Global Health

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Which group is most likely to have the lowest measles immunization rate?

Poorest 20% population of West and Central Africa

Which statement about health equity is true?

It is a multidimensional concept, that includes issues of fairness within and across countries

Which statement about measles vaccination by income quintile is true?

The gaps in vaccine coverage between income groups is greater in West and Central Africa than among the same groups in South Asia

What is least likely to be a direct determinant of health?

Government policies

Which of the following is most likely to have the lowest life expectancy at birth?

An aboriginal Australian female

What would you expect to happen to the incidence and prevalence of a disease if a new drug were discovered that prevented mortality from the disease but did not cure it?

Incidence unchanged, prevalence increases

What would buy you the most health gained for the least cost?

Childhood vaccination

Which country is most likely to have a "population pyramid," with a wide base and progressively tapering tip (triangle shaped)?


Which one of the following is not considered private health spending?

Social security system

The maternal mortality ratio is:

The number of women who die as a result of pregnancy and childbirth complications per 100,000 live births in a given year

The numerator for neonatal mortality rate is:

The number of deaths of infants under 28 days of age in a given year

Which statement about health expenditure and outcomes is false?

Cuba spends a relatively high share of its GDP on health and has a low life expectancy.

The denominator for infant mortality rate is:

1,000 live births in a given year

Which statement about health and maternal education is false?

Studies in Philippines have shown that even better educated mothers were unable to keep their children healthy in locations without safe water supply.

Life expectancy at birth is:

the average number of years a newborn could be expected…..

In which area would you expect to have the highest rates of contraception use?

Urban East Asia and the Pacific

In which World Bank region would you expect the maternal mortality ratio to be the highest?

Latin America and the Caribbean

What is the most important factor in the spread of TB from lower-income countries to higher-income countries?


Which country is considered low-income, according to the World Bank definition?


What is the most important milestone achieved in global health over the last 50 years?

Decrease in the under-5 mortality rate to 48 per 1,000 children

Which of the following represents an upper-middle-income country according to the World Bank classification?


Which of the following was not a feature of smallpox?

Diagnosis was made by laboratory testing since the rash was not distinct

Which of the following is not a Millennium Development Goal?

Combat heart disease, diabetes, and other diseases

Which of the following is a Millennium Development Goal?

Between 1990 and 2015, halve the proportion of people who suffer from hunger

A country with gross national income per capita of $1,000 is classified by the World Bank as a:

Low-income country *The book says low-middle-income country

Which statement about global health is false?

Global health focuses on individual level clinical care

Which statement about the present status of global health is true?

About 146,000 deaths occurred from measles globally in 2013

What doesn’t represent international research ethics guidelines?

Declaration of Alma Ata

Which of the following has a pluralistic health system?


Which service can be provided at a health center level?

Directly observed therapy, short-course for TB

Assessing risks and benefits fulfills which ethical principle, as listed in the Belmont Report?


Which country is most likely to have the highest private health expenditure as a percentage of the total health expenditure?


What is overwhelmingly true about Cuba?

Health care is financed and delivered by the public sector

What is the approximate percentage of private out-of-pocket expenditure in India?


Which statement about informed consent is false?

Minors can provide consent as long as they completely understand the risks and benefits of the study

Which of the following represents a human rights issue for patients with HIV/AIDS?

All of the above

Paying women for three prenatal checks represents which RBF scheme?

Conditional cash transfer

Which is not a health system building block according to WHO

Social and financial risk protection

According to the four basic ethical principles of scarce resource allocation, which patient would you prioritize for treatment?

20-year-old pregnant teacher with HIV living below the poverty line

All of the following all under the six conditions that a clinical research protocol must satisfy to be ethical, except:

Written consent

What is least likely to be included in a primary healthcare package?

Cardiac catheritazation

Which statement about the Tuskegee study is false?

The Public Health Service allowed the participants to receive effective treatment when penicillin became widely available after WWII

Which statement about the French healthcare system is false?

Health is regarded as a personal good

The proponent of the short-course AZT trials defended the study design by stating all of the following except:

That using the 076 regimen as active control would most likely show that the short-course regimen was superior

Which statement about ancillary care is true?

All of these are correct

What is the best strategy in the short to medium term to combat the acute shortage of doctors who can perform cesarean sections in a low-income country?

Train nursing staff to perform cesarean sections

What does not represent ethical principles for allocation of scarce resources?

Priority to the better off

Which approach is the most culturally appropriate and acceptable by the population in an indigenous village in the Andes?

Provide services in local languages by providers from these villages

What is the correct progression of behavioral change, according to the stages of change model?

Precontemplation, contemplation, decision, action, maintenance

Which statement about the burden of disease from environmental factors is false?

Most deaths attributable to outdoor air pollution occurs in adults less than 45 years of age.

Which disease is least likely to be attributed to poor sanitation, water, and hygiene?

Colon cancer

Which of the following is not a model of behavioral change?

Environmental model

What best represents a culturally-appropriate targeted intervention to promote exclusive breastfeeding in the Burundi case study context?

