MGMT 316 Final

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1. ​Shop Ahead, a retail mart, conducted a survey on how long a customer waits in a queue for billing. Based on the results of the survey, the company planned to modify the number of employees at the billing counter. While checking out of the mart, Shop Ahead asked all its customers to fill a form indicating the time they spent in the queue. All customers reported that they waited for 2, 5, or 10 minutes. Majority reported that they waited for 10 minutes. Based on the results, Shop Ahead added 10 cash counters to its existing 20. After a month, the management realized that the mart had more cash counters and employees than required. Which of the following is most likely the reason for the loss incurred due to overemployment in the mart?

The information provided in the survey was inaccurate.

2. ​The recruitment head at Auburn Inc. circulated an email to all the employees requesting them to share profiles of suitable candidates. Pamela forwarded one of her friends’ resume to the recruitment head as she felt that her friend’s expertise would suit the job description. Which of the following methods of recruitment has Auburn Inc. adopted in this scenario?

External Recruiting (Employee referrals)

3. ​Which of the following scenarios exemplifies fixed ratio reinforcement schedules?

Fixed Ratio Reinforcement Schedule: an intermittent schedule in which consequences are delivered following a specific number of behaviors Example: car salesperson might receive $1000 bonus after every 10 sales, therefore, a salesperson with only 9 sales would not receive the bonus until he finally sold a 10th car

4. ​According to McClelland,

Learned Needs Theory suggests that people are motivated by the need for affiliation, the need for achievement, or the need for power____.

5. ​Which of the following is most likely a result of minority domination?

team performance drops significantly, team members won’t feel accountable for their decisions and actions taken by the team, other members wont contribute

6. ​Which of the following is an advantage of virtual organizations?

lets companies share costs, members can quickly combine their efforts to meet customers needs, fast and flexible, provide better products and services because each member is the best at what it does

7. ​_____ are movements of the body and face that include arm and hand gestures, facial expressions, eye contact, folding arms, crossing legs, and leaning toward or away from another person.


8. ​Which of the following is true of goals?

a target, objective or a result that someone tries to accomplish.

9. ​A(n) _____ is a mental or physical impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities.


10. ​In the context of recruiting, which of the following kinds of information can be gathered by job analysis?

Work activities, the tools and equipment used in the job, the context in which the job is performed, the personnel requirements for the job

11. ​InfoQEN is a Wi-Fi router developer. A customer asked InfoQEN to develop a Wi-Fi router that can connect 10 devices simultaneously. InfoQEN developed the router and delivered it to the customer. After a day, the customer came back saying that the devices were not getting connected to the router as the router was located on a different floor. InfoQEN replied that if the distance between the router and devices is more than 10 meters, the devices will not get connected to the router. The device was built based on the number of devices to be connected and not on the possible distance between the devices and the router. To solve this problem, InfoQEN must now either redesign the router at additional costs or ask the customer to relocate the router. Which of the following is most likely the reason for this problem?

the information was incomplete?/Communication?

12. ​Rose knew by the shrillness of her teacher’s voice that she was really in trouble and would probably be placed in after-school detention. Rose’s teacher used _____ to communicate dismay.


13. ​Richa, an instrumentation engineer, has been assigned a challenging task of designing a specialized device to sterilize medical equipment. Richa believes that hard work and perseverance will help her perform well and complete the design on time. Her belief turns out to be a factor of motivation for her. As a result, she completes the project by meeting all the requirements on time. According to the expectancy theory, Richa is motivated by _____.

People will be motivated to the extent to which they believe that their efforts will lead to good performance, and that performance will be rewarded

14. ​Which of the following defines leadership?

The process of influencing an organized group toward accomplishing its goals.

15. ​Which of the following is an advantage of licensing?

allows companies to earn additional profits without investing more money; helps companies avoid tariff and nontariff barriers.

16. ​_____ is defined as the use of observable measures of worker behavior or outputs to assess performance and influence behavior.

Objective Control

17. ​Diversity drives business growth by:

diverse customers and markets

18. ​Which of the following is a software that encrypts Internet data at both ends of the transmission process?

Virtual private networks

19. ​_____ usually begins with the user telling the data mining software to look and test for specific patterns and relationships in a data set.

Supervised data mining

20. ​Which of the following best defines validation?

The process of determining how well a selection test or procedure predicts future job performance

21. ​Gigi, the owner of Café Mantra, gives small rewards—free movie tickets—to employees who regularly come to work on time and complete tasks assigned to them. Employees who break rules or deviate from company policy, however, often get a cut in their performance-linked incentives. Gigi appears to be using _____ with her employees.

transactional leadership

22. ​Ignatius Inc., a lock manufacturer, is part of a national program in which employers encourage disabled workers to work with ease. To help workers with sight impairments, Ignatius has provided them with magnifying lenses that give them the vision acuity as they need to work on the small parts within a lock. These lenses are an example of _____.

assistive technology

23. ​ ____ are foreign offices, facilities, and manufacturing plants that are 100 percent owned by the parent company.

Wholly owned affiliates

24. ​Due to an increase in the amount of employee turnover in a company, the company decided to be very thorough in gathering accurate information about the job applicants. It decided to uncover all job-related information not provided by the applicants in order to hire only those candidates who do not have an inconsistent employment history. This scenario illustrates that the company should conduct a _____.

