Final Ch 27

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Sperm producing; source of androgens

Functions of the testes

Structure of the testis: 2 layered tunics

Tunica Albugina – fibrous capsule of the testis Tunica Vaginalis – outpocketing of the peritoneum

involves a kind of cell division limited to the gametes


copulatory organ, designed to deliver sperm into female reproductive tract


hang suspended form the perineum, make up external reproductive structure of the male

Penis and scrotum

structure of the penis

root and free shaft that ends in an enlarged tip (glans penis) skin is loose, slides distally to form a cuff called prepuce or foreskin Internally contains spongy urethra and three long cylindrical bodies (corpora) of erectile tissue each covered by a sheath of dense fibrous connective tissue

the midventral erectile body, surrounds the urethra

corpus spongiousum

forms the glans and proximally to form part of the root called

bulb of the penis

the paired dorsal erectile bodies, make up most of the penis and are bound by the fibrous tunica albuginea. Proximal ends form

crura of the penis

are the epididymis, the ductus deferens, the ejaculatory duct and the urethra

male accessory ducts


cup shaped, Its head contains the efferent ductules, caps the superior aspect of the testis. Its body and tail are on the posterolateral aspect of the testis pseudostratified epithelial cells of the duct exhibit long nonmotile microvilli, allows them to absorb excess testicular fluid and pass nutrients to the many sperm stored temporarily in the lumen when sexually stimulated and ejaculates the smooth muscle contracts, expelling sperm into the next segment of the duct system

are ejaculated from the epididymis


seminiferous tubules

conveys sperm into the rete testis

can be stored in the epididymis for several months, if held longer, eventually phagocytized by the epithelial cells


physician makes a small incision into the scrotum and then cuts through and ligates ea ductus deferens, sperm will still be produced, but can no longer reach the body exterior, high effective birth control


1) prostatic urethra
2) membranous urethra
3) spongy penile urethra

three parts to the urethra

the portion surrounded by the prostate

prostatic urethra

in the urogenital diaphragm

membranous urethra

runs through the penis and opens to the outside at the external orfice

spongy (penile) urethra

paired seminal vesicles and bulbourethral glands and the single prostate, produce the bulk of semen

accessory glands

mixed in the ejaculatory duct and enter the prostatic urethra together during ejaculation

sperm and seminal fluid


a single doughnut-shaped gland about the size of a peach pit, encircles the urethra just inferior to the bladder

enters the prostatic urethra via several ducts when prostatic smooth muscle contracts during ejaculating

prostatic gland secretion

plays a role in activating sperm and accounts for up to one-thrid of semen volume, its milky white, slightly acidic that contains citrate, several enzymes and prostate specific antigen (PSA)

prostatic gland secretion

are pea sized glands inferior to the prostate, produce a thick, clear mucus, some drains into the spongy urethra and lubricates the glans of the penis when a an becomes sexually excited, neutralizes traces of acidic urine in the urethra just prior to ejaculation

bulbourethral gland

milky, white, sticky mixture of sperm, testicular fluid and accessory gland secretion


in semen decreases the viscosity of mucus guarding the entry if the uterus and stimulate reverse peristalsis in the uterus, facilitating sperm movement through the female reproductive tract


are streamlined cellular "missiles" containing little cytoplasm or stored nutrients

mature sperm cells

contains substances that suppress the immune response in the female’s reproductive tract, and has antibiotic chemicals that destroy certain bacteria


clotting factors found in _____ coagulate it just after ejaculation, causes the sperm to stick to the walls of the vagina and prevent their draining out of the vagina while initially immobile


enlargement, and stiffening of the penis, results in engorgement of the erectile bodies with blood


erection of the penis is one of the rare examples of

parasympathetic control of arterioles

initiated by a variety of sexual stimuli (touching the genital skin, mechanical stimulation of the pressure receptors in the penis, and erotic sights, sounds, and smells)


propulsion of semen from the male duct system


is the sequence of events in the seminiferous tubules of the testes that produce male gametes (sperm/spermatozoa)


