MGMT 371 Exam 3

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Which of the following is NOT one of the soft skills employers often find lacking in many Millennial applicants? (professional appearance, familiarity with social media, manners, punctuality, ability to communicate)

familiarity with social media

____________ includes the activities managers perform to plan for, attract, develop, and retain an effective workforce.

Human resource management

Which of the following is NOT part of the strategic human resource management process? (A. Plan for human resources needs.
B. Establish a grand strategy.
C. Recruit and select people.
D. Orient, train and develop personnel.
E. Negotiate employment contracts.)

Negotiate employment contracts.

What is the final step in the strategic human resource management process?

Perform appraisals of people.

________ capital is the economic or productive potential of employee knowledge and actions.


_______ capital is the economic or productive potential of strong, trusting, and cooperative relationships. This type of capital can help you land a job; a national survey of recruiters revealed that 74% had found the highest-quality applicants through employee referrals.


________________ is the purpose of the strategic human resource process.

Getting optimal work performance to help realize the company’s mission and vision

A specialist at UPS who rides with couriers to learn about delivery time measurements and potential service problems is conducting a job


Michele had been working as an executive assistant to the president for nearly 25 years, so when she retired, no one had a good idea of all that her job entailed. Before Michele retired, Sharon sat with her for two weeks to observe her duties and ask her to explain all the functions she performs as executive assistant to the president. Sharon was performing a(n)

job analysis.

A ______ summarizes what the holder of the job does and how and why he or she does it. For example, this document might state, "In this job, the worker delivers pizzas within a 10-mile radius of the pizzeria, quickly and promptly, while obeying all traffic laws and driving responsibly."

job description

In considering the staffing an organization might need in the future, human resource managers should

understand the organization’s vision and strategy in order to hire personnel to support them.

A(n) ___________ is a report listing your organization’s employees by name, education, training, languages, and other important information.

human resource inventory

To ________, Ricco, an HR manager, used reports from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics and the U.S. Census Bureau for information about his industry’s labor pool in his geographic area.

recruit from outside the organization

The ______________ enforce(s) procedures whereby employees may vote to have an union and for collective bargaining.

National Labor Relations Board

Which piece of legislation first established the U.S. federal minimum wage?

Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938

The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission was established by the _________________ Act.

Title VII of the Civil Rights Act

Which of the following helps guarantee nonhazardous working conditions for employees?

Occupational Safety and Health Act

The ____________ is a law that requires an extension of health insurance benefits after termination.

Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (COBRA)

The ________________ requires employers with more than 50 employees to provide health insurance.

Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act

A California software firm, MacroSoft, was growing rapidly and hiring frequently, but it primarily focused on campus recruiting at two California universities, UC Berkeley and Stanford. When one 45-year-old candidate did not get an interview after a phone screening, he went to the company’s website and noted all of the young people in charge. Which law allows him to file a discrimination lawsuit against MacroSoft?

Age Discrimination in Employment

Allie has a degenerative eye disease that is causing her to gradually lose her eyesight. When Allie asked her employer, TrueBlue Fashions, to purchase a low-vision computer for her use at work, she was fired. TrueBlue Fashions has violated the

Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA).

______ occurs when people are hired or promoted, or denied hiring or promotion, for reasons not relevant to the job.


After being referred by a friend, Hasina attended a job interview. She didn’t feel it went well, but she was surprised when her friend told her the boss didn’t like that Hasina had worn her hijab, a traditional headscarf worn by Muslim women. The boss told a coworker after the interview, "Our customers prefer working with Christians." Hasina is a victim of


Which type of workplace discrimination occurs when an organization uses an employment practice that results in unfavorable outcomes to a protected class? For example, by requiring that all employees have a high school diploma, the Mathis Construction Company essentially discriminates against those who did not graduate from high school.

adverse impact

If a firm gives all international assignments to people without disabilities, assuming they will therefore not require special accommodations, which type of workplace discrimination has occurred?

disparate treatment

For years, a mathematics professor experienced abusive behavior at a community college where he taught. It began with a group of managers spreading rumors and false accusations that threatened his job. The abuse was emotionally draining and took time and focus away from his job. The professor was the victim of


Which of the following statements about sexual harassment is true?

A person who feels he or she must acquiesce to a sexual proposition to keep his or her job is facing quid pro quo harassment.

Maria works in a manufacturing facility, Zap Auto Parts. Throughout the building there were posters and calendars of a sexually explicit nature, making Maria very uncomfortable. Zap Auto Parts

has a hostile work environment.

_______________ is the process of locating and attracting qualified applicants for jobs open in the organization.


________ entails job posting, which means placing information about job vacancies and qualifications in places where employees can see them such as on bulletin boards or the company’s intranet.

Internal recruiting

Which of the following is the most effective source of new employees?

employee referrals

Compared to internal recruiting, which of the following is true of external recruiting?

The process is more expensive and takes longer.

