Course 00015 NCO Academy Set B

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An assemblage of persons or objects located or grouped together.


A group organized to work together.


AFI: Lead and develop subordinates and exercies effective follwership in mision accomplishment. Lead and manage teams while maintaining the highest level of readiness to ensure mission success.

AFI 36-2618. The Enlisted Force Structure

– Increased productivity.
– High morale during high ops tempo.
– Willingness to help fellow teammates.
– Strong identity/comraderie.
– Little to no negative conflict.
– Differences resolved thorugh compromise or collaboration.

Indications of Team Spirit

Groups are just assemblies of people or objects. Collection, gaggle, crowd, cluster, assembly, gathering, mass.

Define group and give some examples.

Teams are organized groups of individuals working together to reach a common goal. Unified, cohesive, collaborative, solidarity, joint, coalistion.

Define team and give some examples.

Indifferent, group success is unimportant, efforts seem meaningless, had no significant purpose.

What are some indications of an organzation with a healthy team spirit?

A duty assigned to an individual or unit; a task.


The task, together with the purpose, that clearly indicates the action to be taken and the reason therefore.

What is meant by "team mission"?

NCO’ who understand their team mission can use that knowledge to contribute to their team’s success.

Why is it important to understand and articulate your team’s mission to the team?

– Creator
– Advancer
– Refiner
– Executor
– Flexor


– Spontaneous, exciting, enthusiastic, and great at brainstorming.
– Offer fresh perspective.
– Offer bold, untried approaches and ideas.
– Able to see "big picture".
– Optimistic and visualize the possibilities.
– Willing to solve problems.


– Positive with self-confident attitudes.
– Insightful planners, use past experiences.
– Energetic support of team goals and objectives
– Well developed promoters.
– Persistence in championing new ideas.
– Not easily discouraged.


– Able to identify and clarifty possible problems.
– Detail oriented.
– Experts in specifics and strategy.
– Analytical.
– Able to offer new ideas and alternatives.
– Practical "sounding boards" to validate ideas.


– Willing to impliment ideas
– Meticulous in following directions and tasks.
– Assertive.
– Independent.
– Keepers of high standards.
– Able to bring up problems early enough to solve them.


– Able to connect and negotiate with all types of people.
– Tolerant and understanding of different members of the team.
– Able to identify what is missing and fill in the gaps to allow for uninterrupted progress.
– Willing to offer suggestions to improve the process.


How would you summarize the P.E.P cycle?

It begins with a call for ideas and when team members come up with an idea, they move from Panic to Elation, then without encouragement they slide back to Panic.

Why is it important to understand the P.E.P. cycle?

– Knowing the cycle exists allows team leaders to monitor idea generation and then, at the peak of elation, hand ideas off to the Advancer. This gives Creators (and others) the confidence to put forth additional ideas. – Without continuous monitoring of the cycle, ideas die soon after creation because no one recognizes their importance or promotes them. In the meantime, the Refiner and Executor wait impatiently idle.

Summarize the "Z" process.

Ideas often "bounce" back and forth among the Creators, Advancers, and Refiners in what’s called the "Z" process. The Creator comes up with an idea and as the Advancer begins promoting it, the Refiner begins analyzing it. The idea might go back and forth several times before the Refiner (along with the Creator and Advancer) agree the idea is ready to pass off to the Executor who has been waiting for an idea to come to fruition (realization).

Why is it important to understand the "Z" process?

– Knowing the "Z" Process allows team leaders to monitor the team’s progress and manage conflict generated from passing ideas back and forth. – In the case of teams without a Creator (or Advancer or Refiner or Flexer) the team leader can step in and fill the gap to ensure the "Z" Process continues to work effectively. – The "Z" Process ensures ideas are well thought out before attempting implementation

An ongoing process involving interaction of individuals within a team to move toward or away from achieving the desired objective.

Team Dynamics.

What are the 5 "C’s"?

Community, Cooperation, Coordination, Communication, and Coaching.

Encourages the team concept by making sure everyone knows and understands the organization’s mission and purpose.


Ensures each person understands how important they are to the mission.


Makes sure that everyone knows what’s going on by including vital information at staff meetings, roll calls, and other get togethers.


Makes sure every member of the team feels like an essential and important part of the team and the unit.


What are the 5 Common Dysfunctions of a team?

Absence of Trust, Fear of Conflict, Lack of Commitment, Avoidance of Accountability, and Inattention to Results.

What are the 5 stages of Team Development?

Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing, and Adjourning/Transforming.

Occurs when the team meets and starts to work together for the first time.


Occurs when the members within the team start to "jockey" for position and when control struggles take place.


Occurs when rules are finalized and accepted and when team rules start being adhered to.


Occurs when the team starts to produce through effective and efficient working practices.


Occurs when a team disbands or moves on to a new task.


What is the TEAM concept?

– Talents (skills and abilities) – Expertise (knowledge and experience) – Assessments (Customer surveys, inspections, performance evaluations) – Means: (Resources to include: equipment, facilities, financial, time, information)

Avoid conflict as its negative connotation threatens trust, communication, morale, welfare, and mission accomplishment.

Fear of Conflict.

Doubt in others or mission will cause members to struggle to commit fully to ideas, decisions, or tasks made by other members of the organization.

Lack of Commitment.

Holding others accountable usually leads to confrontation. Members are likely to avoid these situations.

Avoidance of Accountability.

Unwillingness to confide in and share knowledge, feelings, and concerns with one another.