process begins around age 14 years and continues throughout life, makes about 400 million sperm


the normal chromosome number in the most body cells is referred to as____

diploid chromosomal number

in humans tis number is 46 and such diploid cells contain 23 pairs of similar chromosomes called

homologous chromosomes

the number of chromosomes in human gametes is 23, referred to as the

haphloid chromosomal number

gamete formation in both sexes involves


nuclear division that for the most part occurs only in the gonads



consists of consecutive nuclear division that follow one round of DNA replication, its product is 4 daughter cells instead of 2 each, each w/half as many chromosomes as typical body cells


meiosis I

reduction division of meiosis; reduces the number from 2n to n; occurs in the testes to produce sperm also occurs in ovaries

meiosis I

meiosis I – prophase I

synapsis occurs: homologous chromosomes come together along with their length to form tetrads

second unique event called crossovers (chiasmata) are formed w/in each tetrad as the free ends of one maternal and one parental chromatid wrap around each other at one or more points


allows an exchange of genetic material between the paired maternal and parental chromosomes


meiosis I – crossover

meiosis I – metaphase I

the tetrads align randomly on the spindle equator in preparation for anaphase

meiosis I – anaphase I

sister chromatids (dyads) remain firmly attached, however the homologous chromosomes do separate from each other and the dyads move toward opposite poles of the cell

meiosis I – telophase I

nuclear envelops re-form around the chromosomal masses, the spindle breaks down, and the chromatin reappears as telophase and cytokinesis are completed. The 2 daughter cells (now haploid) enter a second interphase-like period, called interkinesis before meiosis II occurs. There is no second replication of DNA before meiosis II

begins with the products of meiosis I (2 haploid daughter cells) and undergoes a mitosis like nuclear division process referred to as the equational division of meiosis

meiosis II

meiosis II

meiosis II – prophase II

meiosis II – metaphase II

meiosis II – anaphase II

meiosis II – telophase II and cytokinesis

4 haploid daughter cells, each genetically different from the original mother cell

product of meiosis


spermatid into functional sperm

1) packaging of the acrosomal enzymes by the Golgi apparatus 2) forming the acrosome at the anterior end of the nucleus and positioning the centrioles at the opposite end of the nucleus 3) elaboration of microtubules to form the flagella 4) mitochondrial multiplication and their positioning around the proximal portion of the flagellum 5) sloughing off excess cytoplasm 6) structure of an immature sperm that has just been released from a sustentacular cell 7) structure of a fully mature sperm

anatomy of sperm

acrosome – adhering to the top, lysosome is produced by the golgi apparatus and contains the hydrolytic enzymes that enable the sperm to penetrate and enter an egg head – consists almost entirely of it flattened nucleus which contains the compacted DNA midpiece – contains mitochondria spiraled tightly around the microtubules of the tail tail – typical flagellum produced by one centroile near the nucleus, the mitochondria provided the metabolic energy (ATP) needed for the whiplike movements that will propel the sperm along its way in the female reproductive tract

female sex cells are produced, takes years to complete


fetal period, the diploid stem cells of the ovaries, multiply rapidly by mitosis then enters a growth phase and lay in nutrient reserves


primordial follicles apear as the oogonia are transformed and become surrounded by a single layer of flattened follicle cells

primary oocytes

Follicle development

monthly series of events associated with the maturation of an egg is

the ovarian cycle

ovarian cycle

1) activated by a process directed by the oocyte, the squamouslike cells surrounding the primary oocyte grow, becoming cuboidal cells, and oocyte enlarges 2) now called primary follicle 3) primary follicle proliferate, forming stratified epithelium, the follicle cells take on the name granulosa cells 4) a layer of connective tissue condenses around the follicle forming the theca folliculi 5) the fld between the granulosa cells coalesces to form a large fluid filled cavity called the antrum, an event that distinguishes the vesicular follicle from the late secondary follicle 6) ovulation occurs when the ballooning ovary wall ruptures and expels the secondary oocyte, surrounded by its corona radiata 7) ruptured follicle collapses and the antrum fills with clotted blood, if pregnancy does not occur the corpus luteum starts to degrade

