CS110 Final Study Guide

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When you write a program that stores a value in a variable, you are using ______________ storage.


_________ storage is not lost when a computer loses power.


Files exist on ____________ storage devices, such as hard disks, DVDs, USB drives, and reels of magnetic tape.


A __________ is a collection of data stored on a nonvolatile device in a computer system.

computer file

Directories and ________ are organization units on storage devices.


The combination of the disk drive plus the complete hierarchy of directories in which a file resides is its ______.


___________ is the more general term for an entity that organizes files.


Characters are made up of smaller elements called ______.


________ are groups of fields that go together for some logical reason.


A database holds groups of files or ________ that together serve the information needs of an organization.


In most programming languages, before an application can use a data file, it must ______ the file.


When you copy data from a file on a storage device into RAM, you ______ from the file.


When a program uses a ___________, it reads all the records in the file from beginning to end, processing them one at a time.

sequential file

When you store data records, they exist ___________________.

in some type of order.

When records are in _______ order, they are arranged one after another on the basis of the value in a particular field.


The _________ is often used as a statistic in many cases because it represents a more typical case.


The _______ is skewed by a few very high or low values.


When you create a ____________ report, the records must have been sorted in order by a key field.

control break

When computers sort data, they always use _______ values when making comparisons between values.


Because "A" is always less than "B", alphabetic sorts are ______ sorts.


In a ________, items in a list are compared with each other in pairs.

bubble sort

A bubble sort is sometimes called a _________.

sinking sort

When you learn a method like sorting, programmers say you are learning a(n) _________.


To correctly swap two values, you create a(n) _________ variable to hold one of the values.


When using a bubble sort to sort a 10-element array, on the fourth pass through the array list you detect that no swap has occurred. This indicates _____________.

the elements are in order or nearly in order.

When you sort records, two possible approaches are to place related data items in parallel arrays and to _______________ .

sort records as a whole

The last statement in a method is a(n) ________ statement.


Variables and constants are _______ within, or local to, only the method in which they are declared.

in scope

When a data item is known to all of a program’s modules, it is a _____ data item.


A calling method sends a(n) _______ to a called method.


A called method accepts the value of an argument passed to it as its ________ .


A method’s name and parameter list constitute the method’s _________ .


You can think of the __________ in a method declaration as a funnel into the method.


When a copy of a variable is sent to a method, it is passed by ________ .


Each time a method executes, any parameter variables listed in the method header are ________ .


The variables in the method declaration that accept the values from the actual parameters are _______ parameters.


A method can return nothing, in which case the method is a ______ method.


The method name and parameter list constitute the ________.


______________ is a programming model that focuses on an application’s components and data and the methods you need to manipulate them.

Object-oriented programming

Object-oriented programmers sometimes say an object is one _________ of a class.


Objects both in the real world and in object-oriented programming contain _______ and methods.


________ are the characteristics that define an object.


When you think in an object-oriented manner, every object is a member of an ______.


Object-oriented programmers also use the term _____ when describing inheritance.


The concept of a class is useful because of its _________ .


The data components of a class that belong to every instantiated object are the class’s _______.

instance variables

Instance variables are often called ______ to help distinguish them from other variables you might use.


A _____________ is a program or class that instantiates objects of another prewritten class.

class client or class user

The term __________ is applied to situations in which you define multiple methods with a single name.


A ___________ is a set of program statements that lists the characteristics of each object and the methods each object can use.

class definition

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