Absence of Trust.

When members place their individual needs and goals ahead of the team and the organization.

Inattention to Results.

Training opportunities and advancement are two essential components that encourage and motivate members to grow and excel.


Develops a greater sense of involvement in the organization’s direction.


One in the service of another; one that follows the opinions or teachings of another; one that imitates another.


To offer or suggest information or ideas as a reaction from an inquiry.


What are the 5 Essential Qualities of Effective Followership?

– Self Management – Commited – Competent – Integrity – Initiative

How to increase your chances of success as a follower.

– Control your emotions. – Offer solutions to problems. – Recognize the importance of timing. – Use the chain of command.

Name three sources for gathering feedback.

Mentors, Peers, Subordinates, Budgets, Training Plans, Metrics, and External Sources/Agencies.

What is the difference between feedback and advice?

Feedback is based upon a decision already made while advice is based upon a decision that is still being contemplated.

When diagnosing the status of an organization, what should be observed?

– The situation – The people – The environment

What are the 4 types of leaders?

– Authoritarian Leader – Country Club Leader – Impoverished Leader – Team Leader

The methods or procedures necessary to move the organization in the right direction, based on diagnosis.


What are 3 key skills necessary for being effective leaders?

– Diagnosing – Adapting – Communicating

To carefully think about and discuss strengths, areas of improvement, current and future roles, and responsibilities with followers for the purpose of creating a detailed plan (or expanding an existing one) that intentionally and methodically develops personal and professional growth over time.

Deliberate Development Plan.

What does capabilities of an Airman mean?

Skills, talents, experiences, personality, etc. that Airmen may possess or have the potential to possess.

How does a leader set and monitor a deliberate development plan for their Airmen?

To carefully think about and discuss strengths, areas of improvement, current and future roles, and responsibilities with followers.

List three resources that a leader must know and have the ability to tap into in order to set up a plan and begin a development process for his or her Airmen.

Skills, Talents, Experiences, Personality

Provides you with the authority to make decisions based on your position within the organization.

Postition Power.

What are the Leader Powers?

Position – Legitimate, Connection, Coervice, Reward Personal – Referent, Expert, Information

The extent to which followers respect, feel good about, are commited to their leader; and see their own goals being satisfied by the goals of their leader.

Personal Power.

What are the three levels of commitment to an organization based on the Contemporary Motivation Model?

– Membership. – Performance. – Involvement.

What are the three types of rewards based on the Contemporary Motivation Model?

– System Level – Basic Level – Supervisory – Praise, Recognition, time off, etc. – Personal – Within

List three examples of a System Level Reward.

Pay, training, annual leave, medical and dental benefits, etc.

A process involving two or more people or groups who have a degree of difference in positions, interests, goals, values, or beliefs and who are striving to reach agreement on issues or courses of action.


Creates barriers to cooperation and communication and impacts morale, diverting efforts from important tasks and issues.

Destructive conflict.

Leads to solutions, resolutions, and higher levels of understanding and communication between individuals or groups.

Constructive conflict.

What are the five sources of conflict?(V1C3)

– Communication. – Interests. – Structural. – Personal Behavior. – Worldview.

Societal groups whose close connections with one another have existed for a long time.

High Context.

Groups and cultures where connections between members have not existed as long as those of the high context group or culture.

Low Context.

High Context Traits

– Less verbally explicit communications, less written – More internalized understandings of what is communicated – Long-term relationships – Strong boundaries, who is considered an "outsider" – Knowledge is situational, relational – Decisions and activities focus around personal face-to-face relationships – Difficult to enter for an outsider

Low Context Traits

– Rule oriented, people play by external rules – More knowledge is codified, public, external, and accessible – Sequencing, separation – of time, of space, of activities, of relationships – More interpersonal connections of shorter duration – Knowledge is more transferable – Task-centered, decisions and activities focus around what needs to be done, division of responsibilities – Preventing conflict from escalating

5 Conflict Management Styles

– Competing (Forcing) – Callaborating – Compromising – Avoiding – Accommodating

This style attempts to overwhelm an opponent with formal authority, threats, or the use of power.

Competing (Forcing).

Involves an attempt to satisfy the concerns of both sides through honest discussion.


Involves intermediate amounts of assertiveness and cooperation and strives for partial satisfaction of both parties’ desires by seeking a middle ground.


Combines low assertiveness and high cooperation—the complete opposite of competing. At its simplest level, this style may merely involve giving in to another person’s wishes.


The combination of low assertiveness and low cooperation; neutral.


Managing conflict (destructive or constructive) in a way that benefits the organization in terms of reduced chaos and stimulated work performance.

Conflict Management.

Two categories of negotiation strategies.

Distributive and Integrative.

This category assumes resources are limited; to divide up a fixed set of resources. It is also known as value claiming.


Does not see resources as necessarily fixed and means that integrative negotiations are not necessarily zero sum. Conflict is not seen as inevitable; there is the possibility for mutually beneficial, "value creating" cooperation between the parties involved.


What is BATNA

Best Alternative to a Negotiation Agreement. An alternative that negotiators are willing to accept to put closure to a case.

CNS Terminology: Position

"What you want."

CNS Terminology: Interest

One or more underlying reasons for why you are aspiring to a position.

CNS Terminology: Aspiration Point

The best each party hopes to get out of a negotiated agreement–what each party aspires or desires to achieve.