When Jason became one of three final candidates for a managerial position with a large pharmaceutical company, the hiring manager scheduled a special meeting with him. The two talked about the stressful deadlines and heavy travel required of the position, as well as the compensation and benefits. Jason appreciated that the hiring manager took the time to provide a(n)

realistic job preview

Which of the following statements about background information is FALSE? (A. The most prevalent distortion in a résumé is lying about skill sets. B. Applicants with weak credit scores are more likely to be unqualified and dishonest employees. C. Few employers look at the large e-portfolios created by job seekers in an attempt to impress recruiters. D. People sometimes attempt to cover gaps in employment history. E. Many résumés contain factual errors or falsehoods. )

Applicants with weak credit scores are more likely to be unqualified and dishonest employees

A(n) ______________ is susceptible to legal attack because some questions may infringe on non-job-related matters such as privacy, diversity, or disability.

unstructured interview

During a(n) _______________, Megan asked Jeff to tell her about the actions he took to overcome some sort of adversity.

behavioral description interview

Which of the following is a good suggestion for managers when conducting interviews?

After the interview, write a short report with a quantitative score of the candidate’s qualifications.

According to the law, which of the following is considered an employment test?

any procedure used in the employment selection decision process

The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator is a(n) ______ test.


When Jacqueline interviewed for a position as a computer programmer, she was asked to take a test on a particular programming language. Jacqueline took a(n) ______ test.


_____ is the degree to which a test measures the same thing consistently.


Which of the following is NOT one of the five steps in the training process?


Haley, an HR manager for Accurate Tool and Die, had a meeting with the Vice President of Safety to determine if the new safety training program appears to be effective in preventing and reducing the number of accidents on the shop floor. In which step of the training process is Haley engaged?


Which of the following training and development methods is most appropriate when people just need to learn facts such as work rules or legal matters?

videotapes, workbooks, and lectures

Sabra, an HR manager, is designing a training class for those working on the new cross-functional teams within her company. This class is aimed at improving group decision making and interpersonal relations. What method of delivery should Sabra choose?

role-playing, practice, and discussion

Which of the following is a typical off-the-job training method? (coaching, job rotation, e-learning, role-playing, planned work activities)


___________ refers to educating technical and operational employees in how to better do their current job.


Performance appraisal consists of

assessing performance and providing feedback.

MBO is consistent with a(n) ______ performance appraisal.


As a sales manager, Danyce is conducting performance appraisals for her team members. To do so, she tracks each person’s sales calls, amount of sales, and revenues on a quarterly basis. Danyce is using a(n) ______ system of appraisal.


_____ are subject to validity problems due to evaluator bias.

Trait appraisals

A _____ appraisal assesses employees on subjective attributes like attitude or leadership.


The type of performance appraisal that judges specific, observable aspects of performance like being on time for work is a(n) ______ appraisal.


Dora is conducting a performance appraisal for Sue, one of her employees. The company’s performance appraisal form asks her to rate Sue’s performance on various items like "Submits reports on time with minimal errors" on a scale from 1 to 5. Dora’s is using a ______ appraisal system.

behaviorally anchored rating scale (BARS)

A feedback technique in which an employee is appraised by her boss, peers, subordinates, and possibly clients is called a __________ appraisal.


Using 360-degree feedback appraisals makes it more difficult for managers to

unfairly favor or punish particular employees.

__________ is a performance review system in which all employees within a business unit are ranked against one another.

Forced ranking

Cody was surprised to learn that not everyone would receive a bonus this year. Instead, management planned to rank all of the employees in Cody’s division and award bonuses only to the top 20% in terms of sales. Cody’s company is using a(n) ______ performance review system.

forced ranking

The point of the performance appraisal is to

stimulate better job performance.

The best type of performance appraisal involves

giving employees continuous, real-time coaching, feedback, and solutions.

Which of the following is the best statement of performance feedback?

"Your last report contained seven errors which I think you could improve."

Which of the following statements is NOT true regarding performance appraisals and feedback?

Almost all workers believe that performance appraisals are objective and fair.

Which of the following is NOT a type of compensation? (wages, salaries, incentives, benefits, promotions)


Which of the following is NOT an example of an incentive? (stock options, commissions, profit-sharing plans, bonuses, education reimbursements)

education reimbursements

___________ are generous severance packages, negotiated by executives, which they receive if the company is taken over by another company.

Golden parachutes

Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of a successful incentive pay plan?

complex and comprehensive rules

In managing employees under an incentive pay plan, a manager should

regularly communicate with employees about the plan.

A manager must consider fairness, __________, and others’ resentments in considering a promotion of an employee.


Which of the following is NOT a principal reason for transferring an employee?

The employee is suspected of illegal behavior.

Being dismissed "for cause" means that

an employee is being fired for poor job performance or unacceptable behaviors.

The risk of "wrongful termination" lawsuits is reduced with careful


______ means that anyone can be dismissed at any time for any reason at all, or for no reason.

Employment at will

The three types of dismissals are ______, downsizings, and layoffs.


_______ are organizations of employees formed to protect and advance their members’ interests by bargaining with management over job-related issues.

Labor unions

The ___________________ is the part of the labor-management agreement that states that employees who receive union benefits must join the union, or at least pay dues to it.

union security clause

Bethany had a starring role in a film that was shot in her hometown of Baton Rouge, Louisiana. Though the Screen Actors Guild, an actors’ union, exists in Louisiana, Bethany was not required to join it because of the state’s ________ law.


