Reduction Approaches

The———— approach to motivation suggests a connection between internal physical states and outward behavior. p. 273


The tendency of the body to maintain a steady state of functioning is called ——————— p. 273

Drive-reduction theory would say getting a haircut to look attractive is a (an) ————– p. 273

Primary Drives

Thirst, sexual desire, and hunger are examples of ————–drives. p. 273


Drives that are learned through experience are called ————–drives. p. 273


Monica put all her time and energy into getting into the acting club because her main goal in life was "to be a famous star!" Monica’s drive to be famous was a(n) ——————drive. p. 273

Need For Achievement(nAch)

The need for —————involves a strong desire to succeed in attaining goals. p. 274

need for achievement(nAch)

Ethan is an award-winning swimmer. His desire to compete and win is part of his need for ———— p. 274

Need For Affiliation(nAff)

——–Sydney said, "I don’t care much about my grades as long as I’m the most popular girl in the class!" What need is this?——– p. 274

locus of control

———-According to Carol Dweck, these types of people believe intelligence is fixed, unchanging, and independent.——— p. 275


——–According to Carol Dweck, people with this type of control believe intelligence is changeable and can be shaped by experience.——— p. 275

self esteem

——–Glenn believes he can learn from his mistakes and that study and perseverance will help him improve his intelligence. According to Dweck, what locus of control does Glenn have? pp. 275-276———

Stimulus motive

Bobby is a very active 5 year old compared to others in his class. He appears to seek a great deal of stimulation, and is very playful, curious, and explorative. Bobby’s seemingly unlearned motives, which are likely to increase stimulation, are called ———–. p. 276

law stating performance is related to arousal;moderate levels of arousal lead to better performance than do levels of arousal that are too low or too high.This effect varies with the difficulty of the task: Easy task require a high-moderate level,Whereas more difficult task require a low-moderate level.

The Yerkes-Dodson Law says ———— p. 277

Sensation Seeker

Indiana Jones goes off to foreign lands in search of artifacts hidden in dangerous places and guarded by fierce protectors. Dr. Jones would be described as ——————- p. 277


Things that attract or lure people to action are ———-p. 278


——-Which level of Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy is epitomized by the U.S. Army’s slogan "Be all that you can be"? p. 279———-

Belongingness and Love Need

Bill has felt isolated and an "outsider" since coming to college for his freshman year. As a result, he decided to rush a fraternity and was very excited when he was selected to pledge. According to Maslow, Bill may be attempting to meet the need of ————– p. 279

Physiological Need

Jenna skipped dinner last night to stay up late studying for her final exam. She went to bed at 6 am and had to be at class by 8 am. Her alarm clock did not go off as scheduled, and she raced out the door without eating. As a result, she was very distracted by hunger pangs and lack of energy while taking the test. She later learned that she failed her exam. Jenna could have likely performed better on her final if she had met a ———————– need before the final. p. 279

Self-actualization,Esteem,Belongingness, Safety,Physiological

Arrange the following in the correct order for Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. —————–self-actualization, belongingness/love, physiological, safety, esteem, p. 279

Psychoactive Drugs

Chemicals that can alter cognition, perception, memory, and behavior are called —————– p. 282

Physical Dependence

Russell needs more of the drug he has been using to get the normal high he got when he first started. Russell is experiencing —————– 282


After taking a drug for several years, Bruce decides to quit taking the drug. He begins to experience a variety of physical symptoms, psychological symptoms such as irritability, and a strong craving for the substance. What term is used to describe what Bruce is experiencing? p. 282——————

Psychological Dependence

The need to take a drug in order to avoid withdrawal symptoms is called ——————– p. 282

Psychological Dependence

Ward notices that as his supply of marijuana decreases he starts thinking more and more about where he can get another supply as well as feeling nervous and anxious. This is an example of ————— p. 283


Drugs that speed up the functioning of the nervous system are called ——————– p. 283


Nicotine is classified as a ——————- p. 284


Drugs derived from opium are called————- p. 285


Heroin addiction has been treated with ————- p. 285

Natural hallucinogen derived from the peyote cactus button

Mescaline comes from —————- p. 286

92 Percent

According to Kinsey, what percentage of males reported masturbating? p. 289———-

Janus Report

The first large-scale study of human behavior to be done after the Kinsey and Masters and Johnson reports was conducted by ———— p. 290—————–


Which is the most common sexual orientation? p. 290————–

9 Percent

Most recent surveys indicate that ————-of men are predominantly homosexual. p. 291


Most recent surveys indicate that————of men and —————– of women have had at least one homosexual experience. p. 291


Channel is a 43 year old female who has been in sexual relationships with both men and women in the past. She is presently dating a 32 year old female and is thinking of moving to a state that legally recognizes marriage between two women. She is thinking of getting married to her partner, despite still admitting that she finds both men and women attractive. Channel is considered —————— in terms of her sexual orientation. p. 291

The Latin word meaning ————-connects both motive and emotion. p. 294

Which division of the nervous system is working when we experience emotions? p. 294———-

The part of the brain that seems to influence emotion is the————- p. 295

Researchers have found that negative feelings such as sadness, anxiety, and depression seem to be a function of —————– p. 295

Display Rules*

Paul Ekman and his colleagues gathered abundant evidence supporting the universality of———————basic facial expressions of emotion. p. 297

Display Rules

—————– can vary from culture to culture and are socially acceptable ways of showing emotion in public settings. p. 297

Commoon Sense Theory of Emotion

Which theory states that a stimulus triggers physiological changes that produce emotion? p. 298———–

James-Lange Theory of Emotion

Which theory of emotion proposes that stimuli cause physiological changes in our bodies and emotions result from those physiological changes? p. 298——————

Cannon-Bard Theory of Emotions

Which theory of emotion emphasizes the role of the thalamus? p. 299————

Stimulus,First Response,Second Response

What is the correct sequence of events in emotional response according to the Cannon-Bard theory? p. 299—————

Cognitive Arousal Theory

The idea that bodily arousal and the experience of emotion arise in tandem, or simultaneously, forms the essence of the ————–theory——

Cannon-Bard theory

Seeing a snake, and then simultaneously running away from it and becoming frightened, is the sequence of events postulated by ———————-theory. p. 299

Cognitive Arousal

———–Which theory maintains that emotion is caused by the interaction of physiological changes and the cognitive labeling of the reason for the physical reaction?——– p. 299


According to cognitive theories, appraisal of the situation would come ———- the physical arousal and ————–the experience of emotion. p. 299

Theory of emotions that assumes that facial expressions provide feedback to the brain concerning the emotion being expressed which in turn causes and intensifies the emotion

The facial feedback hypothesis is defined as—————-

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