Background Check

25. ​Which of the following is one of the mistakes that managers tend to make when they are coaching employees?

They wait too long before talking to employees about the problem.

26. ​Which of the following defines job posting?

The procedure for advertising job openings within the company to existing employees

27. ​To determine whether a control process is worthwhile, a company must consider its____

regulation costs and cybernetic feasibility

28. ​_____is a method of subdividing work and workers into separate organizational units that take responsibility for completing particular tasks.


29. ​Which of the following is a basic component of equity theory?

People will be motivated at work when they perceive that they are being treated fairly

30. ​_____ is the process of determining how well other companies perform business functions or tasks.


31. ​A female worker is working late hours at her office. Her manager approaches her on the pretext of inquiring about work updates. He casually turns the conversation into a personal one and starts touching her and making explicit remarks about her body. The female worker reacts furiously and tells the manager that she would take this issue to the human resources department. The manager feels intimidated and threatens her that if she files any complaints, her appraisal will be affected. This case is an example of _____.

Quid pro quo Sexual harassment

32. ​In the communication process, _____ makes senders aware of possible miscommunications and enables them to continue communicating until the receiver understands the intended message.

feedback to sender

33. ​Once a company compares its actual performance to performance standards, the next step that it should take in the control process is to:

identify and analyze deviations

34. ​Which of the following is a disadvantage of wholly owned affiliates?

Expense of building new operations or buying existing businesses

35. ​Which of the following statements is true of the Maastricht Treaty of Europe?

Purpose was to transform their twelve different economies into one common economic market, the EU, with one common currency

36. ​Which of the following is an external recruitment method?

Advertising, employee referrals, walk-ins, outside organizations, employment services, special events, Internet job sites, career portals on company websites, & social media

37. ​Which of the following statements is true of functional departmentalization?

Organizes work and workers into separate units responsible for particular business functions or areas of expertise; Benefits: smoother cross department communication, lower costs by reducing duplication, allows work to be done by highly talented specialists Drawbacks: Employees may be interested in doing what’s good for their fxn but not for the business, may lead to slower decision making, and produce workers w/ narrow expertise

38. ​In the context of task interdependence, in __ ___, different jobs or groups work together in a back-and-forth manner to complete an intraorganizational process.

recipricol interdependence

39. ​_____ is defined as a type of one-on-one communication used by managers to improve an employee’s on-the-job performance or behavior.


40. ​The two critical steps required to make sure that data can be accessed by approved users and no one else are:

authentication and authorization

41. ​Which of the following statements is true of compensation?

Includes both the financial and the nonfinancial rewards that organizations give employees in exchange for their work

42. ​When Liam, a marketing manager, drafts an email to communicate the targets for the upcoming months to his sales team, he is engaged in _____.

downward communication/Encoding

43. ​In empathetic listening, _____ is important because it demonstrates that one understands the speaker’s emotions.

reflecting feelings

44. ​By examining customer checkout details, a supermarket has learned that people who buy beer, typically, also buy a packet of salted snacks. As a result, the manager of the supermarket decides to place beer near the shelf with chips and pretzels. In this case, which of the following tools for processing information has the supermarket most likely used?

Supervised data mining?/Association or Affinity Patterns?

45. ​The government of a country is working to change employers’ perceptions of older workers and encourage companies to abandon mandatory retirement plans. In the context of dimensions of surface-level diversity, which of the following types of discrimination is the government trying to eliminate?


46. ​The _____ focuses on bringing different talents and perspectives together to make the best organizational decisions and to produce innovative, competitive products and services.

learning and effectiveness paradigm

47. ​Zenzar Corp. is a software firm that plans to hire technical writers for its new project. The job requires candidates with good technical writing skills. Which of the following tests would be appropriate to test this ability of candidates?

specific ability tests (aptitude test)

48. ​Which of the following is a characteristic of cognitive conflict?

Characteristics are a willingness to examine, compare, and reconcile differences to produce the best possible solution → productive conflict

49. ​The CEO of Fox Mart wants to know what his company’s financial position looked like on the 31st of December of the previous year. The financial report he should look at is the _____.

Balance Sheet

50. ​Which of the following best describes organizational plurality?

Definition: a work environment where 1) all members are empowered to contribute in a way that maximizes the benefits to the organization, customers, and themselves and 2) the individuality of each member is respected by not segmenting or polarizing people on the basis of their membership in a particular group

51. ​Organizational silence occurs when______

employees believe that telling management about problems won’t make a difference or that they’ll be punished or hurt in someway for sharing such information

52. ​Manuela, a Hispanic sales executive, is a new employee at Taupe Inc. Kevin, an Irish American, is also a marketing executive at Taupe with two years of experience. Kevin is assigned the task of mentoring Manuela. The objective of mentoring is not only to train Manuela but also to change employees’ stereotypical beliefs and attitudes about different ethnic groups. This scenario illustrates _____

diversity pairing

53. In the context of global markets, which of the following factors helps companies determine the growth potential of foreign markets?​

Purchasing Power or Foreign/Gloobal Competitors

54. ​Which of the following acts provides for jury trials and punitive damages for employment discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, gender, or national origin?