When you make a conscious effort to hear not only the words that another person is saying but, more importantly, to try and understand the total message being sent.

Active Listening

Three examples of Active Listening.

– Minimal Encouragements – Paraphrasing – Emotion Labeling – Mirroring (or Reflecting) – Open-Ended Questions – "I" Messages – Effective Pauses

Focuses on the problem while keeping the relationship and interests of all parties in mind.

Cooperative Negotiation Strategy (CNS).

The capacity of parties to decide it is in their best interest to negotiate an agreement rather than to continue a conflict.

Negotiation readiness.

The timing of negotiations.

Negotiation ripeness.

5 Steps of CNS

– Step 1: Positions – Step 2: Interests – Step 3: BATNA – Step 4: Brainstorming – Step 5: Solution

The careful and responsible management of resources under one’s control.

Resource stewardship.

Types of resources NCO’s are responsible for.

– Personnel – Financial – Material – Warfare – Information & Technology – Energy

Physical goods that are required by personnel to complete assigned duties.


Considered "most valuable resource"


Technological advancements (cell phones, computers, email, Internet-enabled devices, etc.)

Information & Technology

War-related materials (training equipment, body armor, and armored personnel carriers, etc.)


Requried to procure the material, entergy, information & technology, and warfare resources.


The critical force that powers businesses, manufacturing, and the transportation of goods and services.


Setting aside money for a specific purpose.


An act that results in exceeding limitations (misuse) of funds autheroized and appropriated by Congress in support of contract obligations.

Antideficiency Act Violations

Funding document that represents cash for commitment or obligation that is issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Air Force for Budget (SAF/FMB) to a major command or field operating agency.

Budget Allocation

Funding document that represents cash for commitment or obligation that is issued by major commands or field operating agencies to subordinate units.

Budget Allotment.

Fiscal law authority that allows the government to continue operations at a minimum level for a specified amount of time. Normally recieve 80% previous years budget.

Continuing Resolution Authority (CRA)

The organization that gathers and distributes cost data. Refers to the basic production flight or work center.

Cost Center (CC)

Regulates the daily use of work hours, supplies, equipment, and services in producing or doing things.

Cost Center Manager (CCM)

Senior advisory committee chaired by the Commander or Deputy Commander and inclused group commander, Comptroller, Directors, and special staff. Distributes annual funding.

Financial Management Board (FMB)

Reviews program and cost factors, compares actual with prior year costs, reviews justifications, periodically evaluates performance against estimates, and submits a recommended financial plan to FMB.

Financial Working Group (FWG).

Significant events in the budgeting process.

Milestones Associated with Budgeting Process.

Legal binding agreement between the government and another party.


Biennial memorandum submitted to the Secretary of Defense from each Military Department and Defense agency. It proposes total program requirements for the next six years.

Program Objective Memorandum (POM).

Budget representative for an organization. Directly responsible to the RCM.

Resource Advisor.

Normally heads an organization that plans, organizes, directs, and coordinates activities of subordinate organizations and functions; are the principal level that manages financial resources. RA is appointed by…

Responsibility Center Manager (RCM).

Submission deadlines associated with quarterly and annual budget requirements.

Timelines Associated with Budgeting Process.

A law that prohibits agencies from involving the government in a contract or obligation for the payment of money before an appropriation is made, unless authorized by law; prohibits against obligating or overspending an appropriation.

Antideficiency Act (ADA).

A two part process that occurs twice within each budget cycle to identify and redistirbute funds to meed unfunded requirements such as unforseen or initially unanticipated mission related expenses.

Budget Execution Review (BER)

Ensures an equitable distrubition of the President’s Budget (PB) for the next FY consistent with accomplishing AF program objectives and is the main vehicle for the distribution anticipated funding in an equitable manner.

Financial Execution Plan (FEP)

What are the 4 Air Force Manpower Competencies?

– Organizational Structure – Program Allocation and Control – Requirements Determination – Performance Management

This competency centers on the Unit Manpower Document and funded/unfunded position requirements.

Program Allocation and Control

This competency deals with the functionality of organizations, specifically activation, inactivation, redesignation, and reorganization.

Organizational Structure

This computer product details the organization structure, the position number for each authorization, and other pertinent data that commanders and managers need to manage manpower resources.

Unit Manpower Document (UMD).

Refers to an authorized and funded position needed to accomplish the assigned workload.

Funded Requirement.

Refers to authorized but unfunded positions needed to accomplish the assigned workload.

Unfunded Requirement.

A multi-purpose instrument used to propose adjustments to a UMD.

Authorization Change Request (ACR)

This manpower competency concentrates on programs that increase workforce efficiency and organization cost effectiveness.

Performance Management.

This competency centers on the Authorization Change Request (ACR).

Requirements Determination.

Morals, ethics, or habits establihed by an authority, custom, or an individual as acceptable behavior.


Refers to the enforced obedience to legal orders and regulations.

Imposed Discipline.

A willing and instinctive sense of responsibility that leads you to do whatever needs to be done.


How well you meet the challenges of the job.

Task Discipline.

A state of order and obedience existing within a unit that involves the ready subordination of an individual’s will for the good of the unit.

Unit Discipline.

Processes (or models)/actions designed to keep somebody from doing something undesirable.


These management tools help instruct, correct, and improve those who depart from standards of performance, conduct, bearing, integrity, and whose actions degrade the individual and unit’s mission.

Purpose of Adverse Administration and Punitive Actions.

