Forward abnormal psychology

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Comorbidity means that:

two disorders may occur together in an individual.

If you believe that personality disorders are best understood as a matter of degree in difference from typical personality rather than as a specific diagnosis, you agree with:

the dimensional approach.

Which of the following is a projective test


How do personality disorders differ from the personality characteristics of typical people?

They lead to more maladaptive, distressful, and inflexible behaviors

Which of the following would a phrenologist MOST likely have done?

assessed personality by feeling for bumps and indentations on the head

The categorical approach to personality disorders assumes that:

problematic personality traits are either present or absent.

Which of the following statements is MOST accurate in terms of current research findings?

Odd" personality disorders and schizophrenia are related to one another.

According to current research, if a person living in the United States is distrustful of both lawyers and congressional members, that type of person is:

common: most people in the United States distrust both lawyers and congressional members.

Which of the following statements regarding the treatment of paranoid personality disorder is MOST accurate?

Most therapies are of limited effectiveness and progress slowly.

The parents of those with schizoid personality disorder are MOST likely to have been:


A person who is LEAST likely to be affected by criticism or praise from other people is one suffering from:

schizoid personality disorder.

An individual diagnosed with schizoid personality disorder reports having a great deal of difficulty figuring out how others feel, and as a child had difficulty developing adequate language skills. These findings would make the MOST sense to a theorist with which background?


A belief by someone that the CNN anchor is talking about an event pertaining to that individual in a personal way may reflect:

ideas of reference.

Schizotypal personality disorders differ from other "odd" personality disorders in that they are related to schizophrenia and:

mood disorders.

A person who does poorly on a task called backward masking is MOST likely to be experiencing:

schizotypal personality disorder.

A client has enlarged brain ventricles and a measurable loss of gray matter. These symptoms are:

biological, and the most likely diagnosis is schizotypal personality disorder.

Characteristics of the Virginia Tech shooter reveal that he:

displayed a combination of features from many personality disorders.

Should drugs be used in the treatment of schizotypal personality disorder?

Maybe; in low doses, they seem to help some clients

Which category of personality disorder contains the disorders MOST commonly diagnosed?


Ben set up an elaborate scheme to mine gold in the Rockies and organized a large town meeting where he made a presentation to sell stock in his company. The shares were only $5 each and everyone could afford them. He showed pictures of the mine and explained how the company expected to gross $100 million each month. As it turns out, he was a terrific con artist who had made similar proposals in the last couple of years. Ben is MOST likely suffering from:

antisocial personality disorder

Cruelty to animals and people, destruction of property, and truancy before the age of 15:

is characteristic of those later diagnosed with antisocial personality disorder.

Which of these well-known people appears to have displayed symptoms of antisocial personality disorder?

Bernie Madoff

The strong relationship between antisocial personality disorder and substance abuse means that

there are high rates of substance abuse among those with antisocial personality disorder

Which of the following statements BEST represents current knowledge about mass murderers?

We really don’t know what causes mass murderers to act or how to treat them

Which of the following marks an individual as a pseudocommando?

expecting to be killed while committing mass murder

Which of the following is MOST characteristic of mass murderers?

feelings of persecution and desire for revenge

Biologically speaking, if one wanted to treat antisocial personality disorder, one would want to ______ the individual with the disorder.

decrease the anxiety level of

Assume a study of prison inmates diagnosed with antisocial personality disorder shows that they all share characteristics of impulsiveness and aggression and also lack sympathy and empathy. Which perspective would MOST strongly explain the cause of these characteristics?


Which of the following statements is MOST accurate regarding antisocial personality disorder?

Most who have it are not treated, and most who are treated are not helped much

Studies of those diagnosed with borderline personality disorder show that:

over half attempt suicide at least once in their lives, and about 10 percent succeed

Which of the following has experienced "triggering"?

an individual who is prompted to injure himself intentionally after watching someone else do it

If an individual has damage to the prefrontal cortex, which of the following symptoms would MOST likely be observed?

deficits in planning, self-control, and decision

When dialectical behavior therapy is used with patients with borderline personality disorder, those patients, compared to patients receiving other forms of therapy, make:

far fewer suicide attempts and are hospitalized less often

Dr. Marsha Linehan, developer of dialectical behavior therapy, would have diagnosed her young adult self with:

borderline personality disorder

A patient receiving dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) for borderline personality disorder experiences an emotion that he or she realizes is inappropriate. Immediately after, the patient acts in a very different, appropriate, way. This DBT procedure is called:

opposite action.

Dialectical behavior therapy emphasizes all of the following EXCEPT:

use of antipsychotic medications in an outpatient setting.