Civil Rights Act of 1991? Title VII of Civil Rights Act of 1964

55. ​Siddiqi has been a team leader for five years. He has now been promoted to the managerial role considering his leadership qualities and his ability to inspire people. According to McClelland’s Learned Needs Theory, Siddiqi has been motivated by ____

the need for power

56. ​Which of the following statements is true of standards?

Standards must enable goal achievement; standards are determined by listening to customer feedback, by observing competitors, and by benchmarking

57. ​Which of the following describes Fiedler’s contingency theory?

In order to maximize work group performance, leaders must be matched to the right leadership situation

58. ​Which of the following statements is true of the World Trade Organization?

Definition: the successor to GATT; the only international organization dealing with the global rules of trade between nations, its main function is to ensure that trade flows as smoothly, predictably, and freely as possible

59. ​_____ is defined as the use of hierarchical authority to influence employee behavior by rewarding or punishing employees for compliance or noncompliance with organizational policies, rules, and procedures.

Bureaucratic Control

60. ​Soundwave Communication Services has processed and archived a large amount of data on its servers. Due to a technical fault in its servers, it could not access the data. The company had to pay $3 million to technicians to regain access to the data. This is an example of _____ costs.


61. ​Which of the following is true of older workers?

They cost more: the older people are and the longer they stay with a company, the more the company pays for salaries, pension plans, and vacation time. They cost less: they show better judgment, care more about the quality of their work, and are less likely to quit, show up late, or be absent, the cost of which can be substantial; more likely to help others at work and are much less likely to use drugs or alcohol at work, engage in workplace aggression, or be involved in accidents; performance does not decline with age, regardless of the type of job.

62. ​The final step in setting standards by benchmarking is to ____

collect data to determine other companies performance standards

63. ​Which of the following is necessary for stretch goals to effectively motivate teams?

1) teams must have a high degree of autonomy or control over how they achieve their goals 2)teams must be empowered with control of resources such as budgets, workspaces, computers, or whatever else they need to do their jobs 3) teams need structural accommodation 4) teams need bureaucratic immunity

64. ​Unlike cognitive conflict, affective conflict:

often results in hostility, anger, resentment, distrust, cynicism and apathy; undermines team effectiveness by preventing teams from engaging in the activities characterisitcs of c type conflict that are critical to team effectiveness.

65. ​____ _ is the location of most authority at the upper levels of an organization.

centralization of authority

66. ​Mathew is a manager at Wonderworld Hypermarket. He finds it difficult to cooperate and work with Anthony when it comes to getting the work done to meet the sales targets. Anthony is Mathew’s least preferred subordinate. Mathew describes Anthony as gloomy, insincere, lazy, unfriendly, and boring when his boss asks for a feedback about his subordinates. In this scenario, Mathew is following a _____ leadership style.​

Particpipative Leadership/Task-oriented leadership

67. ​_____ is an agreement in which companies combine key resources, costs, risks, technology, and people.

Strategic alliance

68. ​When Lilah saw her guest wrinkling her nose, she realized that she had not cleaned the litter in her cat box. Nose wrinkling is an example of _____.

Body language/Kinesics

69. ​Social loafing occurs when:

Workers withhold their efforts and fail to perform their share of the work

70. ​Which of the following is a reason for downsizing?

Because of cost cutting, declining market share, previous overaggressive hiring and growth, or outsourcing

71. ​Which of the following exemplifies Fiedler’s contingency theory?

States that in order to maximize work group performance, leaders must be matched to the right leadership situation. First: leaders are effective when the work groups they lead perform well. So, instead of judging leaders’ effectiveness by what they do (that is, initiating structure and consideration) or who they are (that is, trait theory), assess leaders by the conduct and performance of the people they supervise. Second: leaders are generally unable to change their leadership styles and that they will be more effective when their styles are matched to the proper situation. Third: favorableness of a situation for a leader depends on the degree to which the situation permits the leader to influence the behavior of group members.

72. ​Which of the following statements is true of global consistency?

When a multinational company with offices, manufacturing plants, and distribution facilities in different countries uses the same rules, guidelines, and procedures to run all of the offices and plants

73. Recognizing deep-level diversity is important because it can:​

It can result in less prejudice, discrimination, and conflict in the workplace, which can lead to better social integration

74. ​Which of the following is an advantage of internal recruiting?

Improves employee commitment, morale, and motivation. Recruiting employees also reduces recruitment start up time and costs, and because employees are already familiar with the compnay’s culture and procedures, they are more likely to succeed in new jobs

75. ​Which of the following is a difference between a line function and a staff function?

Line function is an activity that contributes directly to creating or selling the company’s products and Staff function is such as accounting, human resources, or legal services, does not contribute directly to creating or selling the company’s products but instead supports line activities.

76. ​In which of the following ways can teams have healthy conflicts?

-Work with more, rather than less, information. -Develop multiple alternatives to enrich debate. -Establish common goals -Inject humor into the workplace. -Maintain a balance of power by involving as many people as possible in the decision process. -Resolve issues without forcing a consensus.

77. ​Which of the following steps should companies take to reduce age discrimination?

well-written and detailed discrimination policy or EEO policy that specifically prohibits age discrimination. avoid certain interview questions, don’t stereotype; Companies need to train managers and recruiters to make hiring and promotion decisions on the basis of qualifications, not age Companies nee to monitor the extent to which older workers recieiving training Need to ensure that younger and older workers interact with each other

78. ​According to some researches, deceptive answers have a slower onset than honest ones. In a job interview, these characteristics would be examples of _____ that may help the interviewer evaluate the job applicants.