A system of three Arenas that if used correctly can help maintain discipline in the Air Force.

Discipline Model.

What are the three Arenas of the Discipline Model.

– Prevention – Correction – Punishment

What are the key actions of Prevention?

– Set standard – Establish rapport – Create climate of accountability

Designed to address inappropriate behavior, and seek to bring subordinates’ behavior back within acceptable boundaries using the least amount of force necessary.

DM Arena 2 – Correction

Designed to stop problems before they occur.

DM Arena 1 – Prevention

NCO’s must use what process during the Correction Arena?

Progressive Discipline Process (PDP)

Why is it important to correct substandard behavior?

Correcting substandard behavior not only maintains good order and discipline, it motivates Airmen to accomplish the mission in the most effective and efficient manner possible.

Designed to correct and rehabilitate those who repeatedly or grievously violate standards. Can only done by officers on G-series orders.

DM Arena 3 – Punishment

What is the difference between Corrective and Punitive actions?

Corrective actions are administrative in nature, punitive actions are legal sanctions designed to take something away from the member.

What is the NCO’s primary role when operating in the Punishment Arena?

To provide the commander with facts concerning the member (e.g. duty performance, previous violations, family/financial situation and so forth), and, if asked, recommend actions that would be most effective in rehabilitating the member.

Provides commanders with an official repository of substantiated derogatory data concerning an Air Force member’s personal conduct and duty performance.

Unfavorable Information File (UIF)

A tool used by commanders to set up a six month observation period for individuals whose duty performance is substandard or who fail to meet or maintain Air Force standards of conduct, bearing, and integrity, on or off duty.

Control Roster.

State the 3 steps of the Progressive Discipline Process.

1. Establish Standards 2. Monitor 3. Apply the PDP

Name the 7 Basic Rights of the Accused.

1. Presumption of innocence. 2. Protection from self-incrimination. 3. Pretrial investigation 4. Representation by counsel. 5. fair and impartial trial. 6. right of appeal. 7. protection from double jeopardy.

All are innocent until proven guilty and MUST be treated as such.

1. Presumption of innocence.

Individual cannot be put in a situation where they have to admit to a crime.

2. Protection from Compulsory Self-Incrimination.

Ensures all elements are out in open and evidence is presented.

3. Pretrial investigation.

All members will have a lawyer, the free military counsel or pay for their own civilian lawyer.

4. Representation by Counsel.

Counsel always has a separate chain of command than accused, counsels will have similar qualifications, court or members will not be influenced, judge and members will act in good faith.

5. Fair and Impartial Trial.

Everyone gets a second look.

6. Right of Appeal.

Cannot be tried twice for same offense.

7. Former (Double) Jeapardy

NCOs should advise someone of his/her rights when they…

…SUSPECT a crime has been committed, and you intend to question the individual, you MUST perform a rights advisement.

List three things a NCO must ensure while engaged in a disciplinary action involving a subordinate.

– use the Discipline Model and PDP effectively. – protected the rights of the accused. – know their limits. – ensure accused are treated with respect.

Summarize the wingman concept/philosophy?

– Airmen taking responsibility for each other by being alert to others in distress and intervening when they need help – Airmen seeking help from their Wingman when needed – Have the confidence and willingness to approach others who appear to need help – Staying with them through a crisis until you can ensure a safe hand-off to a supervisor or other competent individual.

Relationship and financial problems, family crisis, grief and loss, experiencing failure, illness or injury, difficulty adjusting to a new life changes, Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), career problems, and low self-esteem.


This dimension of wellness determines one’s ability to find comfort, meaning, and hope when faced with these difficult and often tragic circumstances allowing them to return to a state of psychological well-being.


This type of wellness requires a support network consisting of family, friends, and coworkers offers tremendous benefits for your health and wellness especially when dealing with difficult situations.


This type of wellness requires one to focus on five specific components: Cardio respiratory Endurance, Muscular endurance, Muscular strength, Body composition, and Flexibility.


Heightened individual and community awareness of suicide, suicide risk factors, and the fact that suicide is only the "tip of the iceberg" of psychosocial problems.

Suicide Awareness.

Such factors as relationship difficulties, substance abuse, legal, financial, medical, mental health, and occupational problems, along with depression, social isolation, and previous suicide threats/gestures, which may increase the probability of self-harm.

Risk Factors.

A community-based approach, that includes family, friends, and many different professional and social service providers, committed to reducing suicide by creating a safety net that provides protection and adds support for those in trouble by addressing the entire iceberg of afflictions to individuals, families, and their communities.

Suicide Prevention.

List common barriers to seeking help.

– Denying the problem exists – Avoiding the problem all together – Fear that accessing help will result in a negative career impact – Fear that the chain of command will be contacted

What are the confidentiality and privacy rules regarding suicide.

Communications between a patient and a psychotherapist or an assistant to a psychotherapist made for the purpose of facilitating diagnosis or treatment of the patient’s mental or emotional condition are confidential communications and shall be protected from unauthorized disclosure.

Teams or services that exist on each base to help individuals recover from or remain functioning despite the potential negative effects of critical incidents.

Critical Incident Stress Management (CISM)

Why do people commit suicide?

They believe that they are: – Are a burden to others – Do not contribute to the group – Are a liability to the group’s well-being or safety – Have no sense of belonging or connection to others or to the unit – Have lost a meaningful relationship

Any controlled substance included in schedules I, II, III, IV, and V in Title 21, United States Code, Section 812, including anabolic or androgenic steroids, or any intoxicating substance, other than alcohol, that is inhaled, injected, consumed, or introduced into the body in any manner to alter mood or function.