Typically the ________ clause in a union contract is tied to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics’ consumer price index (CPI).

cost-of-living adjustment (COLA)

In 2011, when automakers began to create new jobs, new union hires were offered about half the pay ($14 an hour) that autoworkers were getting before ($28). This is an example of

two-tier wage contracts.

A binding decision may be sought from ________ if a grievance procedure is not sufficient to solve a labor-management dispute.

an arbitrator

Beginning with __________, a body of law has grown that requires organizations to provide employees with nonhazardous working conditions.

the Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA) of 1970

Which of the following is an effective way to deal with change and innovation? (A. Insist on success and punish failure. B. Offer different explanations for the change to different work groups. C. Hold closely to established methods of getting the job done. D. Innovate by varying existing products that are already on the market. E. Have the courage to follow your ideas.)

Have the courage to follow your ideas.

Which of the following is not a supertrend shaping the future of business? (A. more niche products B. information becoming a competitive advantage
C. traditional companies struggling with radically innovative change
D. offshore suppliers affecting U.S. business
E. faster speed-to-market)

information becoming a competitive advantage

________ change is made in response to arising problems or opportunities. BP’s response to an explosion on a drilling platform in the Gulf of Mexico is an example of this kind of change.


Which of the following is an example of a proactive change?

Ciara explores improvements in bonus structures with her staff and begins to implement them despite the fact that her employees are generally content.

Walmart’s implementation of RFID, a type of technology that allows it to improve inventory tracking, is an example of a(n) ______ change because Walmart already had a very effective technology tracking system in place before it implemented RFID.


Which of the following is an example of a force for change originating outside the organization? (A. productivity issues B. conflict management C. structural reorganization D. social and political pressures E. absenteeism)

social and political pressures

The increasing diversity of the American workforce, and the fact that people aged 18-34 are more likely to be living with their parents than with a spouse or partner, are both examples of a(n) ______ force for change.


The invention of a machine to make plastic corks for wine bottles has severely affected companies that produce traditional cork. The invention of the machine for making plastic corks is an example of a(n) ______ advancement.


In the Internet Age, retailers like Amazon and Apple are not constrained by physical shelf space and can offer consumers a much wider variety of products; yet small sales, one or two rather than millions of items at a time, can produce big profits. This development is an example of

the marketplace becoming more segmented and moving toward more niche products.

Which of the following is an inside force for change? (A. domestic competition B. recession C. advancements in automation D. immigration E. low productivity and turnover)

low productivity and turnover

Social media (LinkedIn, Facebook) can make the search for new employees more efficient. The rise of social media is an example of a(n) __________ advancement or force.


Which of the following is not an inside force that indicates organizational change might be needed? (A. high turnover B. excessive conflict between managers and employees C. increased competition D. high levels of stress among employees E.job dissatisfaction)

increased competition

Firms such as General Motors and McDonald’s actively collect information about customer preferences and try to address them in their new products. General Motors and McDonald’s are actively trying to adapt to

shareholder, customer, and market changes.

The human resource manager at Helping Hands Inc. has just calculated that the employee absenteeism rate for 2016 is 15 percent higher than it was in 2015, and the turnover rate increased 18 percent over the same time period. Which of the following is NOT an option she should consider for improving the situation?

Wait until 2017 and see what the turnover rate is at the end of that year.

Joan, a new manager, must enforce sales report deadlines, but her team is struggling. She creates a new system to streamline the process and helps everyone understand why the deadlines are important. On which of the following internal forces is Joan trying to have an impact?

manager’s behavior

Studies exploring nurses’ perceptions about using PDAs in their daily patient practice found initial resistance, with some nurses concerned about the cost and short technological life cycle of these devices. As part of the __________ stage of change, the nurses’ managers try to instill in them the motivation to change, encouraging them to let go of attitudes and behaviors that are resistant to innovation.


Sparkling Clean, Inc. is considering implementing a system that will pay its cleaning workers based on the number of completed residential jobs, coupled with satisfactory ratings on random inspections to ensure quality. This system is new to the organization, and it is an example of __________ change.


Northstar Insurance is about to begin using a program that will change the way its adjusters settle insurance claims. Adjusters will be able to complete an adjustment and issue a check right at the scene of the accident. Although employees are uncertain that the new system will work, other insurance agencies have been successful with this approach. At Northstar Insurance, the new program represents ________ change.


Appliance America’s customer complaints have increased because its drivers often get lost when attempting deliveries, which means that the deliveries arrived late. The drivers have resisted using GPS systems, claiming they know their territories. But managers are now encouraging them to look for the best solution to the increased level of customer complaints. Appliance America is in the ________ stage of Lewin’s change model.


________ is an emotional/behavioral response to real or imagined threats to an established work routine.

Resistance to change

Which of the following is not a factor that affects the level of resistance to change? (A. the gender of the change agent B. employee characteristics and perceptions of change C. the change agent’s leadership style D. change agent-employee relationship E. the change agent’s ability to empathize with the employee’s perspective)

the gender of the change agent

The two cofounders of Network Appliance, a data-storage firm in Sunnyvale, California, were feuding with each other because one founder couldn’t stick to his decisions, which drove the other founder crazy. A(n) ____________ began working with the warring executives in separate sessions to solve the problem.

organizational behavior specialist

Employees are likely to see an adaptive change as

least threatening.