79. ​As long as the associate editors at Zeal Publishing accurately proofread at least 100 pages of manuscript each day, they are free to come up with their own schedules and work styles to achieve their daily goal. Zeal Publishing appears to follow a _____ system.

Semi-autonomous work group

80. ​Which of the following is a characteristic of charismatic leaders?

Articulate a clear vision for the future that is based on strongly held values or morals, model those values by acting in a way consistent with the vision, communicate high performance expectations to followers, display confidence in followers’ abilities to achieve the vision; Strong confident dynamic personalities

81. ​In which of the following ways can companies ensure that people with disabilities have the same opportunities as everyone else?

Commit to reasonable workplace accommodations such as changing work schedules, reassigning jobs, acquiring or modifying equipment, or providing assistance when needed. Companies should actively recruit qualified workers with disabilities.

82. ​In the perception process, _____ is the process of incorporating new information into one’s existing knowledge.


83. ​Which of the following best defines a tariff?

A tax on imports

84. ​Which of the following describes positive reinforcement?

Rewarding desired behaviors

85. ​Staff function:

Such as accounting, human resources, or legal services, does not contribute directly to creating or selling the company’s products but instead supports line activities.

86. ​Alex works as an accountant in a pharmaceutical company. His job frequently demands that he work overtime. Lately, his health has been affected because of his workload. Alex is eligible for a promotion. But, the new position would demand longer working hours with double the current salary. Alex values his health over his pay check at the end of the month. In the context of expectancy theory, the promotion has a _____ for Alex.

low valence

87. ​A manufacturer of pharmaceuticals can access information about its sales and share confidential product information with drug store chains through the use of _____.

extranets; Management Information Systems or Virtual Private Networks? or Data Encryption

88. ​Which of the following is the most important factor in determining the success and failure of an international assignment?

how well an expatriate’s spouse and family adjust to the foreign culture

89. ​Rosemond Inc. manufactures cosmetics for women. Although majority of its customers are females, it has only 30 percent female employees. The company has been witnessing decline in sales as more innovative products have entered the market. The top management at Rosemond has realized that the company should understand customer needs and introduce new products. In this scenario, which of the following steps should Rosemond take to understand customer requirements?

Customer focus/feedback

90. ​Which of the following is a disadvantage of modular organizations?

Loss of control that occurs when key business activities are outsourced to other companies. Companies may reduce their competitive advantage if they mistakenly outsource a core business activity

91. ​Political uncertainty is the risk associated with:

major changes in political regimes that can result from war, revolution, death of political leaders, social unrest, or other influential events.

92. ​According to Fiedler’s contingency theory, relationship-oriented leaders with high Least Preferred Coworker (LPC) scores are better leaders under _____ situations.

moderately favorable

93. ​Which of the following is a difference between structured interviews and unstructured interviews?

Unstructured Interviews: interviews in which interviewers are free to ask the applicants anything they want Structured Interviews: interviews in which all applicants are asked the same set of standardized questions, usually including situational, behavioral, background, and job-knowledge questions

94. ​Which of the following statements is true of affective conflict?

Refers to the emotional reactions that can occur when disagreements become personal rather than professional. Strongly associated with decreases in team performance. Results in hostility, anger, resentment, distrust, cynicism, and apathy. Describe teammates as "manipulative," "secretive," "burned out," and "political." Can make people uncomfortable and cause them to withdraw and decrease their commitment to a team. Affective conflict also lowers the satisfaction of team members, may lead to personal hostility between coworkers, and can decrease team cohesiveness. Undermines team performance by preventing teams from engaging in the kinds of activities that are critical to team effectiveness.

95. ​_____ is a mechanism for gathering information about performance deficiencies before they occur.

feedfoward/concurrent control

96. ​Which of the following statements is true of listening?

Listening is a learned activity; It was one of the least mentioned strengths in CEO performance evals; it is "making a conscious effort to hear"; includes both active and empathetic listening

97. ​Which of the following statements is true of the Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA)?

Set standards for working conditions to protect workers from being hurt on the job

98. ​Carmine Inc. is a software firm that caters to the requirements of its clients. The company follows an employee-friendly workplace culture. Team members can access all vital and confidential data that is normally accessible only by managers. This helps in motivating the teams and keeping them well informed. This scenario illustrates that teamwork increases _____.

quality?/ Productivity?

99. ​Fusion is a fast-growing clothing chain that focuses on teenagers. Julie, the owner and founder of Fusion, consults with her employees on a daily basis for suggestions on what the stores should carry. An employee suggested that the stores should carry accessories like handbags. The employee’s suggestion was an example of _____

upward communication.

100. ​Identify a true statement about a self-control system.

a control system in which managers and workers control their own behavior by setting their own goals, monitoring their own progress, and rewarding themselves for goal achievement

101. ​Darlene Jespersen used to work in a sports bar. Despite being nominated by her manager for a promotion for her outstanding performance, the nomination was rejected, and a male coworker was awarded the promotion. Subsequently, Darlene’s manager informed her that she was not promoted because the post requires working extra hours, and the management considered that to be a difficult task for a female employee. This is an example of _____.