Mobilization of community-based spiritual leaders to show support for exclusive breastfeeding among the people in their community

What does not represent one of the four Ps of social marketing?

Presence of patent

Improved access to water for hygiene purposes would have the greatest impact on:


What is the most cost-effective intervention to improve health in a rural village in a country like Nepal?

Constructing a community-based water system, along with promoting hygiene

What best defines water-washed transmission of infection?

Person-to-person transmission because of a lack of water for hygiene

Based on experiences in China and India, in addition to providing improved stoves, what can be done to encourage uptake?

All of these are correct.

What is the percentage of people worldwide with access to improved sanitation?


What is least likely to represent social and cultural barriers to polio vaccination in India?

Poor sanitation

Which statement about social assessment is false?

It focuses on the impact of the intervention and is not important in the implementation of monitoring and management programs.

According to the diffusion of innovations model, what is least likely to influence adopting behavioral change?

Perceived ecological impact of the innovation

Which statement about indoor air pollution is true?

Indoor air pollution can lead to a variety of respiratory problems.

What is not one of the top three environmental factors leading to disease in low- and middle-income countries?

Unhealthy urban lifestyle

What was not a feature of the Oportunidades program in Mexico?

Conditional cash transfers to all households in Mexico to improve nutritional status and health.

The Tamil Nadu Nutrition Project best represents:

Community mobilization

What is least likely a potential barrier to using improved sanitation systems in low- and middle-income countries?

Lack of NGO involvement

Which statement about the burden of cardiovascular disease is true?

Ischemic heart disease is the largest cause of death in all regions

What is not a leading cause of death among adolescents in high-income countries?

Lower respiratory infections

Where would you expect to find the highest prevalence of tobacco smoking among adults?

Europe and Central Asia

Where would you expect to have diabetes contributing to the most DALYs in 2030, according to WHO projections?

Lower-middle-income countries

Which WHO region has the highest percentage of adolescents who are current drinkers?


Case fatality rate is:

The proportion of people with a disease that die from the disease

Reducing the incidence of a disease in a specific area to zero is termed:


What is not a key intervention in controlling malaria in highly endemic regions of Africa?

Outdoor residual spraying of insecticides

All of the following are emerging infectious diseases, except:

Hepatitis B

Which measure would have the least impact on decreasing alcohol consumption in a low-income country?

Education and counseling by healthcare providers

Which of the following statements about HIV/AID is false?

Cambodia faces a generalized epidemic of HIV/AIDS.

Anxiety disorders are a leading cause of DALYs among:

Females, ages 15-19

Which statement about the treatment and prevention of diabetes is true?

Avoiding being overweight is the single most important way to prevent type II diabetes.

Key factors contributing to the emergence and re-emergence of infectious diseases include:

All of these are correct.

Which measure would you prioritize to control tobacco use in Burkina Faso, assuming that no restrictions currently exist?

Implement relatively high taxation of cigarettes

The three leading causes of deaths among adolescents globally are:

Road injury, HIV/AIDS, and self-harm

What is the most cost-effective intervention to address neglected tropical diseases in sub-Saharan Africa?

The rapid-impact package

Of the leading causes of DALYs for adolescents aged 10-14 years, which is not a leading cause for adolescents aged 15-19 years?

Diarrheal disease and road injury

Which region has the lowest rates of high-risk drinking?

Middle East and North Africa

High adolescent mortality in Africa is driven primarily by:


Early adolescence is defined as the period between:

Ages 10 and 14

Mass chemotherapy can be administered for all of the following, except:


Of the leading causes of death for adolescents aged 15-19 years, which is not a leading cause for children aged 5-9 years?

Self-harm and diarrheal disease

What are common mental health problems among adolescents?

All of these are correct.

Which statement about the prevention and treatment of TB is false?

The BCG vaccine is important in reducing the transmission of TB.

According to WHO, what is not fundamental to addressing mental health disorders?

Increasing the budget for the national mental hospital

People who flee or are forced to migrate during a disaster and leave their homes but stay in the country in which they were living are called:

Internally displaced persons

Which statement about the Global Fund is false?

It is primarily a technical agency.

Which statement best applies to push mechanisms?

Reduce risk and encourage product development through lowering the costs of product development, with a focus on research and development

Which statement about the Welcome Trust is true?

It is a major funder of health research, and funds research only for the problems of high-income countries.

Which option best represents the ideal characteristics of drugs for use in low- and middle-income countries?

Easy to transport and store, oral administration, heat stable, single dose

What is the theoretical foundation of several injury prevention and control efforts?

Haddon’s matrix

Which statement about WHO is false?

It is a major financing agency for global health projects.

What is not a barrier to entry to vaccine manufacturing?

The number of firms engaged in vaccine production worldwide is already large.

In which region would you expect to find the smallest contribution of road traffic injuries to total deaths?

Europe and Central Asia

What is least likely to cause a negative health impact in a complex humanitarian emergency?