At Toys 4 Tiny Tots, employees know that during the December shopping season they are often required to work different schedules, weekends, and overtime. The December work schedules at Toys 4 Tiny Tots is an example of a(n) ______ change because workers have experienced it in the past. (They experience it every December.)


As owner and senior accountant at a tax preparation firm, Mark is changing the work schedule of all employees, including managers and accountants, for the months of March and April, the company’s busiest time. He is requiring everyone to work on weekends, just as he has during the tax-preparation season for the last ten years. Mark should expect that his employees will be

hardly upset or not upset at all.

___________ change introduces a new practice to an organization but one that is not new to the industry.


An innovative change involves ______ complexity, cost, and uncertainty.


Teachers Credit Union has decided that tellers must rotate through a new weekend shift on Saturday afternoons because several of its financial competitors have recently begun to offer additional hours to customers. Teachers Credit Union is implementing a(n) ______ change.


A(n) _____ change involves introducing a practice that is new to the industry, such as using drones (rather than delivery trucks) to deliver products to customers.

radically innovative

Links Cable Network has decided to offer a one-hour appointment window for customers needing installation or repair of its service, which will require the company to have several technicians on call. Links hopes this practice will give it an advantage over the competition, none of which have adopted such a practice. Links Cable Network is introducing a(n) ______ change.

radically innovative

Which of the following is not a leading reason that employees resist change? (A. individual predisposition toward change B. lack of personal ethics C. fear of failure D. climate of mistrust E. non-reinforcing reward systems)

lack of personal ethics

Lewin’s change model consists of

three stages: unfreezing, changing, and refreezing.

During Lewin’s changing stage, managers should

give employees new information, perspectives, and models for behavior.

During Lewin’s refreezing stage, managers should

encourage and reinforce the desired change in the employees.

_______ is the process by which a company compares its performance with that of high-performing organizations.


After Mary’s Gifts and Cards surveyed its customers, it discovered that its customers preferred the company’s competition more than 70 percent of the time. The most frequently cited reason was customer service. During which stage of Lewin’s change model should Mary provide her employees with this information about the problems with customer service?


_____________ is the set of techniques used for implementing planned change to make people and organizations more effective.

Organizational development

A _______ often puts organizational development into practice.

change agent

Which of the following is not one of the primary uses of OD? (A. adapting to a merger B. improving recruitment C. managing conflict D. revitalizing an organization E. adapting to an acquisition)

improving recruitment

In which one of the following situations would OD techniques be the most helpful? (A. increasing efficiency among employees in a firm B. helping employees from two similar organizations work better together in a strategic alliance C. dealing with employee stress that comes from revitalizing an organization or adapting to a merger D. facilitating discussion of ethical issues in preparing a company’s code of ethics E. working with the CEO to determine how to increase profitability )

dealing with employee stress that comes from revitalizing an organization or adapting to a merger

As an OD consultant, Sharon is designing a survey of employee attitudes to be given to workers at SW Emergency Clinic, a provider of emergency-care services in a low-income neighborhood. In collecting this information, Sharon is conducting the ______ stage of OD.


"What shall we do about the problem?" is the question that would most likely be asked during the ______ stage of OD.

treatment or intervention

Omar, an OD consultant, is working with members of a cross-functional team to build cohesiveness and practice skills to function better as a team. Omar is conducting the ______ stage of the OD process.

treatment or intervention

A year after she assisted Thomas Engineering in making changes to an employee incentive plan, Kara, an OD consultant, is visiting the company to determine if the changes were helpful. Kara will compare sales and turnover data from the last three years to the current year. Kara is in the ______ stage of the OD process.


Which of the following circumstances is unlikely to increase the success of OD?
(A. consideration of cross-cultural differences B. single intervention C. top management support D. goals geared to short-term results E. goals geared to long-term results)

single intervention

When it comes to learning from failure in the innovation process, former Procter & Gamble CEO A. G. Lafley suggests that the key is to

fail early, fail cheaply, and don’t make the same mistake twice

Which of the following factors most reduces an organization’s ability to learn from failure? (A. employees who like to experiment with multiple solutions
B. employees who blame others for failure
C. employees with a strong desire to acquire personal wealth
D. employees who embrace a learning culture
E.employees with a high tolerance for ambiguity)

employees who blame others for failure

Which of the following is NOT one of Scott Berkun’s seeds of innovation for organizations? (A. hard work in a specific direction B. curiosity C. necessity D. wealth and money E. philanthropy)


A technological innovation that improves the performance and speed of a computer’s operating system would be considered a(n) ______ innovation.


A(n) ______ innovation is a change in the way a product or service is conceived, manufactured, or disseminated.


A managerial innovation that improves the efficiency of a company’s cross-functional teams would be considered a ______ innovation.


The management department at a local university began posting all assignments and other class materials to a course management website instead of creating a packet or printed materials for students to purchase each term. The management department is implementing a ______ innovation.