Sex based discrimination

102. ​A job candidate is rejected on the pretext that he is hearing impaired. Which of the following types of discrimination does this exemplify?

Discrimination based on disability

103. ​A local plumbing company installed global positioning satellite (GPS) tracking devices in all its trucks to make sure employees were going on service calls and not running personal errands. This is an example of _____.

Normative control

104. ​Baked Delights, a startup bakery, recently collected data on the quality and pricing of the products of Sweet Tooth, the largest and most popular bakery in the region, to help set up its own business standards. This is an example of _____.


105. ​Identify a true statement about team norms.

are often associated with positive outcomes such as stronger organizational commitment, more trust in management, and stronger job and organizational satisfaction. Negative ways: damaging organizational property; saying or doing something to hurt someone at work; intentionally doing one’s work badly, incorrectly, or slowly; griping about coworkers; deliberately bending or breaking rules; and doing something to harm the company or boss are negative behaviors.

106. ​It is commonly believed that older workers:

are less motivated, less productive, more prone to illness and accidents, not interested in learning new things, cost more, and make greater—more expensive—use of health care benefits.

107. ​Which of the following is true of supportive leadership?

Best to use when the tasks are simple, structured, repetitive, stressful or frustrating.When workers lack confidence, or there is a clear formal authority system

108. ​In the perception process,______ is the process of attaching meaning to new knowledge.


109. ​Jason is an employee at Manisch Burger and Meals. He is assigned the task of serving soft drinks to customers ordering meals with potato fries, a burger, and a roll. Which of the following best illustrates Jason’s job design?

Job specialization

110. ​_____ represent numerical data by varying the thickness and pattern of vertical lines.

bar codes

111. ​In the context of equity theory, _____ occurs when a referent’s outcome/input (O/I) ratio is better than one’s own O/I ratio.


112. ​Which of the following is a reason for smaller representation of minority groups in management positions?

Preexisting differences in training, education and skills; ethnic discrimination

113. ​Which of the following best defines staff authority?

The right to advise but not command others who are not subordinates in the chain of command

114. ​According to goal-setting theory, _____ is the extent to which a goal is hard or challenging to accomplish.

Goal difficulty

115. ​Concertive controls are based on:

Beliefs that are shaped and negotiated by work groups

116. ​Which of the following is true of job specialization?

Occurs when a job is composed of a small part of a larger task or process

117. ​Which of the following is a difference between a diversity program and an affirmative action program?

Diversity has a broader contrast that includes demographic, cultural and personal differences Affirmative action is a policy for actively creating diversity, but diversity can exist even if organizations do not take purposeful steps to create it. Affirmative action is required by law for private employers with 50 or more employee’s where as diversity is not. There is no federal law or agent to oversee diversity. Affirmative action programs and diversity programs have different purposes. The purpose of affirmative action programs is to compensate for past discrimination.Affirmative action is basically a punitive approach. Diversity programs are to create a positive work environment where no one is advantaged or disadvantaged, and where everyone feels comfortable. So, unlike affirmative action, which punishes companies for not achieving specific sex and race ratios in their work forces, diversity programs seek to benefit both organizations and their employees by encouraging organizations to value all kinds of differences.

118. ​Which of the following is a disadvantage of a large team?

members find it difficult to get to know one another creating subgroups; greater chance of minority domination; no time for all members to give inputs; less involvement, effort, and accountability; logistical problems (time and place to meet); social loafing

119. Companies use early retirement incentive programs (ERIPs) to:​

Reduce the number of employees in the organization, lower costs by eliminating positions after employees retire, lower costs by replacing high-paid retirees with lower-paid ones, or to create job openings and opportunities for employees inside the company.

120. ​A disadvantage of feedback is that:

Feedback always comes after the fact; Employees can become defensive and dislike hearing any negative assessments of their work.

121. ​Which of the following is a regional trade agreement between most European countries?

Maastricht Treaty of Europe

122. ​Which of the following is an advantage of matrix departmentalization?

It allows companies to manage large, complex tasks; breeds efficiency by avoiding duplication; large pool of resources available for managers to pull from

123. ​Fatimah has been hired for the post of secretary at Mauve Corp. The company conducts a routine background check based on information provided by Fatimah. Unfortunately, her previous employer declines to provide meaningful references or her job history. However, Mauve Corp. ignores this lack of data and assumes that she is a credible employee. Mauve is at the risk of being sued under _____ lawsuit.

negligent hiring

124. ​The two basic requirements for a good electronic scanner are a document feeder and a(n) _____.

optical character recognition

125. ​Affinity patterns occur when:

two or more database elements tend to occur together in a significant way.

126. ​Which of the following statements is true of the norming stage of team development?

the third stage of team development, in which team members begin to settle into their roles, group cohesion grows, and positive team norms develop; Positive team norms will have developed by this stage, and teammates should know what to expect from each other. Petty differences should have been resolved, friendships will have developed, and group cohesion will be relatively strong. At this point, team members will have accepted team goals, be operating as a unit, and, as indicated by the increase in performance, be working together effectively. This stage can be very short

127. ​The access and legitimacy paradigm focuses on:

the acceptance and celebration of differences to ensure that the diversity within the company matches the diversity found among primary stakeholders, such as customers, suppliers, and local communities.