A substance which contains any quantity of a substance that is habit-forming or has a potential for abuse because of its stimulant, depressant, or hallucinogenic effect as determined by the Attorney General of the United States (amphetamines, barbiturates, LSD, mescaline, STP, PCP, inhalants, etc.).

Depressant or Stimulant Substance.

Any intoxicating product of plant (including hashish) or any cannabis synthetic.


Any opiates or cocaine to include any compound containing cocaine or its synthetic equivalents, derivatives, or products (heroin, methadone, morphine, crack, coca de mate, Health Inca Tea, etc.).


Any synthetic derivatives of testosterone that build muscle mass.

Anabolic Steroids.

any equipment, product, or material that is used, intended to be used, or designed to be used in planting, propagating, cultivating, manufacturing, growing, harvesting, compounding, converting, producing, processing, preparing, testing, analyzing, packaging, repackaging, storing, containing, concealing, or introducing a controlled substance into a human body by injection, inhalation, ingestion, or otherwise.

Drug paraphernalia

Alcohol and other mind-controlling or mood-altering drugs.


The processes of helping the member recognize at the earliest possible moment that he or she needs treatment for self-destructive drinking or drug abuse.


The use of any illicit drug or the misuse of any prescribed medication or the abuse of alcohol.

Substance Abuse.

Any pattern of unconventional misuse of any substance for non-medical purposes that produces a known health risk or constitutes a danger to self or others.


Any substandard behavior or performance in which the consumption of alcohol is a primary contributing factor.

Alchohol Abuse.

A primary, chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations.


Driving while intoxicated, public incidents of intoxication and misconduct, under-age drinking, or similar offenses and is a breach of discipline.

Alcohol-Related Misconduct

The illegal, wrongful, or improper use, possession, sale, transfer, or introduction onto a military installation of any drug.

Drug Abuse.

What is the 0-0-1-3 Formula?

– 0 = Number of underage individuals drinking – 0 = Number of individuals driving under the influence (DUI) of alcohol – 1 = Maximum number of alcoholic drinks per hour – 3 = Maximum number of alcoholic drinks per night

Substance abuse prevention, which is a collaborative effort shared among various agencies to include the mental health (ADAPT), drug demand reduction, and health promotions and includes.

– Education – Counseling – Referral – Follow-up

What are the five methods used by the Air Force to identify substance abuse are?

– Self Identification – Commander Referrals – Medical identification – Substance-related incidents – Drug-testing

The effects of substance abuse are far reaching. What does substance abuse prevention promote?

– Responsible behavioral patterns – Environment of open communication – Less time spent on administrative actions – A decrease in physical and mental health related expenses – A reduction in lost duty time

Shall refer all members for an assessment when substance use could be a contributing factor in an incident.

Commander Referrals

Healthcare providers who suspect substance problems must refer the member to the ADAPT program for evaluation.

Medical Identification.

Members who are not currently under investigation or pending action because of an alcohol-related incident are eligible.


Determines the level and intensity of alcohol involvement.

Blood Alcohol Tests (BAT)

As an NCO/leader, effective methods to communicate your observations concerning substance abuse issues with a suspected abuser are:

– Private counseling or feedback session – Firm questions, yet sensitive to subordinate’s situation and needs – Inquiring with a nonjudgmental, open-minded attitude – Sincerity and genuine concern in actions – Using observed behaviors and other facts as the basis for discussion

What are the primary objectives of the Air Force ADAPT Program?

– Successful completion of ADAPT – Severity of impact from behaviors – Member’s acceptance of responsibility and need for change – Duty performance, recent and historical – Self-identification versus caught through random testing – Repetition of behaviors or incidents

Postive or healthy stress.


Negative stress.


The level of differentiation in the organization, the degree of rules and regulations, and where decisions are made.

Organizational structure.

What are pressures created by other individuals.

Interpersonal demands.

What are pressures placed on a person as a function of the particular role he or she plays in the organization.

Role demands.

What are pressures and factors related to a person’s job.

Task demands.

The managerial style of the organization’s senior executives.

Organzational Leadership.

What are the 5 rrganizational stress factors prevalent in workplaces?

– Task demands – Role demands – Interpersonal demands – Organizational structure – Organizational leadership

Happens when there is a change in mental function or behavior because of combat.

Combat Stress

Occurs when there are changes in mental functioning or behavior due to military operations other than war.

Operational Stress.

Any mental or physical challenge or challenges.


An anxiety disorder that may occur in an individual following exposure to a traumatic event.

Post Traumatic Stress Disorder.

Anything the individual deems scary or horrible where they feel their or others’ lives are in danger.

Traumatic Event.

What are the warning signs or symptoms of PTSD?

– Reliving the event – Avoiding situations that remind you of the event. – Feeling numb. – Hyperarousal (Keyed up)

The relationship arising from organizational and interpersonal relations.

Human Relations.

Discrimination based on color, national origin, race, religion, or sex.

Unlawful Discrimination.

Designed to facilitate opportunities for the employment and advancement of underrepresented groups in the work force, remove artificial barriers in personnel systems and practices, and eliminate discrimination by act or inference.

Air Force ffirmative Employment Program (AEP)

Individual actions taken to deprive a person or group of a right because of color, national origin, race, religion, or sex. Such discrimination can occur overtly, covertly, intentionally, or unintentionally.