Humanitarian assistance

Tiered pricing is:

Charging different prices in different markets for the same product

Which of the following represents public-private partnerships for public health?

All of these are correct.

Which statement about burns is true?

Rural dwellers suffer burns at higher rates than urban dwellers.

Which United Nations agency is primarily involved in the prevention and control of HIV/AIDS?


Which statement about unintentional injuries is true?

The leading cause of DALYs lost from unintentional injuries is road traffic accidents.

The cause of mortality during a natural disaster is likely to be:

All of these are correct.

Which statement about gender differences in the burden of unintentional injuries is false?

Men are more likely to die from all six categories of unintentional injuries than women.

What is the most common cause of death among refugees?


What is a special challenge of expanding coverage of the HPV vaccine, compared to the six basic antigens of the EPI program?

Providing to adolescents, who are not normally the target group for childhood immunization

Which of the following might be a lesson of experience from product development partnerships (PDPs), such as Aeras and the Human Hookworm Vaccine Initiative?

All of these are correct.

What approach would you recommend that low- and middle-income countries take to prevent and control unintentional injuries?

Carry out pilot projects based on what has worked in high-income countries, adapt to the local context, and expand more broadly with time.

Which of the following represents public-private partnerships for public health?

All of these are correct.

Which of the following statements is true?

Humanitarian workers have increasingly been the targets of those who are fighting in a conflict area.

The Haddon matrix models the interaction of all the following, except the


Which statement about pull mechanisms is least likely?

Examples of pull mechanisms are tax credits for research and development or handing over research findings to firms.

What would you do to ensure a safe and healthy environment for displaced people?

All of these are correct.

UNITAID is largely financed by:

Tax on the purchase of airplane tickets in donor countries

Which NGO is based in a low- and middle-income country?


The largest charitable foundation in the world is:

The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation

Most important to deaths from unintentional injuries are:

Road traffic injuries

Which risk factor for road traffic injuries is predominantly found in low- and middle-income countries, as opposed to high-income countries?

All of these are correct.

Which statement regarding the burden of natural disasters is false?

Ninety percent of deaths from volcanoes occur from the lava flow of volcanoes.

Which statement about obesity and overweight is false?

Men have higher rates of obesity than women in all WHO regions.

What does not fall under "the three delays" of childbirth?

Delay obtaining the services of a traditional birth attendant

As a country becomes healthier, what is most likely to happen regarding childhood mortality?

Neonatal deaths account for a larger share of under-5 mortality

What is likely to be least related to the social determinants of health?

Breast cancer

What is a potential complication of measles?

All of these are correct.

Which deficiency is most likely to cause cognitive impairment?


Which statement about sexually transmitted infections in women is true?

They can lead to still birth, chlamydia is nine times more prevalent in women than in men, and sub-Saharan Africa faces a disproportionately high share of morbidity and mortality from STIs.

Which statement about the burden of childhood illness in the under-5 age group is true?

The rate of under-5 mortality in sub-Saharan Africa is about 15 times that in high-income countries.

Which intervention is most critical for preventing maternal mortality?

Establishing emergency obstetric services

What is not among the three leading causes of under-5 mortality in sub-Saharan Africa?

Preterm birth complications

What is the most cost-effective approach to combating iodine deficiency?

Salt fortification

Which statement about maternal mortality is false?

The lifetime risk of dying a maternal death is the highest in South Asia.

The window of opportunity for ensuring proper growth and development of children closes at the age of:

2 years

Which statement about sex-selective abortion is true?

It results in a skewed sex ratio.

What is the most cost-effective intervention in low-resource settings to treat diarrhea and prevent its complications and mortality?

Oral rehydration therapy

What causes the most neonatal deaths globally?

Preterm birth complications

Which statement about nutrition is false?

Nutritional deficits in children under 2 years old can generally be overcome in later life by nutritional supplementation.

Which statement about female genital mutilation is false?

The practice has shown increasing prevalence over time.

What are the global top three causes of under-5 mortality?

Preterm birth complications, lower respiratory infections, malaria

What is not a consequence or complication of vitamin A deficiency?


Which region has seen the largest percentage decline in under-5 mortality since 1990?

Sub-Saharan Africa

Wasting refers to:

Weight-for-height two z-scores below the international reference

In which World Bank region would you expect females to be the least healthy compared to males?

South Asia

Which intervention is the most appropriate, cost-effective measure for caring for stable, low birthweight infants in very resource-limited settings?

Kangaroo mother care

Which nutrient supplementation promotes more rapid recovery from diarrhea?


Among which of the following would you expect to have the greatest disparity in the rate of stunting in under-5 children?

Rural vs. urban Latin America and the Caribbean

Which vicious cycle must be broken in order to improve the nutritional status of children in the medium and longer terms?

All of these are correct.

Which World Bank Regions have the lowest and highest rates of adolescent fertility?

Europe and Central Asia (lowest), sub-Saharan Africa (highest)

Which statement about the International Finance Facility for Immunisation is false?

It was launched as a charity by the government of the United States.

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