128. ​Sienna Inc., a software firm, decided to hire a technical expert. The company conducted an aptitude test followed by structured interviews for candidates. David, an African American, did exceptionally well in all the assessments but was rejected. Sienna has been known for discrimination against African Americans in several instances. David filed a case against Sienna on charges of racial discrimination. In the context of affirmative action, the company is most likely required to:

hire, promote, or give back pay to those not hired or promoted; ▸ reinstate those who were wrongly terminated; ▸ pay attorneys’ fees and court costs for those who bring charges against them; or ▸ take other actions that make individuals whole by returning them to the condition or place they would have been had it not been for discrimination.

129. In the context of task interdependence, in _____, each job or department contributes to the whole independently.​

pooled interdependence

130. ​Which of the following web-based tools provides secure off-site access to data and programs?

Secure sockets layer (SSL) encryption

131. ​In the context of the job characteristics model, which of the following best defines autonomy?

The degree to which a job gives workers the discretion, freedom, and independence to decide how and when to accomplish work

132. ​Innove Tech is a technological firm that wants to build a global service delivery system. It has consulted a larger firm, Ziff Corp., to obtain the proven technology required to establish this system. In the context of the costs of useful information, Innove Tech incurred _____ costs.

acquisition costs

133. ​Which of the following statements about feedforward control is true?

Mechanism for gathering information about performance deficiencies before they occur

134. ​Which of the following is a difference between a quid pro quo case and a case of hostile work environment case?

Quid pro quo means that someone was pressured into doing something with the promise of getting something in return. Hostile work environment means that the person felt uncomfortable or threatened to the point that they could not do their job

135. ​Which of the following signs indicates that a team’s size needs to be changed?

if decisions are taking too long, if team has difficulty making decisions or taking action, if a few members dominate the team, or if the commitment or efforts of team members are weak; difficulty coming up with ideas or solutions, does not have the expertise to address a specific problem

136. ​Which of the following is true of managers?

137. ​Which of the following best describes radio frequency identification (RFID) tags?

Contain miniscule microchips and antennas that transmit information via radio waves; Cross-training, receiving proprietary business information typically available only to managers, unique leadership responsibilities that are not typically available in traditional organizations

138. ​In the context of work teams, which of the following increases employee job satisfaction?

teamwork; gives workers a chance to improve their skills

139. ​Which of the following best defines an interorganizational process?

Collection of activities that occur among companies to transform inputs into outputs that customers value; Many companies working together to create a product or service that keeps customers happy

140. ​The primary disadvantage of customer departmentalization is:

leads to duplication of resources

141. ​Which of the following is true of the right team size for good performance?

right size is between 6-9 people; A team of this size is small enough for the team members to get to know each other and for each member to have an opportunity to contribute in a meaningful way to the success of the team. At the same time, the team is large enough to take advantage of team members’ diverse skills, knowledge, and perspectives. It is also easier to instill a sense of responsibility and mutual accountability in teams of this size.58 Team size has a significant impact on the value of a company as well.

142. ​In which of the following cases would written communication be preferable to oral communication?

well suited for delivering straightforward messages and info ; for messages that can be sent and stored anytime

143. ​_____ can help reduce uncertainty about how to act and decrease misunderstandings between expatriates and their families and locals.

language and cross-cultural training

144. ​When people perceive that they have been treated unfairly, they may try to restore equity by:

reducing inputs, increasing outcomes, rationalizing inputs or outcomes, changing the referent, or simply leaving.

145. ​Which of the following is an advantage of a structured interview?

ensures that interviewers ask only for important job-related info; accuracy, usefulness, and validity of interview is improved; chances that interviewers ask on topics that violate employment laws reduce

146. ​Which of the following statements is true of directive leadership?

Def: a leadership style in which the leader lets employees know precisely what is expected of them, gives them specific guidelines for performing tasks, schedules work, sets standards of performance, and makes sure that people follow standard rules and regulations; similar to initiating structure

147. ​Which of the following is an advantage of cross-training?

for org: allows a team to function normally when one member is absent, quits, or is transferred; For workers: broadens their skills and increases their capabilities while also making their work more varied and interesting

148. ​Organizational grapevines can be managed by:

Keeping employees informed about changing strategies and policies.

149. ​The finance team of a company conducts a meeting to discuss the worthiness of investing its funds in the local share market. Although most of the team members support the idea, one member, Mikhail, feels that the proposed investment is risky as the stock prices of many companies in the market has been erratic. However, Mikhail does not voice his opinion fearing that his dynamics with the team would be affected. The phenomenon that reflects Mikhail’s psychology is called _____.

Learning and effective paradigm

150. ​Cerulean Corp. comprises 80 percent African American employees. The company has a record of high employee turnover over the past five years. Which of the following measures should Cerulean take to reduce the employee turnover rate?

Diversity Programs

151. ​Which of the following is a disadvantage of franchising?

Loss of control

152. ​Which of the following defines motivation?

The set of forces that initiates, directs, and makes people persistent in their efforts to accomplish a goal

153. ​When Galax Inc., a logistics firm, hired Melissa as its president, it became evident that Galax does not have a(n) _____ to prevent women from rising to leadership positions.

glass ceiling

154. ​Which of the following is a purpose of performance appraisals?

