chp 19 h-w

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What is a wiggle in time called? What do you call a wiggle in space and time?

A vibration, a wave

What is the source of all waves?

The source is something that is vibrating.

What is meant by the period of a pendulum?

The time interval of a to-and-fro swing

Which has the longer period, a short or a long pendulum?

The long pendulum has the longer period.

How does a sine curve describe a wave

A sine curve is a pictorial representation of a wave.

Distinguish between these different aspects of a wave: period, amplitude, wavelength, and frequency.

Period is the time from one crest to the next, amplitude is the distance from the midpoint to a crest, wavelength is the distance from one crest to the next, and frequency is the number of crests that pass per second.

How many vibrations per second are represented in a radio wave of 101.7 MHz?

101,700,000 vibrations

How are frequency and period related to each other?

Frequency and period are inversely proportional.

In one word, what is it that moves from source to receiver in wave motion?


Does the medium in which a wave travels move with the wave?


In what direction are the vibrations relative to the direction of wave travel in a transverse wave?

At right angles to the direction of wave travel

In what direction are the vibrations relative to the direction of wave travel in a longitudinal wave?

Parallel to the direction of wave travel

The wavelength of a transverse wave is the distance between successive crests (or troughs). What is the wavelength of a longitudinal wave?

The wavelength is the distance between successive maximum compressions (or rarefractions).

What is the relationship among frequency, wavelength, and wave speed?

Wave speed is frequency multiplied by wavelength.

What is meant by the superposition principle?

When two or more waves occupy the same space, wave displacements add at every point.

Distinguish between constructive interference and destructive interference.

Constructive interference occurs when the crests of two waves add together. Destructive interference occurs when a crest of one wave is reduced by the trough of another.

What kinds of waves can show interference?

All waves show interference.

What is a node? What is an antinode?

In a standing wave, a node always has zero displacement and an antinode always has maximum displacement.

Can standing waves be formed with transverse waves or longitudinal waves?


In the Doppler effect, does frequency change? Does wave speed change?

Only frequency changes.

Can the Doppler effect be observed with longitudinal waves or with transverse waves?


What is meant by a blue shift and a red shift for light?

An approaching source has increased light frequency – a blue shift. A receding source has a decreasing frequency – a red shift.

How fast must a bug swim to keep up with the waves it produces? How fast must it move to produce a bow wave?

As fast as the wave speed; as fast as or faster than the wave speed

How fast does a supersonic aircraft fly compared with the speed of sound?

As fast as or faster than the speed of sound

How does the V shape of a bow wave depend on the speed of the source?

The angle of the V gets smaller as the speed of the source gets faster.

A bow wave on the surface of water is two-dimensional. What about a shock wave in air?

A shock wave in air is three-dimensional.

True or false: A sonic boom occurs only when an aircraft is breaking through the sound barrier. Defend your answer.

False. An aircraft creates a shock wave continuously as it is supersonic. This is heard as a sonic boom by an observer.

True or false: In order for an object to produce a sonic boom, it must be "noisy." Give two examples to support your answer.

False. A whip and a bullet move through the air without making sounds other than the shock wave.

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