the period of follicle growth, typically indicated as lasting from the first to the fourteenth day of the cycle

follicular phase

follicular phase
(primary follicle, secondary follicle, vesicular follicle)
luteal phase
(corpus luteum, degenerating corpus luteum)

stimulate growth and maturation of reproductive organs and breasts at puberty, maintain their adult size and function


promote the proliferative phase of the uterine cycle


cooperates with estrogen in stimulating growth of breasts


promote oogenesis and ovulation by stimulating formation of FSH and LH receptors on follicle cells.


stimulates formation of male reproductive ducts, glands, and external genitalia.


stimulate production of watery cervical mucus and activity of fimbriae and uterine tube cilia


promotes the secretory phase of the uterine cycle


Stimulates capacitation of sperm in the female reproductive tract


Stimulates production of viscous cervical mucus


promotes descent of the testes


during pregnancy, quiets the myometrium and acts with estrogen to cause mammary glans to achieve their mature mil producing state


stimulates growth and maturation of the internal and external genitalia at puberty; maintains their adult size and function


during pregnancy stimulate growth of the uterus and enlargement of the external genitalia and mammary glands


requires for normal spermatogenesis vi effects promoted by ABP, which keeps its concentration high neat spermatogenic cells


promote long bone growth and feminization of the skeleton


stimulates the growth spurt at puberty


inhibit bone reabsorption and then stimulate epiphyseal closure


promotes increased skeletal and muscle mass during adolescence


promotes hydration of the skin and female pattern of fat deposit


promotes growth of the larynx and vocal cords and deepening of the voice


during pregnancy act with relaxin to induce softening and relaxation of the pelvic ligaments and pubic symphysis


enhances sebum secretion and hair growth, especially on the face, axillae, genital region, and chest


stimulates Na reabsorption by the renal tubules, hence inhibit diuresis, enhances HDL


masculinizes the brain, appears to shape certain regions of the male brain


promotes diuresis, increase body temperature


stimulates hematopoiesis, enhance basal metabolic rate


along with DHEA are partially responsible for female libido


responsible for libido in males, promotes aggressiveness


major source: ovary; developing follicles and corpus luteum


major source: ovary, mainly the corpus luteum


major source: testes; interstitial cells


stimulus for release: FSH and LH


stimulus for release: LH


stimulus for release: LH and declining levels of inhibition produced by the sustentacular cells


both negative and positive feedback exerted on anterior pituitary release of gonadotropins


negative feedback exerted on anterior pituitary release of gonadotropins


negative feedback suppress release of LH by the anterior pituitary and release of GnRH by the hypothalamus


uterine tubes

ovaries – the pair flank the uterus on each side, held in place by several ligaments within the peritoneal cavity uterus – located in the pelvis, hollow, thick-walled, muscular organ that functions to receive, retain, and nourish a fertilized ovum uterine tubes – (fallopian tubes) form initial part of the female duct system, receive the ovulated oocyte and the site where fertilization occurs, expands as it curves around the ovary, forming ampulla

anchors the ovary medially to the uterus

ovarian ligaments

anchors the ovaries laterally to the pelvic wall

suspensory ligament

suspends the ovaries in between


each ovary is surrounded externally by a fibrous ____, which in turn covered externally by a layer if cuboidal epithelial cells called the germinal epitherlium

tunica albuginea

consists of immature egg

ovarian follicles

one layer of squamous like follicle cells surround the oocyte

primordial follicle

single layer of cuboidal or columnar follicle cells enclosing the oocyte

primary follicle

formed when two or more layers of granulosa cells surround the oocyte

secondary follicle

results when small fluid-filled spaces appear in the granulosa cells

late secondary follicle

forms when the fluid filled pockets coalesce to form central fluid filled cavity called the antrum