The process of assessing how well employees are doing their jobs; used for four broad purposes: making administrative decisions (for example, pay increase, promotion, retention), providing feedback for employee development (for example, performance, developing career plans), evaluating human resource programs (for example, validating selection systems), and for documentation purposes (for example, documenting performance ratings and decisions based on those ratings).84

155. ​In industrial psychology, which of the following equations best represents job performance?

Motivation x Ability x Situational Constraints

156. ​Which of the following strategies should be used by companies to minimize sex discrimination?

Mentoring, or pairing promising female executives with senior executives from whom they can seek advice and support. To make sure that male-dominated social activities don’t unintentionally exclude women.

157. ​In the context of the job characteristics model, _____ is motivation that comes from the job itself rather than from outside rewards such as a raise or praise from the boss.

internal motivation

158. ​Stephanie is a receptionist at Violetcoast Corp. Over a period of six months, Stephanie has done a variety of jobs, such as data entry and preparing financial statements, along with her daily work. This scenario is an example of _____.

Job Rotation

159. ​Crimsom Corp., an electronics manufacturer in Mallowdeer, plans to enter a foreign market. It wants to establish its new office in Ostview. Which of the following is a qualitative factor that Crimsom Corp. should consider while choosing the new office location?

the kind of facility being built, tariff and nontariff barriers, exchange rates, and transportation and labor costs; company strategy

160. ​In the context of subordinate contingencies, which of the following is true of externals?

believe that what happens to them is caused by external forces beyond their control. Accordingly, externals are much more comfortable with a directive leadership style, whereas internals greatly prefer a participative leadership style because they like to have a say in what goes on at work.

161. ​Which of the following is an example of adverse impact, a criterion used in determining whether companies have engaged in discriminatory hiring and promotion practices?

-unintentional discrimination, occurs when members of a particular race, sex, or ethnic group are unintentionally harmed or disadvantaged because they are hired, promoted, or trained (or any other employment decision) at substantially lower rates than others. -when the impact ratio is less than 80% -example, if twenty out of one hundred black applicants are hired (20/100 5 20%), but sixty white applicants are hired (60/100 5 60%),

162. ​In the communicationd process, _____ refers to putting a message into a written, verbal, or symbolic form that can be recognized and understood by the receiver.


163. ​Which of the following is a subjective performance measure?

graphic rating scale (GRS).

164. ​Nisha is a retail manager at Hexagon Corp. She needs to troubleshoot customer complaints regarding a product. She has to decide on either scrapping the product or replacing it with a different brand. Based on the customer complaints and favorable online reviews of an alternate brand, she decides to switch to a different brand. According to the normative decision theory, which of the following decision-making styles has Nisha adopted?

AI (Autocratic Decision)

165. ​Which of the following is a difference between the access and legitimacy paradigm and the learning and effectiveness paradigm?

access and legitimacy paradigm focuses on the acceptance and celebration of differences to ensure that the diversity within the company matches the diversity found among primary stakeholders, such as customers, suppliers, and local communities. learning and effectiveness paradigm is consistent with achieving organizational plurality; offers four benefits. First, it values common ground.Second, this paradigm makes a distinction between individual and group differences. Third, because the focus is on individual differences, the learning and effectiveness paradigm is less likely to encounter the conflict, backlash, and divisiveness sometimes associated with diversity programs that focus only on group differences. Finally focuses on bringing different talents and perspectives (that is deep-level diversity) together to make the best organizational decisions and to produce innovative, competitive products and services.

166. ​Which of the following is true of transformational leaders?

Are visionary, but they transform their organizations by getting their followers to accomplish more than they intended and even more than they thought possible. Are able to make their followers feel that they are a vital part of the organization and help them see how their jobs fit with the organization’s vision. Encourage followers to make sacrifices for the organization because they know that they will prosper when the organization prospers.

167. ​Rohit, an Indian, is a marketing executive in an American company. He graduated from a top Ivy League university in the United States and is known for his outstanding performance, positive attitude, and innovative ideas. Despite his educational qualifications and skills, Rohit is not promoted as the marketing manager. Instead, Ryan, a white male with lesser experience and average performance, is promoted as the marketing manager. Which of the following is most likely the reason that Rohit is not promoted?

Racial discrimination

168. ​When setting standards by benchmarking, the first step is to determine _____.

determine what to benchmark.

169. ​Sequence patterns appear when:

two or more database elements occur together in a significant pattern in which one of the elements precedes the other.

170. ​Which of the following will help managers in managing company diversity programs effectively?

diversity principles; The discrimination and fairness paradigm, the access and legitimacy paradigm, and the learning and effectiveness paradigm.

171. ​When an industrial plant was closed because of a merger, employees were forced to move to another plant and take substantial pay cuts. In this scenario, managers should demonstrate _____ when the affected employees describe the forced changes in their lifestyles.

empathetic listening

172. ​Which of the following exemplifies an intrinsic reward?

a natural reward associated with performing a task or activity for its own sake Examples: a sense of accomplishment or achievement, a feeling of responsibility, the chance to learn something new or interact with others, or simply the fun that comes from performing an interesting, challenging, and engaging task.

173. ​Which of the following is a disadvantage of work teams?

Social loafing; high turnover

174. ​Which of the following is true of employee involvement teams?