Personal Care Products recently introduced a new acai berry shampoo. Rinn, director of new product development, has just reviewed the dismal results. As it appears that his team adequately researched the product’s acceptance by consumers prior to its introduction, he is confused by the outcome. But to keep his team open to innovation, Rinn should

foster an innovative culture and climate that permits experimentation, risk taking, and failure.

Which of the following is not a way to encourage and foster innovation? (A. creating an innovation strategy
B. supporting innovation with investments of time and money
C. withholding raises and promotions when innovation attempts don’t work out
D. getting commitment from top managers
E. obtaining the necessary human resources)

withholding raises and promotions when innovation attempts don’t work out

Which of the following jobs are least likely to be taken over by automation? (A. knowledge-work jobs that require creativity and problem solving B. bookkeeping jobs C. clerical jobs D. assembly-line jobs E. jobs that require unskilled labor)

knowledge-work jobs that require creativity and problem solving

According to the systems model of change, which of the following is not an input? (A. the organization’s mission statement B. the organization’s vision statement C. the organization’s products or services D. the organization’s strategic plan E. an analysis of the organization’s readiness for change)

the organization’s products or services

Suppose a soft-drink company, Loco Cola, is conducting a force-field analysis to determine which forces could facilitate a proposed change (the introduction of a new lemon-lime soda) and which forces could act against it. Which of the following would Loco Cola consider a counterthruster?

Loco Cola has never been able to gain any significant market share outside of the Midwest.

Workplace stress diminishes all of the following except _____. (A. positive emotions. B. job satisfaction. C. organizational commitment. D. job performance. E. job turnover.)

job turnover.

______ consists of stable psychological traits and behavioral attributes that give a person his or her identity.


Which of the following is not one of the Big Five personality dimensions? (A. tolerance for ambiguity B. extroversion C. agreeableness D. conscientiousness E. emotional stability)

tolerance for ambiguity

______ is the personality dimension that describes how intellectual, imaginative, curious, and broad-minded a person is.

Openness to experience

______ is the personality dimension that describes how achievement-oriented and persistent a person is.


Matt is frequently nervous, tense, and worried, both at work and at home. He likely scores low on which of the Big Five personality dimensions?

emotional stability

Julio really enjoys mingling at work functions, both to network for new contacts and simply to share stories with other interesting people. Julio probably scores high in


Ana Maria believes that she controls her own destiny. She is a rather shy person who is extremely dependable and responsible, and her coworkers respect her greatly. Ana Maria has a(n) ______ locus of control and would rate high on the _______ dimension of personality.

internal, conscientiousness

Paolo is always coming up with new ideas and seeking funding to explore them. He sees opportunities in the marketplace and wants to be the first person to come up with new products and services that customers want. Paolo, a person who is apt to take initiative and persevere to influence the environment, has a(n) ______ personality.


If you have a(n) ____________, you believe you control your own destiny.

internal locus of control

People with ______ exhibit less anxiety, greater motivation, and stronger expectations that effort leads to performance.

an internal locus of control

Employees with a(n) ______ locus of control will probably resist close managerial supervision and should probably be placed in jobs requiring high initiative and lower compliance.


Carolina’s manager notices that she exhibits an internal locus of control when she speaks about her work. Her manager should

provide incentives such as merit pay or sales commissions.

__________ is the extent to which people feel secure and unworried.

Emotional stability

Boring, tedious jobs generally reduce people’s perceptions of their


Brad supervises several employees who seem to have low self-efficacy. To improve this situation, he should do all the following except

avoid rewarding small successes.

_____________ is the extent to which people like or dislike themselves.


People with low self-esteem ______ than those with higher self-esteem.

are more dependent on others

If a manager knows one of her employees has low self-esteem and wishes to enhance it, she should

reinforce the employee’s positive attributes and skills.

People high in ______ are responsive to others’ social and interpersonal cues.

emotional intelligence

Those high in this emotional intelligence trait tend to be empathetic.

social awareness

Which of the following is not a trait of emotional intelligence?


_______________ is the ability to control your emotions and act with honesty and integrity in reliable and adaptable ways.


The interdisciplinary field of organizational ______ tries to explain and predict workplace behavior to help managers better lead and motivate others.


________ are abstract ideals that guide one’s thinking and behavior across all situations.


The three components of ______ are affective, cognitive, and behavioral.


The ______ component of an attitude consists of the beliefs and knowledge one has about a situation.


The statement "I really don’t like that Ivan got so angry in that meeting" reflects the ______ component of an attitude.


The statement "I won’t give Roberto such a tight deadline again" reflects the ______ component of an attitude.

behavioral or intentional

The statement "Drew is slow to return phone calls" reflects the ______ component of an attitude.


Because people are uncomfortable with inconsistency between their attitudes and behaviors, they will seek to reduce

cognitive dissonance.

Under which of the following circumstances would the desire to reduce cognitive dissonance be greatest?

when large amounts of money are on the line

Which of the following is not one of the main ways to reduce cognitive dissonance?

Complete an emotional intelligence assessment.