vesicular or tertiary follicle

after ovulation the ruptures follicle is transformed into a very different looking glandular structure, eventually degenerates

corpus luteum

the rounded region superior to the entrance of the uterine tubes


slightly narrowed region between the body and and the cervix


narrow neck, or outlet which projects into he vagina inferiorly


cavity of the cervix, communicates with the vagina via the external os and with the cavity of the uterine body via the internal os

cervical canal

incomplete outer most serous layer


bulky middle layer composed of interlacing bundles of smooth muscles, contracts during childbirth to expel the baby


mucosal linning of the uterine cavity, young embryo burrows into it and resides there for the rest of its development


undergoes cyclic changes in respons to blood levels of ovarian hormones and is shed during menstruation (aprox every 28 days)

stratum functionalis

forms a new functionalis after menstruation ends, is unresponsive to ovarian hormones

stratum basalis

anatomy of the vagina

Vagina – thin walled tube, lies between the bladder and the rectum and extends into the cervix to the body exterior, provides passageway for delivery of an infant and for menstrual flow, the female organ of copulation mons pubis – fatty rounded area overlying the pubic symphysis, after puberty covered with hair labia majora – hair-covered fatty skin folds, is homologous of the male scrotum labia minora – two thin, hair free skin folds, is homologous to the ventral penis clitoris – protruding structure composed of erectile tissue, homologous to the penis of the male, innervated with sensory nerve endings, becomes swollen with blood and erect, contributing to female’s sexual arousal

include the mons pubis, labia, clitoris, and structures associated with the vestibule

external genitalia: vulva

contains the external opening of the urethra and the vagina


epiphyseal plate closure and termination of skeletal growth in height occurs

male secondary sex characteristics

appearance of pubic, axillary and facial hair, enhanced hair growth on the chest, deepening of the voice, skin thickens and becomes oilier, bones grow and increase in density

male secondary sex characteristics

anatomy of mammary glands

modified sweat glands areola – ring of pigmented skin, surround the nipple lobes -15 -25, radiate around and open at the nipple, lobules – contain glandular alveoli that produce milk when a woman is lactating, pass milk into the lactiferous ducts

Duct System: ductus (vas) deferens

runs upwards as part of spermatic cord from epididymis, loops over the ureter, descends along bladder wall terminus expands to form ampulla joins with seminal vesicle (a gland) to form ejaculatory duct, empties into the urethra propels sperm into the urethra by peristalsis during ejaculation

ejaculatory duct and urethra

enter the prostate, empties into the urethra urethra – terminal portion the male duct system; conveys both urine and semen at different times

ovarian function declines, ovaries become less responsive to gonadotropin signals, estrogen production declines, menstrual periods become erratic to then cease


Sperm is produced in the _____ of the testes.

seminiferous tubules

The number of chromosomes in a human gamete is ____; this is referred to as the _______ chromosome number.

23; haploid

Genetic variation of gametes occurs during _____.

prophase I

Which of the following female sex hormones is most responsible for estrogenic effects?


What is the product of spermatogenesis?

formation of haploid spermatozoa

Which of the following organs is NOT a part of the HPG axis?

posterior pituitary gland

Formation of a secondary oocyte occurs during _______.

the follicular phase

The ________ develop into the male duct system.

mesonephric ducts

Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is the main androgen that is associated with female libido.


Which of the following is NOT a sexually transmitted bacterial disease?

genital herpes

The duct system of the male reproductive system does not include the ________.

corpus spongiosum

The dartos and cremaster muscles are important to the integrity of the male reproductive system. Which of the following is true about the role they play?

They regulate the temperature of the testes.

The primary function of the testes is to produce testosterone.


If gametes were diploid like somatic cells, how many chromosomes would the zygote contain?

twice the diploid number, and with every succeeding generation, the chromosome number would continue to double and normal development could not occur

The constancy of the chromosome number from one cell generation to the next is maintained through ________.