Personal Discrimination.

The action by an institution (or system) that, through its policies or procedures, deprives a person or group of a right because of color, national origin, race, religion, or sex. Such discrimination can occur overtly, covertly, intentionally, or unintentionally.

Systematic Discrimination.

Sexual harassment is a form of sex discrimination that involves unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature when:

Sexual Harassment.

Allegation of unlawful discrimination or sexual harassment that is submitted in writing on AF Form 1587-1 to the authority designated for receipt of such complaints.

Formal Complaint.

Allegation of unlawful discrimination or sexual harassment made either orally or in writing on an AF Form 1587-1 that is not submitted as a formal complaint.

Informal Complaint.

The right of all persons to participate in, and benefit from, programs and activities for which they are qualified.

Equal Opportunity.

Attitudes and beliefs that one sex is superior to another.


Any attitude or action of a person or institutional structure that subordinates a person or group because of race.


Exaggerated belief about a category of people. It rationalizes a person’s conduct toward that category.


A judgment against or an opinion contrary to anything without just grounds or sufficient knowledge.


The prevailing perceptions of individuals concerning interpersonal relationships within their working, living, and social environment.(V1C6)

Human Relations Climate.

Intentional sexual contact, characterized by use of force, threats, intimidation, abuse of authority, or when the victim does not or cannot consent.

Sexual Assault.

Substance that incapacitates another individual so that the perpetrator can sexually assault him or her.

Date-Rape drugs.

The criminal who assaults the victim.


A person who enables, encourages, or creates a situation or environment that allows a perpetrator to act.


A person who sees the potential for a sexual assault.


What are the two options of sexual assault reporting?

Restricted and unrestriced.

The first point of contact for reporting a sexual assault and is considered the center of gravity when it comes to issues of sexual assault.

Sexual Assualt Response Coordinator (SARC)

Individuals who are specially trained to support victims of sexual assault. They are not counselors and are not part of the legal or law enforcement agencies.

Victim Advocates.

Any act of violence, against persons or property, threats, intimidation, harassment, or other inappropriate, disruptive behavior that cause fear for personal safety and/or involve a substantial risk of physical or emotional harm to individuals, or damage to government resources or capabilities."

Workplace Violence.

A violent physical or verbal attack, an unlawful threat, or an attempt to do violence or harm to somebody else.


Causes serious physical injury to another; using a deadly weapon or dangerous instrument; committing an assault by any means of force that causes temporary but substantial disfigurement, temporary but substantial loss or impairment of any body organ or part or a fracture of any body part; committing an assault while the victim is bound or otherwise physically restrained or while the victim’s capacity to resist is substantially impaired.

Aggravated Assault.

Not taking action associated with workplace violence when warning signs are evident.


When one responds to a workplace violence incident with an "I can handle it" attitude when the right thing to do is consult with professional help.


Places all employees on notice that threats, assaults, or other acts of violence, made directly or indirectly, even in jest, toward other employees or customers will result in severe disciplinary action.

Zero Tolerance Policy.

The repeated, unreasonable, and unwanted actions by individuals or groups directed at individuals or groups with the intent to intimidate, harass, degrade, or offend.

Workplace Bullying.

The ability to adjust to changed, unexpected, or ambiguous situations by actively seeking information and by demonstrating openness and support of different and innovative change ideas.


The ability to use different thinking strategies and mental frameworks.

Cognitive Flexibility.

The ability to vary your approach to dealing with your own emotions and those of others.

Emotional Flexibility.

The ability to remain optimistic and at the same time realistic.

Dispositional Flexibility.

What are three things that NCO’s with congnative flexibility do?

– Scan the environment (identify changes) – Develop an understanding (making sense of things) – Create Strategies (develop alternate plans)

What are four things that NCO’s with Emotional Flexibiltiy do?

– Understand and manage emotions – Connect and address the emotions of others – Emotional engagement – Balance emotions and actions

What are three things that NCO’s with Dispositional Flexibility display?

– Optimism – Support – Self identification of tendencies

A proactively coordinated and structured period of transition from situation A to situation B using a systematic approach that addresses planning for the change; implementing, monitoring, and controlling the change effort; and effecting the change by minimizing resistance through the involvement of key players and stakeholders resulting in lasting change within an organization.

Change Management.

The people responsible for initiating change within an organization.

Change Sponsors.

Are responsible for implementation of change in an organization.

Change Agents.

Those individuals or groups who actually undergo the change.

Change Targets.

What are the four phases of Janssen’s Model of Change?

– Comfort – Denial – Confusion – Renewal (Acceptance)

What are Mayo’s Four Levels of Change?

– Knowledge (easiest to change) – Attitude (emotionally charged) – Individual Behavior (habits) – Group Behavior (hardest to change)

What ar ethe two change cycles when implimenting change?

– Directive Change Cycle (Top Down) – Participative Change Cycle (Bottom Up)

What are the three phases of in the Change Process?

– Unfreezing – Change – Refreeing

Phase is intended to motivate your subordinates and help get them ready for change.

Phase 1 – Unfreezing

Phase is the movement from the old way of doing things to the new way of doing business.

Phase 2 – Change

Phase is the locking in of the new procedures until they’re a permanent part of daily operations.

Phase 3 – Refreezing

What are the five levels or reactions to change, otherwise known as the "diffusion of innovation?