According to Festinger, how people deal with cognitive dissonance depends on three factors. Which are the correct three factors?

importance, control, and rewards

_____________ is the process of interpreting and understanding one’s environment.


Which of the following is not a step in the perceptual process? (A. causal attribution B. retrieving from memory to make judgments and decisions C. selective attention D. interpretation and evaluation E. storing in memory)

causal attribution

Which of the following is NOT a distortion in perception?

cognitive dissonance

________ is the tendency to attribute to an individual the characteristics one believes are typical of the group to which that individual belongs.


Ted was hiring a new financial analyst, and he had several good candidates. He was leaning toward hiring Akiko, a Japanese American woman, because he thinks Asians are better at math. Ted is exhibiting which distortion in perception?


______ occurs when we form an impression of an individual based on a single trait.

The halo effect

______ is the tendency to remember recent information better than earlier information.

The recency effect

____ is the tendency to attribute another person’s behavior to his or her personal characteristics rather than to the situation the person is in.

Fundamental attribution bias

Because she beat her goal this year by nearly 30 percent, Lori has been telling everyone in the sales department of her incredible skill as a salesperson. But last year when she didn’t even reach her goal, she said her failure was due to the poor economy. Lori provides an example of

self-serving bias.

A server expects a group of poorly dressed customers to be stingy tippers and gives them poor service, so he gets the result that he expects, a very small tip. This is an example of

a self-fulfilling prophecy.

________________ is the extent to which employees have positive or negative feelings about various aspects of their work.

Job satisfaction

Carol really doesn’t like her new boss and is not happy with the new tasks she’s been assigned and the long hours she’s been working. Still, she truly believes in what the company is trying to accomplish. Carol has

low job satisfaction.

A person’s overall satisfaction with work depends on how he or she feels about several components. Which of the following is not one of these components?

life outside of work

Job satisfaction results in stronger ______ and lower levels of ______.

organizational commitment; perceived stress

____ is the extent to which an employee identifies with an organization and is committed to its goals.

Organizational commitment

________ programs help employees integrate and transition to a new job.


________ behaviors are employee behaviors that exceed the work-role requirements for the job.

Organizational citizenship

Melissa impressed her boss by making many suggestions for department improvements and by putting in many weekend hours to do extra tasks to develop the new procedures. Melissa is exhibiting

organizational citizenship behavior.

Absenteeism, drug and alcohol abuse, and disciplinary problems are examples of

counterproductive work behaviors.

______ represent(s) all the ways people are unlike and alike.


Which of the following is not one of the four layers of the diversity wheel?

management status

______ is at the center of the diversity wheel.


Organizational dimensions, the outer layer of the diversity wheel, include all of the following except


Which of the following dimensions is not an example of an external or secondary dimension on the diversity wheel?


Which of the following dimensions is an example of an organizational dimension on the diversity wheel? (A. income B. volunteer experience C. educational background D. union affiliation E. physical abilities)

union affiliation

Which of the following diversity issues is true in the U.S. workforce?

By 2060, the white population is projected to change from 77.5 percent in 2014 to 68.5 percent, African Americans from 13.2 percent to 14.3 percent, Asians from 5.4 percent to 9.3 percent, Hispanics or Latinos from 17.4 percent to 28.6 percent, and American Indian/Alaskan Native from 1.2 percent to 1.5 percent.

Which of the following is a common reason that some women face a glass ceiling? (A. poor goal setting B. inability to motivate others C. lack of mentors D. poor financial performance E. inability to produce high-quality work)

lack of mentors

The Americans with Disabilities Act requires employers to

reasonably accommodate an individual’s disability.

Jake has a master’s degree in psychology, but he is working at a sunglasses cart in the mall. He is currently experiencing


______ is the belief that one’s native country, culture, language, abilities, or behavior is superior to those of another culture.


Investors who are more likely to buy a stock if they see something about it in the news or if it has a high one-day return are experiencing

the recency effect.

______ is the tension people feel when they are facing or enduring extraordinary demands, constraints, or opportunities and are uncertain about their ability to handle them effectively.


An example of _______ would be when a manager expects employees to perform badly, they probably will, and when the manger expects them to perform well, they probably will.

a self-fulfilling prophecy, or the Pygmalion effect,

When others’ expectations exceed one’s ability, ______ occurs.

role overload

You have important clients in town who want to have dinner with you, but your mother has a plumbing leak and has asked you to come over and shut off the water until she can get it fixed tomorrow. You are experiencing

role conflict.

Which of the following is NOT a symptom of negative stress?

slurred speech

______ is a state of emotional, mental, and even physical exhaustion, expressed as listlessness, indifference, or frustration.


Which of the following is the most common drug of abuse? (A. marijuana B. tranquilizers C. prescription pain medication D. alcohol E. methamphetamine)


A(n) ______ program includes plans to help employees cope with stress, burnout, substance abuse, health problems, and family issues that influence job performance.

employee assistance

Which of the following is not a suggested strategy for reducing unhealthy stressors in organizations? (A. provide employee assistance programs
B. recommend a holistic wellness approach
C. make jobs interesting
D. develop a more formal structure with close, authoritative supervision
E. make career counseling available)

develop a more formal structure with close, authoritative supervision

Which of the following statements is not true of Millennial employees? (A. They want acclaim and think everyone should get a trophy. B. They are racially and ethnically diverse. C. Many are burdened by financial hardships. D. Many live with their parents. E. Many are unable to afford their own homes due to student-loan debt.)

