Nutrition Ch. 13

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A low-birthweight baby is nearly 40 times more likely to die in the first year of life than is a normal-weight baby.


A low-birthweight baby is defined as one who weighs less than 5 1/2 pounds.


The two weeks following fertilization are considered to be a critical period developmentally for the zygote.


During pregnancy, the recommended carbohydrate intake is less than 175 grams per day.


Folate fortification has lowered the number of neural tube defects that occur each year.


The DRI recommendation for calcium intake is higher for pregnant than non- pregnant women in the same age group.


The weight that pregnant women put on is nearly all fat tissue.


A sudden, large weight gain during pregnancy is always a danger signal.


For normal-weight women, the ideal pattern of weight gain during the first trimester is one pound per week.


Physical activity during pregnancy can improve fitness, facilitate labor, and reduce psychological stress.


The FDA and EPA advise pregnant women to limit seafood consumption to 3 ounces a week of a variety of safer fish and shellfish such as canned light tuna, salmon, and shrimp.


All pregnant women should be assessed for glucose tolerance during one of their prenatal examinations.


The composition of breast milk changes from early milk for the newborn to later milk to feed the older infant.


An initial goal for management of overweight and obesity in children is to encourage moderate weight loss.


Which of the following is the single most potent indicator of an infant’s future health status?

infant’s birthweight

Which of the following is the major factor in low birthweight?

poor nutrition

The stage of human gestation from eight weeks after conception until birth of an infant is called a(an):


Which of the following determines whether the mother is able to grow a healthy placenta?

the mother’s prepregnancy nutrition

All of the following statements are true concerning the placenta except:

the fetus receives nutrients and carbon dioxide across the placenta.

At eight weeks of development, the fetus is characterized by:

a beating heart. a fully formed digestive system.

Early malnutrition in the mother affects the baby’s:

heart. brain.

During the second trimester of pregnancy, a daily increase of _____ calories above the allowance for nonpregnant women is recommended.


A pregnant woman needs about _____ grams of protein per day above prepregnancy needs.


All pregnant women need generous amounts of _____ to spare their protein and to provide energy.


The pregnant woman’s greater need for folate is due to:

the great increase in her blood volume. the rapid growth of the fetus.

Which of the following nutrients is related to the prevention of neural tube defects?


All of the following are recommended for vegetarian women who are pregnant except:

high-protein supplements.

To obtain the folate that can reduce the risk of neural tube defects, a woman who is capable of becoming pregnant should:

eat folate-fortified foods. eat folate-rich foods.

Fortified food sources of folate include all of the following except:

orange juice.

Which of the following does not contain vitamin B12?


Which of the following is among the minerals that are in great demand during pregnancy because they are involved in building the skeleton?

phosphorus magnesium

A pregnant woman should strive to meet her DRI for _____ by increasing intakes of milk, cheese, yogurt, and other foods rich in this mineral, or by taking a 600 mg supplement daily.


Which of the following statements is(are) true concerning iron during pregnancy?

The body conserves iron even more than usual. Iron supplements are needed.

A pregnancy weight gain of _____ pounds is recommended for women who are at their appropriate weights.


The ideal pattern of weight gain for a healthy-weight woman is thought to be about _____ pounds total during the first three months of pregnancy.

3 1/2

A pregnant teenager with a body mass index in the normal range is encouraged to gain _____ pounds or so.


A woman who craves nonnutritious substances during pregnancy:

may have a nutrient-poor diet. is experiencing pica.

The nausea of morning sickness:

arises from hormonal changes of early pregnancy. can often be alleviated.

Constipation during pregnancy should be relieved by:

a high-fiber diet. plentiful water intake.

To prevent heartburn during pregnancy you would recommend:

relaxing and eating slowly. avoiding greasy and spicy foods.

Which of the following should be avoided during pregnancy?

alcohol dieting

Prenatal exposure to alcohol can result in which of the following fetal alcohol spectrum disorders in children?

mood disorders and problem behaviors diagnosed in preschool years

Alcohol consumption by women during pregnancy can result in all of the following except:

blindness in infants.

Risk factors for gestational diabetes include all of the following except:

low BMI before pregnancy.

Women who have uncontrolled high blood glucose levels during pregnancy may experience complications such as:

preterm labor.

Which of the following is not one of the key elements to help identify women with preeclampsia?


A nursing mother produces about _____ ounces of milk a day.


The effect of maternal nutritional deprivation during lactation is to:

reduce the quantity of milk.

Characteristics of breast milk include that:

its sodium content is low. its protein is largely alpha-lactalbumin.

If the water supply is severely deficient in _____, both breastfed and formula-fed infants require supplementation after six months of age.


Most babies are born with enough _____ to last about half a year.


It is desirable to begin feeding the infant iron-fortified cereals by about _____ months.


Which of the following is characteristic of colostrum?

it contains antibodies from the mother’s blood it contains white cells from the mother’s blood

The addition of foods to a baby’s diet should be governed by all of the following considerations except:

how often the baby cries.