Spermiogenesis involves the ________.

formation of a functional sperm by the stripping away of superfluous cytoplasm

All of the following can be considered male secondary sex characteristics except the ________.

development of testes as opposed to ovaries

Which of the following statements about sperm is not true?

The sperm midpiece consists of mitochondria spiraled tightly around the contractile filaments of the tail.

Erection of the penis results from ________.

a parasympathetic reflex

Spermatogenesis ________.

involves a kind of cell division limited to the gametes

Which of the choices below is not a part of the brain-testicular axis?


Select the correct statement about testosterone control

GnRH from the hypothalamus causes FSH and LH release from the anterior pituitary.

Ovarian follicles contain mature eggs.


Which is not a part of the proliferative phase of the female menstrual cycle?

corpus luteum

Normally menstruation occurs when ________.

blood levels of estrogen and progesterone decrease

Which hormone is absolutely necessary for ovulation to occur?


All of the following statements referring to the uterine cycle are true except ________.

FSH and LH directly promote development of the uterine endometrium

An ovulating oocyte is actually activated by hormones about ________ days before ovulation.


The smaller cell produced by oogenesis meiosis I, called the first polar body, is essentially a packet of discarded nuclear material.


Development of male reproductive structures depends on which of the following events?

secretion of male hormones prenatally and lasting into the first few months after birth

The primary function of the uterus is to ___________.

recieve, retain, and nourish a fertilized ovum

The structures that receive the ovulated oocyte, providing a site for fertilization, are called _________

uterine or fallopian tubes

erection is the result of vascular spaces in the erectile tissues filling with blood.


name parts of the proliferative phase of hte female menstrual cycle.

vesicular follicle growth, development of endometrial cells, and late in this phase, cervical mucus becomes thin and crystalline.

it is necessary for the testes to be kept below body temperature


sperm move to the uterine tube through uterine contractions and the energy of their own flagella. what other factor is involved in sperm movement?

reverse peristalsis of the uterus and uterine tubes

STDs are the most important cause of reproductive disorders.


a human egg or sperm contains 23 pairs of chromosomes.


ovulation occures near the end of the ovarian cycle.


the corpus luteum secretes progesterone only.


female orgasm is required for conception.


the first sign of puberty in females is budding brests.


The ability of sperm cells to move along the ductus deferens is due to

Peristaltic contractions

The ability of a male to ejaculate is due to the action of

The bulbospongious muscles

Human papillomavirus.

Genital warts

Treponema pallidum


Urethritis in males.


Epstein‐Barr virus

genital herpes

Organism responsible for approximately half of the diagnosed cases of pelvic inflammatory disease


The most important risk for testicular cancer in young males is ________.

nondescent of the testes

Which of the following glands are responsible for 60% of the synthesis of semen?

the seminal vesicles

Which of the following hormones controls the release of anterior pituitary gonadotropins?


Development of male reproductive structures depends on which of the following events?

secretion of male hormones prenatally and lasting into the first few months after birth

The primary function of the uterus is to ________.

receive, retain, and nourish a fertilized ovum

The corpus luteum is ________.

the ruptured follicle following the ejection of an oocyte from the ovary

The structures that receive the ovulated oocyte, providing a site for fertilization, are called ________.

the fallopian tubes

Which of the following constitutes the female counterpart of the male scrotum?

labia majora

Human egg and sperm are similar in that ________.

they have the same number of chromosomes

The constancy of the chromosome number from one cell generation to the next is maintained through ________.


Fertilization generally occurs in the ________.

fallopian tubes

All of the following can be considered male secondary sex characteristics except the ________.

development of testes as opposed to ovaries

In humans, separation of the cells at the two-cell state following fertilization may lead to the production of twins, which in this case would be ________.


Characteristics of the mature sperm include ________.

the presence of Y chromosomes in approximately half the sperm

Functions of testosterone include ________.

facilitation of muscle and skeletal growth in mass

Effects of estrogen include ________.

growth of the breasts at puberty

Secretion of progesterone stimulates ________.

preparation of the mammary glands for lactation

Which of the following statements about sperm is not true?

he sperm midpiece consists of Golgi bodies spiraled tightly around the contractile filaments of the tail.

