Chapters 5 – 7

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Central to Roman identity was a conservatism expressed in an unwritten code of


The myth of the Rape of Lucretia appealed to Roman patriotism by emphasing the

corruption of Etruscan morals and government

The monastic way of life in the west was influenced greatly by the establishment of a set of rules written by


The equestrian order (Roman knights) was established when business men who did not become senators wanted


During the early Roman Republic, Rome expanded

slowly and extended the Latin right to many of the cities it conquered

The geographic site of Rome has many advantages, including

hills that increase the defensibility of the city

Prior to the establishment of Rome as the dominant state in Italy, Etruscans

skilled metal worker and artists, lived there

The Romans were a military society almost from the moment they settled in Italy because they were

continually forced to defend their own conquests against invaders

One consequence of Rome’s conquests was the increased role in society played by


The greatest Roman Stoic, Cicero, believed that

virtue leads to happiness, and peace of mind is the highest goal

The Rape of Lucretia explained the end of the

Roman monoarchy and the founding of the Republic

The Twelve Tables of Law, approved in 450 BCE, represent the

codification of existing laws for all to see and obey

The Roman’s man primary duty was

honor his ancestors

In the early Roman Republic, Rome was technically a democracy but the Roman constitution essentially ensured

oligarchic rule

According to the patriapotestas provision of the Twelve Tables, a Roman father had absolute power over

his family, up to and including the power of life and death

One important difference between Roman religion and Greek religion was the Roman view of the

integration of religion with Roman politics serving a pantheon that functioned more like family gods of the Roman state

After Rome had twice defeated Carthage, a Third Punic War was provoked by

war hawks who thought Carthage must be destroyed

Rome was a crucial factor in the development of European civilization because Rome

connected Europe to the cultural heritage of the Near East

The division between Roman patricians and plebeians was between the

wealthiest (2%) and the the rest (98%) of the people

The Augustan system of government is known as the early empire or Principate because

Octavian ruled as first citizen

Prior to Julius Caesar’s appointment as "Dictator for Life" only one other Roman had been appointed to that position without traditional 6 month term, and he was


Pax Romana refers to the

long period in which there were no major wars within the Roman Empire

Among the titles Augustus had been awarded; _______ was not among them


Although the Roman Republic had greatly increased the territory ruled by Rome, under the emperors even more territory was added to the empire with _____ adding more than any other ruler.


When Julius Caesar adopted Octavian as his heir, Octavian had to

fight his rivals and kill his republican opponents

Cicero, one of the most famous Stoics of the later republic, did not believe in

withdrawal from public life

Those who ruled Rome from 96 to 180 CE were called the "Five Good Emperors" because they

were capable administrators who governed successfully

Although many emperors who followed Augustus in the Julio-Claudian dynasty were able individuals, many were not, arguably the worst of these was


One way that the Romans were influenced by the Greeks was by

observing the many Greeks who lived in Sicily and Southern Italy

After a plebian rebellion in the early 5th century BCE the patricians accepted the

elected tribunes and written laws

As a ruler, Diocletian was known for

separating military from civilian chains of command

The crisis of the early 3rd century was precipitated by the retreat from the

eastern frontier and violent tendencies of Marcus Arelius’s son, Commodus

The position of the Sadducees in Palestine during the 1st century CE

The Sadducees believed that interpretation of religious law was for the temple priesthood

One example of how Rome transformed the world into the Roman world be that the

evolving process of Roman leaders coming from everywhere within the empire and people would settle far from their place of birth

Cultural and intellectual developments in Rome reached their pinnacle during the


The Augustan system refers to the

political reforms instituted by Augustus and continued under his successors

The tetrarchy was the split of Rome into halves and the creation of

anaugustus in the West and one in the East who were assisted and would be succeeded by caesars

Realizing that the Roman Empire had become too large for a single ruler to control it Diocletian divided

the empire in half, trusting a junior colleague to rule the western part

During the 3rd century, Rome underwent a prolonged period that came very close to destroying the empire. This period is known as the time of the

‘Barracks Emperors’ when Rome had 26 emperors in about 50 years

One of the problems of the 3rd century caused by Rome’s expansion was the

*fact that the empire was no longer centered on Rome *ever increasing number of people claiming Roman citizenship *dispersal of resources to the far-flung provinces of the empire *lack of defensible borders