They want acclaim and think everyone should get a trophy.

Employees at KarKare, Inc., believe that the company is fair to all employees, regardless of their age, gender, race, ethnicity, sexual orientation, or disability. It is accurate to say that KarKare has a positive

diversity climate.

______ is the set of psychological processes that arouse and direct goal-directed behavior.


Which of the following is not a simple model of motivation? (A. unfulfilled need B. motivation C. behaviors D. rewards E. punishment)


Ricardo’s sales manager just informed his sales team that all sales in January will earn an extra 5 percent commission. The team gets right to work, being motivated by a(n)

extrinsic reward.

Paula’s management professor just told her class that the final exam is optional for students like Paula who currently have an A. Paula decides to take the exam anyway because she likes the subject and wants to master the material. Paula is motivated to take the exam by a(n)

intrinsic reward.

Content perspectives, also known as need-based perspectives, include all except which one of the following theories?

equity theory

Maslow’s levels of needs, in order from lowest (most basic) to highest level, are

physiological, safety, love, esteem, and self-actualization.

According to Maslow, the need for status, reputation, and recognition is part of a person’s _____ needs.


After three shuttle accidents in three months, one of which resulted in a critical injury to a driver, Citywide Shuttle drivers received additional training, and the company retrofitted all shuttles with new braking systems. Which of Maslow’s needs are addressed by Citywide Shuttle’s actions?


An accounting firm reimburses employees for tuition and fees if they complete job-related coursework with a B or better. The accounting firm’s tuition-reimbursement policy helps its employees meet their _______ needs.


For managers, the importance of Maslow’s contribution is that he showed that workers

have needs beyond that of just earning a paycheck.

To achieve psychological growth, according to the self-determination theory, people need to satisfy the three innate needs: _______, autonomy, and competence.


Using self-determination theory to motivate employees at Cloud9, a data storage company, the vice chair makes 10-20 phone calls a day to thank special employees "caught doing something right." The vice chair is fulfilling her employees’ ______ needs.


According to the acquired needs theory, the desire to influence others is part of the need for


Sharon has excelled as an auditor for a large financial consulting firm. She loves building mutually beneficial relationships and is extremely well liked by her clients. Sharon likely has a

high need for affiliation.

Even when he started his first job, Will was not content to be just one of the employees. His boss noticed that he often coached his coworkers about ways to improve their work, even when it wasn’t his job. Will probably has a

high need for power.

Sue is very aggressive at her job, and her coworkers complain that she often manipulates them and her boss in order to get ahead. She attempts to direct everything and everyone, regardless of the consequences to others or even the organization itself. Sue is expressing what type of need for power?


McClelland’s need for achievement corresponds most closely to

Maslow’s self-actualization needs.

According to Herzberg, which of the following is an example of a motivating factor?

the work itself

According to Herzberg, which of the following is an example of a hygiene factor?

interpersonal relationships

According to Herzberg’s two-factor theory, in the zone between the motivating factors and the hygiene factors, employees are

neither satisfied nor dissatisfied.

According to Herzberg’s two-factor theory, only ______ factors can make employees satisfied with their jobs.


______________ is a model of motivation that explains how people strive for fairness and justice in social exchanges or give-and-take relationships.

Equity theory

Clint is a branch manager for a large freight company. He has noticed low morale lately, perhaps because of the cramped quarters, stricter policies, and lack of raises this year. According to Herzberg, Clint should first concentrate on

hygiene factors.

According to Herzberg’s theory, the first thing managers of employees who dislike their jobs should do is to

make sure pay levels, policies, and working conditions are reasonable.

_______ perspectives are theories that try to understand the thought processes by which people decide how to act.


Which of the following is a process perspective on motivation? (A. self-determination theory B. job characteristics model C. two-factor theory D. goal-setting theory E. acquired needs theory)

goal-setting theory

In equity theory, employees are motivated to

resolve feelings of injustice and see fairness in the rewards they expect for task performance.

When workers perceive they are being treated fairly on the job, they are most likely to

support organizational change.

Randy complained to his boss, Maryann, that he received the same bonus this quarter as everyone else, despite the longer hours he had worked and his higher level of experience, production, and efficiency. If Maryann can’t change the bonus, she should expect that Randy might respond in any of the following ways

ignoring his feeling of resentment and trying harder in next quarter.

The theory under which people make the choice that promises them the greatest reward if they think they can get it is

expectancy theory.

After struggling with the accounting training, Peter is unsure whether he can complete the end-of-year financial reporting with no errors in the time allotted. In this case, Peter is low on the ______ element of expectancy theory.


______ is the expectation that successful performance of the task will lead to the desired outcome.


At his review last year, Bryan was promised a 20 percent raise if he met his production goals. Raises were included in today’s paychecks, and although Bryan has met all of his goals, he received only a cost-of-living raise. In the future, Bryan’s ______ will probably be ______.

instrumentality; low

The HR manager told Jim that the company pays the total health insurance costs for a family of four. As a single man, this benefit did not seem especially important to him right now. Here, Jim is low on the ______ element of the expectancy theory.