– Innovators (2.5%) – Early Adopters (13.5%) – Early Majority (34%) – Late Majority (34%) – Laggards (16%)

The strategic, never-ending, incremental refinement of the way you perform tasks. CI employs a collection of methodologies including Lean, Six Sigma, Theory of Constraints, and Business Process.

Continuous Improvement.

Is about constantly finding efficiencies to channel saved monies toward improving combat capabilities across the Air Force.

Air Force Smart Operations for the 21st Century (AFSO21).

What are the five desired effects of AFSO21?

– Increase productivity of your people – Increase critical equipment availablity rates. – Improve response time and agility (warfighter) – Sustain safe and relaiable operations – Improve energy efficiency

What are the three levels of priorities for AFSO21?

1. Just Do It 2. Rapid Improvement Events (RIE) 3. High Value Initiative (HVI)

The mental (cognitive) process that results in the selection of a course of action from among several alternative scenarios.

Decision Making.

Relies heavily on situational cues, prominent memories, trial and error, and heuristic thinking (discovering solutions for self) to arrive quickly and confidently at judgments, particularly when situations are familiar and immediate action is required.

System 1 – Reactive Thinking

Broad and informed problem-solving and deliberate decision making. It is useful for judgments in unfamiliar situations, for processing abstract concepts, and for deliberating when there is time for planning and more comprehensive consideration.

System 2 – Reflective Thinking

What are the four Decision Analysis Steps?

1. Situation Appraisal – separates, clarifies, and prioritizes concerns. 2. Problem Analysis – identifies the cause of a positive or negative deviation. 3. Decision Analysis – is used for making a choice. 4. Potential Problem Analysis – protects actions or plans.

What is accompished by using a Decision Statement?

– Determines your objective. – Provides a specific level of success or resolution.

Provides NCOs with a systematic and deliberate method for looking at the current situation, determining what problems exists, and then deciding an appropriate and/or effective action.

OODA Loop Observe -Look at situation Orient – Gather Data Decide – Develop solution Act – Implement and Evaluation Solution

A team-centered, systematic, common-sense problem solving approach aimed at increasing combat capability, making Air Force units more effective and efficient, and enhancing and enabling the Warfighter.

Eight Step Problem Solving

What are the first four steps in the Eight Step Problem Solving Method?

1. Clarify and Validate Problem 2. Breakdown the problem and identify gaps. 3. Set improvement target 4. Determine Root Cause.

What are the last four steps in the Eight Step Problem Solving Method?

5. Develop Countermeasures 6. See Countermeasures Through 7. Confirm Results and Process 8. Standardize Successful Process

The Basic Communication Process includes four elements:

1. Sender 2. Message 3. Reciever 4. Feedback

The originator of the communication process.


The idea, feeling, or information that a sender transfers to his/her audience by using written or spoken words and nonverbal symbols.


The target for the sender’s message.


A reaction to the message as you receive it.


The flow of communication through the chain of command from the lowest organizational position to the highest.

Upward Communication.

Normally begins with the organization’s upper level of management and filters down through the chain of command.

Downward Communication.

Information flows neither downward nor upward; instead, it flows across organizational channels.

Lateral Communication

According to The Tongue and Quill, all Air Force writing or speaking falls under one or a combination of four general purposes:

– Direct – Inform – Persuade – Inspire

Generally used to pass on information describing actions you expect to be carried out by your audience.

Directive Communications

Goal is to pass on information to the audience.

Informative Communication

Is typically used when you are trying to "sell" your audience on a new idea, new policy, new product, or change in current operations.

Persuasive Communication.

What are the three phases of effective communication?

1. Diagnose Communications Needs 2. Prepare the Communication 3. Deliver the Message 1+2+3=Effective Communication

To determine the meaning or understand the significance of the elements and how the elements fit into the whole.


To put different elements together to form a new whole; to draw conclusions about the relationships and implication.


To make judgments about your work or you judge a piece of work as it stands and as it seems to you against your own unique bundle of experiences, observations, and attitudes.


Making sure you separate the reading into parts or elements.


Primarily used to explain or clarify unfamiliar terms, jargon, processes, or to establish a common core of experience.


A focused United States Government effort to understand and engage key audiences to create, strengthen, or preserve conditions favorable for the advancement of United States Government interests, policies, and objectives through the use of coordinated programs, plans, themes, messages, and products synchronized with the actions of all instruments of national power.

Strategic Communications.

Who has ultimate responsibility for monitoring policies relating to each of the areas listed?

Department of State (DOS)

List four ways you can play a role in Strategic Communication?

1. Know the Air Force message 2. Tell the Air Force story 3. Tell what I do and how it supports my wing’s mission and priority. 4. Stay in my lane.

Means discussing only issues related to your AFSC or personal experiences.

Stay in your lane.

What is SAPP?

– Security – Accuracy – Propriety – Policy

Means that it is outside of your responsibility. It’s meant to tell others to mind your own business.

Outside your lane.

What are the three types of interviews?

– On the record – Background – Off the record

What are the four Interviewing Techniques?

– Hooking – Bridging – Flagging – Personal Credibility

Takes advantage of opportunities before the interview to get the reporter interested in talking about what you want to.


Technique you can use to move from the reporter’s agenda to your message.


Used to emphasize your message. Use verbal clues such as tone of voice, non-verbal hand gestures, and facial expressions to emphasize your point.


Means you are the expert! Use your personal authority and experience to establish your professional credentials.