The cells that produce testosterone in the testis are called ________.

interstitial cells

The testicular cells that construct the blood-testis barrier are the ________.

sustentacular cells

Which of the following occurs as a result of undescended testes?

Inadequate or nonviable sperm will be produced.

Erection of the penis results from ________.

a spinal reflex mediated by the parasympathetic nervous system

Which is not a part of the proliferative phase of the female menstrual cycle?

corpus luteum

Select the correct statement about the testis.

The testis is surrounded by the tunica vaginalis.

Select the correct statement about male sexual response.

Erection is the result of vascular spaces in the erectile tissues filling with blood.

The ovaries ________.

are surrounded by the tunica albuginea

Select the correct statement about mammary glands.

The breasts of most nonpregnant females are composed of fat and connective tissue.

During the secretory phase of the menstrual cycle ________.

progesterone levels are at their highest

Select the correct statement about the uterine cycle.

If fertilization occurs, the corpus luteum is maintained by a hormone secreted by the developing embryo.

What mechanism divides the testes into lobules?

septal extensions of the tunica albuginea

Which of the following statements is true concerning the mammary glands of both males and females?

The mammary glands are modified sweat glands that are actually part of the integumentary system

Normally menstruation occurs when ________.

blood levels of estrogen and progesterone decrease

The basic difference between spermatogenesis and oogenesis is that ________.

in oogenesis, one mature ovum is produced, and in spermatogenesis four mature sperm are produced from the parent cell

Occasionally three polar bodies are found clinging to the mature ovum. One came from an unequal division of the ovum, but from where did the other two arise?

The first polar body has also divided to produce two polar bodies.

Which of the following will occur after ovulation?

The endometrium enters its secretory phase.

The seminal vesicles ________.

produce a yellowish fluid rich in fructose

The gubernaculum ________.

is a cord that will guide the descent of the testes

The brain-testicular axis ________.

involves FSH and LH release

Select the correct statement about testosterone control.

GnRh from the hypothalamus causes FSH and LH release from the anterior pituitary.

Which of the following is a correct statement about uterine tubes?

The infundibulum is the funnel-shaped region near the ovary.

Select the correct statement about the hormonal events of the ovarian cycle.

High estrogen levels result in a surge of LH release.

Which of these statements about sexually transmitted diseases is false?

Genital herpes is caused by a virus that may lead to cervical cancer.

Which of the following statements about spermatogenesis is not true?

Each spermatid forms two sperm.

A boy who has not passed through puberty sustains an injury to his anterior pituitary such that FSH is no longer released, but LH is normal. After he grows to maturity, one would expect that he would ________.

be sterile

Which of the following statements about the female reproductive process is not true?

Rebuilding the endometrium is under the control of prolactin.

A low secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH) in the normal male adult would cause ________.

decreased testosterone secretion

All of the following statements referring to the uterine cycle are true except ________.

FSH and LH directly promote development of the uterine endometrium

Which of the following phases or processes in the monthly reproductive cycle of the female occur simultaneously?

regression of the corpus luteum and a decrease in ovarian progesterone secretion

The duct system of the male reproductive system includes ________.

the ductus deferens, a duct that runs from the epididymis up into the pelvic cavity

Prostate cancer is _______.

sometimes a slow-growing cancer that may never represent a threat to the patient

The ________ plexus of testicular veins assists in cooling the testis.


Surgical cutting of the ductus deferens as a form of birth control is called a ________.


The erectile tissue around the urethra is the corpus ________.


The midpiece of the sperm tail contains mostly ________.


The ________ cells of the testis nourish the newly formed sperm cells.


The suspensory and mesovarium ligaments are part of the ________ ligament.


A follicle with only small antrums in it would be classified as a ________ follicle.


The small opening of the uterus that sperm would first enter is called the ________.

external os

The portion of the uterine endometrium that is not sloughed off every month is called the ________.

stratum basalis

What are some risk factors for developing breast cancer?