Kathy has given birth to a small, low-birthweight infant. Which of the following most likely made the greatest contribution to this situation?

poor nutrition

An obese woman is trying to get pregnant with her first baby. What recommendation would you give her?

she should try to achieve a healthy pre-pregnancy weight first

Which woman is at risk of not developing a healthy placenta?

a woman with anorexia nervosa who is restricting her food intake

What effect does malnutrition during critical times of development in pregnancy have on the fetus?

impairment of the development of an organ is irreversible

Cindy experienced malnutrition late in her pregnancy. Which of the following organs of the infant will most likely be affected?


A nonpregnant woman requires 1600 calories per day to maintain her desirable body weight. How many calories per day would she need if she were in the third trimester of pregnancy?


A nonpregnant woman requires 46 grams of protein per day. How many grams per day would she need if she became pregnant?


Susie is a pregnant vegetarian who does not consume meat, fish, poultry, or animal products such as dairy foods or eggs. Susie would be at risk for developing a deficiency of:

vitamin B12.

Should all pregnant women take prenatal supplements of vitamins and minerals?

yes, because they contain the increased nutrient values needed during pregnancy

A 17-year-old girl still in high school has just become pregnant. What advice should she be given about her nutrient intake during pregnancy?

she needs to take a prenatal vitamin supplement to be certain she is getting enough folate

Nancy weighs 124 pounds and is at an appropriate weight for her height. How much should Nancy weigh at the end of her pregnancy?

149 – 159 pounds

You are counseling a pregnant woman who is experiencing "morning sickness." To alleviate this condition you tell her to:

sip a carbonated beverage before getting out of bed. nibble on a soda cracker before getting out of bed.

A woman who has just become pregnant is used to drinking 2 pots of coffee a day. What adjustments should she make in her caffeine consumption?

she should limit coffee consumption to one coffee cup a day

What should a woman who drinks a daily glass of wine with her dinner consider when she becomes pregnant?

even a small amount of alcohol during a critical growth period can be damaging

The development of fetal alcohol syndrome in infants is related to alcohol intake by a woman during her pregnancy. How does this syndrome affect the infant?

the most severe impact happens during the first two months of pregnancy

A woman has gained 30 pounds in her first two months of pregnancy and has been diagnosed with gestational diabetes. What should she know about her health risks from this condition?

this condition usually goes away after the baby is born

If a woman develops preeclampsia during her pregnancy she will most likely have to be concerned about which of the following?

most women will lose their symptoms within two days after delivery

What are the risks of hypertension during pregnancy?

both types increase the chance of heart attack and stroke

A woman who is breastfeeding is not able to eat enough food for two weeks because of a lack of money. What effect will it have on her breast milk?

the quantity of milk will decrease but it will still have nutritional adequacy

Beverly consumed 1500 calories daily before she became pregnant. Approximately how many calories per day should she consume during lactation?


An advantage for the mother of breastfeeding her infant would be:

conserving her iron stores for several months.

When compared to formula, breast milk offers the following protection against infections and allergies:

breast milk contains antibodies against diarrhea caused by a rotavirus.

A three-month-old baby girl who weighs 9 pounds needs how many calories each day?


A 5-month-old infant’s nutrient intake should include:

twice as much calcium as adults need on the basis of body weight.

When may the use of commercial formula for feeding an infant be appropriate?

when a premature infant has special medical needs

Billy is a 6-month-old infant. Which of the following foods should Billy consume?

pureed vegetables

Which of the following should be introduced first when feeding a baby?

rice cereal

If you want to make your own baby foods at home it is best to:

puree a small amount of cooked food before seasonings have been added.

To ensure that a 7-month-old infant receives adequate fat to provide essential fatty acids in his diet, he needs to have _____ calories from fat for 675 calories he is eating daily.


An estimated 85% of children with type 2 diabetes are:


An adolescent has a total cholesterol level of 180 mg/dL and an LDL of 115 mg/dL. This individual’s disease risk would be classified as:


Is a 10-year-old girl who has become very overweight during the past two years at risk for developing chronic diseases?

she is at risk of developing type 2 diabetes because of weight gain

An initial goal for obese children is to:

hold weight steady while they grow taller. slow their rate of gain.

What recommendation is most appropriate to help a 6-year-old obese boy to improve his health?

he should carry a refillable water bottle with him to drink instead of soft drinks

Which of the following would be the most appropriate family involvement with a child who is overweight?

encourage family outdoor activities together

Which of the following is (are) appropriate for children who are found to have high blood lipids?

reduction in saturated fat and trans fat age-appropriate intake of calories

Authorities recommend limiting sweetened soft drinks and punches in children’s diets for fear that overconsumption may promote:

obesity. excess calorie intake.

All of the following are recommendations for children from the Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans except:

children and adolescents should do 60 minutes of physical activity 3 days a week.

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