The entire decision making process is handed over to the employees

175. ​Noah, the chief executive officer of Rhombus Corp., believes in maintaining a friendly work environment involving employee benefits like flexible timing and insurance policies. Top managers in the company are approachable to the lower level employees, thus maintaining a horizontal hierarchy. Moreover, Noah does not give much attention to performance. According to the Blake/Mouton leadership grid, which of the following leadership styles is Noah using?

1,9 country club style

176. ​Which of the following statements is true of self-designing teams?

Like a self managing team but also controls team design, work tasks, and team membership

177. ​_____ is a government’s use of trade barriers to shield domestic companies and their workers from foreign competition.


178. ​In the context of motivation, _____ is concerned with the choices that people make about how long they will put forth effort in their jobs before reducing or eliminating those efforts.

Persistence of effort

179. ​In the context of environmental contingencies, which of the following describes the formal authority system?

an organization’s set of procedures, rules, and policies; if unclear, directive leadership complements the situation by reducing uncertainty and increasing clarity. But if clear, directive leadership is redundant and should not be used.

180. ​One of Canada’s largest financial service providers wanted to develop a customer-focused sales and service culture. The top management developed the main messages, which were consistently communicated to all levels of employees throughout the organization. This is an example of _____ communication.


181. ​Which of the following is a significant factor behind the lack of women at top levels of management?


182. ​A(n) _____ allows companies to exchange information and conduct transactions by purposely providing outsiders with direct, web browser-based access to authorized parts of a company’s information system.


183. ​Which of the following is a drawback of transactional leadership?

it motivates people on a base level/ creativity limited/rely too heavily on discipline or threats to bring performance up to standards.

184. ​_____ is solving problems by consistently applying the same rules, procedures, and processes.


185. ​The second phase in the development of concertive control involves:

1. Group members learn to work w/ each other, supervise each other’s work 2. Beliefs and values developed in phase one develop into more objective rules as new members join teams.

186. ​__ ___ is the risk of major changes in political regimes that can result from war, revolution, death of political leaders, or other influential events.

political uncertainty

187. ​Which of the following is an advantage of decentralization?

1. allows org to respond quicker to events 2. uses specialized knowledge and skills of managers 3. frees top management from day-to-day activities

188. ​Leaders differ from managers in that:

Leaders focus on: vision, mission, goals, and objectives. – promoters of change/challenges the status quo – long-term view – expanding employees choices/options – what gets done – inspires employees Managers focus on: productivity and efficiency. – perservers of the status quo -short term perspective – limiting growth – how to get things done -gets day to day tasks accomplished

189. ​Leadership style is:

The way a leader generally behaves toward followers, and it depends on the situation

190. ​The employees of a company feel that rewards are fairly allocated. This illustrates _____

distributive justice

191. Which of the following steps can managers take to use expectancy theory to motivate employees?​

1) Systematically gather information to find out what employees want from their jobs 2) Take specific steps to link rewards to individual performance in a way that is clear and understandable to employees (publicize the way in which pay decisions are made) 3) Empower employees to make decisions if management really wants them to believe that their hard work and effort will lead to good performance (if managers want employees to have strong expectancies, they should empower them to make decisions)

192. ​Capital Chemicals Corp. recently faced a legal hassle following which many process operators resigned voluntarily. The company fell short of efficient and experienced process operators and struggled to cope with the situation. Which of the following kinds of turnover does this scenario exemplify?

dysfunctional Turnover

193. ​Which of the following is a criterion outlined in the Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection Procedures that is used in determining whether companies have engaged in discriminatory hiring and promotion practices?

Disparate treatment: intentional discrimination

194. ​Which of the following is a difference between employee involvement teams and semi-autonomous work groups?

Employee involvement teams: • Have more autonomy than traditional work groups • Meet on company time on a regular basis • Do not have the authority to make decisions. Semi- autonomous: • Provide advice and suggestions to management • Have the authority to make decisions and solve problems • Regularly receive information about budgets, work quality, performance, and competitors’ products.

195. ​Ziff Corp., a computer cabinet manufacturer, recently employed a new supply chain management system, which has never been used before. This system enables the company to produce more computer cabinets than its competitors at considerably lower costs. By employing this new supply chain management system, Ziff Corp. has achieved _____.

first-mover advantage/economies of scale

196. ​A decision support system (DSS):

Helps managers understand problems and potential solutions by acquiring and analyzing information with sophisticated models and tools

197. ​According to the normative decision theory, which of the following is true of the CI decision-making style?

leader shares problem & gets ideas and suggestions from relevant employees on individual basis, individuals are not brought together as a group, then leader makes the decision, which may or may not reflect their input Asking opinions but not really listening to them

198. ​Which of the following is a disadvantage of exporting?

the cost might be too high, or you may be consuming resources you don’t have many exported goods are subject to tariff and nontariff barriers that can substantially increase their final cost to consumers transportation costs can significantly increase the price of an exported product. companies that export depend on foreign importers for product distribution.

199. ​Which of the following is a characteristic of information?

Information is useful when it is accurate. Information is useful when it is complete. You can have complete, accurate information, but it’s not very useful if it doesn’t pertain to the problems you’re facing Finally, information is useful when it is timely. To be timely, the information must be available when needed to define a problem or to begin to identify possible solutions.

200. ​Clarissa walks up to her supervisor’s cabin in the second floor every time she needs a clarification instead of sending an email. This scenario best depicts _____.

oral communication

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