Which of the following would MOST clearly fit into the biosocial theory of the development of borderline personality disorder?

an individual who has difficulty controlling internal emotions and parents who mislabel those emotions

The inability to accurately interpret one’s internal biological emotional or physiological states is characteristic of both:

borderline personality disorder and eating disorders

Which of the following have sociocultural theorists suggested as a cause for the emergence of borderline personality disorder?

rapid social change

Only 23 percent of adults report openly expressing their anger. Should they?

No. Ironically, venting appears to make people angrier.

What aspect of dialectical behavior therapy relates to psychodynamic theory?

the emphasis on the patient-therapist relationship

Which of the following is NOT an important part of dialectical behavior therapy?

antipsychotic drugs

A therapist states, "I seldom use drugs when I treat clients with borderline personality disorder." The
therapist MOST likely says this because

the risk of suicide increases because using drugs may lead to overdose.

A client is searching for the BEST treatment for borderline personality disorder. Will drug treatment be effective if it is the only intervention the client receives?

No; they should be used along with psychotherapy, if used at all

"You had one eye in the mirror as you watched yourself…/ You’re so vain, you probably think this song is about you/ You’re so vain…" sang

The problem is that they assume they can’t take care of themselves, so they think others have to meet their needs. This pattern of thinking is not very helpful in trying to deal with histrionic personality disorder." A psychologist from which of the following perspectives would agree MOST strongly with this quote?


"I am the greatest!" a famous boxer declared loudly and often. Had he in fact acted throughout his adult life as though he were the greatest, the most appropriate diagnosis would be:

narcissistic personality disorder.

Although lying—even compulsive lying—is not considered a psychological disorder, it is sometimes characteristic of people with:

narcissitic personality disorder

Assume you have to give an in-class presentation about narcissistic personality disorder. What is the MOST accurate thing you can say about treatment for this disorder?

No form of therapy is clearly better than the others."

A client is initially very resistant to therapy, cannot acknowledge weaknesses, and ignores feedback. MOST likely, the client is experiencing:

narcissistic personality disorder, and will not make much progress in therapy

Like those with paranoid personality disorder, those with avoidant personality disorder usually:

are very sensitive to criticism and avoid close relationships.

If a person primarily fears close social relationships, one would MOST likely conclude that the person is experiencing:

avoidant personality disorder.

According to psychodynamic theorists, an important factor in the development of avoidant personality disorder is:

early experiences of shame.

A client being treated for avoidant personality disorder must increase his or her number of social contacts per
day, The person, at the least, must greet others with the sentence, "Hello, how are you doing?" MOST likely, the therapist has which theoretical background?


People with avoidant personality disorder have difficulty ______ relationships, while people with dependent personality disorder have difficulty ______ relationships.

initiating; ending

According to DSM-5, a personality disorder must "deviate markedly from the expectations of a person’s culture." This implies that different cultures may not see some behaviors as symptoms of personality disorders. What does the research in this area show?

There has been little multicultural research done, but some research shows differing cultural expectations.

Group therapy is a good option for those with dependent personality disorder; they’ll be able to observe others’ coping skills, and model them." This statement would MOST likely be made by a therapist having which of the following theoretical perspectives?


One especially good reason to use a form of group therapy in the treatment of dependent personality disorder is that:

the group members can model appropriate behaviors and expression of feelings to one another.

In the United States, most teenagers have cell phones with text capability. Which of the following MOST accurately describes adult cell phone usage?

Most have cell phones, and most of them text.

Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder is MOST common among:

men with jobs.

With the help of a therapist, a client with obsessive-compulsive personality disorder has experienced a
dramatic decrease in both dichotomous thinking and worrying. The client’s behavior is:

uncommon; most with obsessive-compulsive personality disorder do not seek help, and this person is most likely receiving cognitive therapy.

Of the following statements, which MOST accurately reflects up-to-date research on DSM-5 categories of personality disorder?

Individuals do not necessarily have to have very similar personalities to receive the same diagnosis.

If instruments such as the "Big Five" are used to describe personality, rather than relying on DSM-5, then diagnosis of psychological disorder would become:

less categorical and more a matter of degree.

Currently, the "Big Five" approach to personality disorders is:

research being done on it.

The authors of DSM-5 have designed their own dimensional approach in diagnosing personality disorders for possible inclusion in future revisions of the DSM. The idea is that individuals whose traits significantly impair their functioning should receive a diagnosis of:

personality disorder trait specified.

The five traits to be included in future revisions of the DSM-5 that utilize a dimensional approach in diagnosing personality disorders are

negative affectivity, detachment, antagonism, disinhibition, psychoticism.

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