Personal Credibility

The emergence of digital, computerized, or networked information and communication technologies.

New media

Includes the environmental factors and conditions that must be understood to successfully apply combat power, protect the force, or complete the mission, including the enemy and friendly forces.

Online battlespace.

Refers to user-centered, dynamic Internet based services that emphasize collaboration and sharing.

Web 2.0

A website containing the writer’s frequently updated personal journal with images and links to other web sites.


A short broadcast in the form of a blog.


A social structure made up of individuals (or organizations) called "nodes", which are tied (connected) by one or more specific types of interdependency, such as friendship.

Social Networking

The various activities that integrate technology, social interaction, and the construction of words, pictures, videos, and audio.

Social Media

Uploading images to a website like Flickr or Picasa, adding tags, and offering people the chance to comment or re-use your photos.

Photo Sharing

Internet users reference, organize, store, manage, and search for bookmarks of resources online and allows users to save links to other web pages that they want to remember or share.

Social bookmarking.

A face-to-face, multidirectional exchange of verbal messages and nonverbal signals between two or more people, for the purpose of gaining a shared meaning."

Interpersonal Communication

Requires both parties to be physically
present and in the same immediate vicinity.

Face to face or one-on-one.

Happens when all parties involved have both permission and freedom
to express themselves freely and openly about the issue under discussion.

Multidirectional exchange

Carry the greatest amount of the
communication burden; show whether or not
you care and how well you are listening.

Nonverbal signals.

Your ability to detect appropriateness of your social behaviors and self-presentation in response to situational constraints and to adjust your behaviors to fit the situation.


Focuses on what you say and how you say it. It consists of verbal and nonverbal messages sent back and forth between a sender and receiver.

The Message.

The characteristics of the voice


What does paralanguage pertain to?

– Rate – Diction – Tone – Rhythm – Fluency – Volume – Quality

The number of words spoken within a specified time.


The combination of articulation (precise use of lips, tongue, and teeth to form sounds), pronunciation (pronouncing words properly), and choice of words.


Can be considered in two dimensions: manner of expression (harsh, aggressive, gentle, passive, etc.) and relative pitch (high, low, varying, monotonous)


Creates recurring patterns of variation in speech, i.e., rising and lowering waves of volume, pitch, or rate.




Uses pauses effectively to provide desired flow and effect. Are typically described in three dimensions: length (milliseconds to minutes), filled (vocalized) and unfilled (silent), and location (ending of a thought, beginning of a thought, etc.).


Pertains to the fidelity or timbre of sound.


Focuses only on the literal meaning of a message without taking into
account the emotions or cultural message behind what is being said.

Content-only response.

Usually arises out of excitement about the conversation and from not being able to hold back one’s contribution.

Non-competitive interrupting.

Is aggressive and serves to dominate conversation. It is "I" oriented and becomes a battle for conversational control.

Competitive interrupting.

A variety of verbal and nonverbal cues to help you maintain the speaker’s role


To turn into one’s own or another language, often in written format.


To explain or tell the meaning of; present in understandable terms.


Are customarily the use of hands to show emphasis, transition, enumeration, etc.; sometimes accompanied by tonal inflections, pauses, or other nonverbal behaviors.


Show expressions of fear, surprise, joy, sadness, anger, disgust, etc., conveyed through brow, eye, and mouth configurations.

Facial expressions.

Happens when the sender and receiver are looking into each other’s eyes.

Eye contact

Sends messages through body posture (slouching, sitting erectly, lounging, crossed arms, etc.) and behaviors (stomping a foot, pointing a finger, shaking the head, etc.).

Body Language.

What are the three main approaches to counseling?

– Directive. – Non-directive – Combined.

In this approach, you do most of the talking and tell
the subordinate what needs to be done. You determine the content of and assume the
responsibility for the session. This approach is usually short in duration.

Directive or Supervisor Centered Counseling.

In this approach, your
primary role will be to help the
subordinate by providing the information he or she needs to make an informed choice about how to behave in the future. This approach puts the responsibility
squarely on the subordinate, and it
encourages maturity and open

Nondirective or Subordinate Centered Counseling.

Determining why an interpersonal session is needed and its purpose

Diagnosting (Pre-session)

What are the steps in the Interpersonal Sessions Model?

1. Diagnose (Pre-Session) 2. Prepare (Pre-Session) 3. Opening Skills (Session) 4. Attending Skills (Session) 5. Responding Skills (Session) 6. Resolving Skills (Session) 7. Closing Skills (Session) 8. Follow-up Actions (Post Session)

List the three components of interpersonal communication.

1. Depth 2. Scope 3. Suitability

Examples of informal interpersonal sessions are:

– Providing encouragement – Verbal warnings – Giving advice – Feedback from your subordinates – Telling subordinates what to do

Examples of formal interpersonal sessions are:

– Counseling sessions – Mentoring sessions – Performance feedback sessions – Training

An important aspect of managerial roles in interpersonal communication is ________________________________.


Subordinates are lazy, will not take responsibility, lack desire to achieve significant results, demonstrate inability to direct their own behavior, show indifference to organizational needs, prefer to be led by others, and avoid making decisions whenever possible.

Dehumanized Climate.

Human relations are more important than organizational objectives, conflicts and tensions should be reduced at all costs, motivation of subordinates should be almost totally intrinsic and self-directed, and participative decision making is always superior to decisions made by one or a few.

Overhumanized Climate.

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