Some of the risk factors for developing breast cancer are: (1) early onset of menses and late menopause; (2) first pregnancy late in life or no pregnancies at all; (3) repeated X rays without proper protection against radiation; (4) cigarette smoking and excessive use of alcohol; (5) a high-fat diet; (6) advanced age; (7) familial history of breast cancer and other cancer histories.

What is the name given to the female homologue to the penis?

The female clitoris is homologous to the glans penis of the male. It is homologous in that it contains dorsal erectile columns and can become swollen with blood during tactile stimulation.

Describe the composition and functional roles of semen.

Semen is a fluid mixture of sperm and accessory gland secretions (prostate, seminal vesicles, and bulbourethral). The liquid provides a transport medium for nutrients and contains chemicals that protect the sperm and facilitate their movements.

Explain the function of the myometrium and endometrium.

The myometrium plays an active role during childbirth when it contracts rhythmically to force the baby out of the motherʹs body. The endometrium is the innermost lining of the uterus where the embryo implants and stays for the rest of its development.

What signals the corpus luteum to continue producing hormones if the oocyte is fertilized?

Once the embryo has implanted, it sends out its own hormone, human chorionic gonadotropin, which stimulates the corpus luteum to maintain and even increase its hormone production.

What is the purpose of the male bulbourethral gland?

Since it releases its contents prior to ejaculation, its function is probably to neutralize the acids in the vagina.

What is the physiological importance of the fact that the male testes descend to reside in the scrotal sac?

The male testes descend into the scrotal sac so that a fairly constant intrascrotal temperature is maintained. Failure of the testes to descend results in sterility, because production of viable spermatozoa requires a temperature several degrees lower than normal body temperature.

Ovulation occurs when the oocyte is released into the peritoneal cavity. By what means does it usually enter the fallopian tube?

Fimbriae, which drape over the ovary, become very active close to the time of ovulation and undulate to create currents in the peritoneal fluid. These currents usually carry the oocyte to the uterine tube, where it begins its journey toward the uterus.

At what point is the sex of the embryo determined, and what determines it?

Genetic sex is determined at the instant the genes of a sperm combine with those of an ovum. The determining factor is the sex chromosomes each gamete contains.

Assume that a woman could be an ʺon-demandʺ ovulator like a rabbit, in which copulation stimulates the hypothalamic-AP axis and causes LH release and an oocyte was ovulated and fertilized on day 26 of her 28- day cycle. Why would a successful pregnancy be unlikely at this time?

A successful pregnancy would be unlikely at this time because progesterone levels have fallen, depriving the endometrium of hormonal support. The endometrial cells begin to die and the integrity of the uterus is compromised. The fertilized egg would not be able to implant in the wall.

Teresa has been complaining of severe abdominal pain, vaginal discharge, and a low-grade fever. She claims that she does not have a sexually transmitted disease, although the symptoms sound positive. What might be the doctorʹs diagnosis, and how should the condition be treated?

The symptoms sound like pelvic inflammatory disease, a collective term for any extensive bacterial infection of the pelvic organs, especially the uterus, uterine tubes, or ovaries. PID is most commonly caused by the bacterium that causes gonorrhea, but any bacterium can trigger the infection. Perhaps Teresa was not sexually active and the bacterium was introduced in some way other than through intercourse. Early treatment should include antibiotics (tetracycline or penicillin).

A 38-year-old male is upset about his low sperm count and visits a ʺpractitionerʺ who commonly advertises his miracle cures of sterility. The practitioner is a quack who treats conditions of low sperm count with megadoses of testosterone. Although his patients experience a huge surge in libido, their sperm count is even lower after hormone treatment. Explain why.

Megadoses of testosterone would inhibit hypothalamic release of GnRH and may act directly on the anterior pituitary to inhibit gonadotropin (FSH) release. Spermatogenesis is inhibited in the absence of FSH stimulation.

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