When using goal-setting theory to motivate employees, managers should

help workers understand and accept the goals.

Goal-setting theory suggests that employees can be motivated by goals that have all of the following characteristics except (A. specific. B. achievable. C. linked to an action plan. D. little or no feedback. E. challenging.)

little or no feedback.

According to goal-setting theory, goal setting helps motivate you by doing all the following except (A. directing your attention toward goal-relevant tasks and away from irrelevant ones. B. making obstacles become challenges to be overcome, not reasons to fail. C. making it more likely you will realize success. D. regulating the effort expended. E. taking attention away from real work.)

taking attention away from real work.

Which of the following is the best statement of a goal? (A. Give your very best effort.
B. Get through most of those reports by 9/1.
C. Increase customer satisfaction.
D. Reduce production errors by 10 percent by the end of the quarter.
E. Be late to work less often.)

Reduce production errors by 10 percent by the end of the quarter.

______ involves division of an organization’s work among its employees and applies motivational theories to jobs to increase satisfaction and performance.

Job design

__________ is the process of increasing the number of tasks in a job to increase variety and motivation.

Job enlargement

Research shows that simplified jobs lead to all the following except (A. job dissatisfaction. B. poor mental health. C. low sense of accomplishment. D. low personal growth. E. increased productivity.)

increased productivity.

Job ______ is the opposite of ______.

enlargement; scientific management

______ is the process of building into a job such motivating factors as recognition and achievement.

Job enrichment

Michele’s job as an accounting assistant was recently modified to include reconciling bank accounts and making deposits, two tasks previously done by the accounting manager. This increase in responsibility would best be described as

job enrichment.

Of the following, which is not a core job characteristic? (A. autonomy B. skill variety C. task significance D. teamwork E. task identity)


A technician who is responsible for keeping an airport’s control tower’s electronic equipment in working order has higher ____________ than a person wiping down cars in a carwash.

task significance

_______ is the extent to which a job allows an employee to make decisions about scheduling different tasks and deciding how to perform them.


Victoria runs a flower shop. She recently made some changes so that one employee answers phones and completes the order and payment process, while another creates arrangements, and a third packages and delivers floral arrangements. Previously, each employee was responsible for the order from the phone call through the delivery. Victoria has made changes to

task identity.

As a maintenance person for the air force, Alex services aircraft engines, which protects the lives and safety of military personnel and increases their ability to conduct missions. Alex’s job has a high level of

task significance.

Which of the following is NOT a contingency factor in the job characteristics model? (A. autonomy B. knowledge C. skills D. desire for personal growth E. context satisfactions such as right working conditions and pay)


The motivating potential score (MPS) is calculated as part of using

the job characteristics model.

____________ is the theory that attempts to explain behavior change by suggesting that behavior with positive consequences tends to be repeated while behavior with negative consequences tends not to be repeated.

Reinforcement theory

_______ is the use of desirable consequences to strengthen a particular behavior.

Positive reinforcement

______ is the process of strengthening a behavior by withdrawing something negative.

Negative reinforcement

A supervisor told a salesperson who had not made any calls to clients and therefore did not make quota, "Well, if this continues in the next 30 days, you’ll probably be let go." The supervisor provides an example of _____ by presenting the likely negative outcome to the salesperson.


_____ is the weakening of behavior by ignoring it or making sure it is not reinforced.


It has been two years since any employee has received a bonus at Tech Outlet, and the possibility of getting one no longer seems to motivate employees. In this case, management has inadvertently applied


Ted’s manager required him to give up his company car because he had missed sales goals for four consecutive quarters. Ted’s manager used


In using reinforcement, a manager should

clearly communicate the desired behavior.

When using punishment, a manager should

do it in conjunction with positive reinforcement.

Which of the following is not an advisable criterion for an effective incentive plan? (A. The rewards are believable and achievable. B. Measurable rewards are linked to performance. C. The rewards require record-setting performance. D. The rewards satisfy individual needs. E. The rewards are agreed on by the manager and employees. )

The rewards require record-setting performance.

A sales commission is an example of a ______ compensation plan.


José has a summer job hand-dyeing shirts that will be sold on the boardwalk. He is paid $5.00 per shirt. José is being paid on a ______ compensation plan.


Nancy’s employer distributes checks at the end of each quarter, representing an equitable portion of 5 percent of the company’s pretax profits for the previous period. These checks represent

profit sharing.

A Scanlon plan is a type of ______ compensation plan.


Because the production division at Heavenly Gates Inc. is $10,000 below budget due to process improvements, this year 30 percent of the savings will be returned to the division to spend as desired, as a form of


Daniel teaches sixth grade at a local elementary school. He significantly increased his salary by earning a master’s degree in education. Daniel’s increased salary is an example of

pay for knowledge.

Which of the following is not a practice used to create a flexible workplace? (A. job sharing B. gainsharing C. telecommuting D. part-time work E. compressed workweeks)


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