Jesus is the central figure in Christianity, but Paul was important as the

founder of the universal church, giving it theology and organization

The Dead Sea Scrolls have helped historians to understand the religious climate of the 1st century CE by demonstrating the

diversity of Jewish religious practices and belief

The gospel accounts of Jesus’ life were probably written between

70 and 100 CE

By the end of the 3rd century it became obvious that Rome’s western and eastern provinces could not be

controlled by a single central government

The Romans were able to support cities with large populations due, in no small measure, to the construction of a

system of aqueducts to allow a steady supply of portable water to the cities

The Romans were the first people to use ________ on a massive scale in their buildings.


The cultural and intellectual developments of the Roman republic came to fruition during the reign of


What were the general results of the doctrinal quarrels of the early centuries

the dogmas of the Christian Church gradually became fixed

The 4th century interest in ‘orthodoxy’ among Christian intellectuals arose from the

need to show that Christianity could withstand the philosophical scrutiny of Greek and Roman traditions

Economic reforms introduced by the early 4th century Roman empire included

wage and price controls fixed by the government

Benedict’s monastic rule differed from Basil’s rule because it

was less austere and more moderate in its demands for monastic life

On the City of God was a

defense of Christianity by Augustine in the wake of Rome’s sack in 410

Many Greek philosophers gained large numbers of Roman adherents and shared several tenets, but the one that was instrumental in influencing Christian theology was


Augustine’s theological ideas revolved around

human sinfulness and divine omnipotence

The difference between the eastern and western parts of the Roman Empire in

culture, economy, and language were great and grew larger over time

Christianity went from being a persecuted faith in early 4th century to being the recognized faith of the empire, this last step was the result of the action by the emperor

Theodosius, who prohibited pagan worship

Once Constatine I and his successor’s had converted to Christianity it gained

power and was designated the only official religion by Theodosius

One result of the Council of Nicea was to

* declare Arianism a heresy * establish the validity of church councils * establish a means of setting the biblical canon * establish the close relationship between church and emperor

What point was in dispute between the Arians and Christian orthodoxy

whether Jesus was of the same being and substance as God the Father

The roots of the papacy lie in a

passage from the New Testament Gospel of Matthew

In terms of organization, the 4th century Christian church was more defined in

hierarchical terms, with a clergy distributed among patriarchs, bishops, priests, and deacons

Boethius’s most famous work was entitled

The Consolation of Philosophy

Augustine’s Confession is

a series of autobiographical essays directed toward God

Jerome’s most lasting contribution to western Christian culture was

his translation of the Bible into Latin

Romans regarded the Germans as barbarians because

German society was illiterate and Germans did not live in cities

The Christian label for non-Christians is indicative of its

urban origin

By the end of the 3rd century, the involvement of women in the church had

shrunk to the point that they were completely excluded from all positions of power

By 300 CE, Christians numbered no more the 5% of the population of the Roman Empire, one reason for this Diocletian’s policy of

persecution of any group deemed to be subversive

The 7th century AD was a turning point in the history of Western civilization because

the Greco-Roman world of antiquity divided into Byzantine, Islamic, and Latin Christian realms

Why did Justinian try to reconquer the western Roman Empire?

because he sought to revive and reconstruct wholly the old empire

Why did Justinian’s reconquest of the western Roman Empire fail?

The costs associated with conquering and defending the vast western empire were too great

Chapter 7 dates the beginning of Byzantine history with the accession of

Heraclius in 610

Between 610 and 1071, the major secuity threats to the Byzantine empire came from

Persia, then the Muslim Arab armies that absorbed the Persian Empire and streamed into North Africa

The stability of Byzantine government was the product of

an efficient bureaucracy

The Byzantine economy in the early Middle Ages was

highly regulated, including wage and price controls

The early Byzantine religion was known for its

intense interest in matters of doctrine and orthodoxy

The Iconoclastic Controversy of the 8th century AD was about

the use of prohibition of images in church, where people might worship the objects

Although the Iconoclastic Controversy was eventually resolved, its lasting effects included the

destruction of nearly all pre-eight century religious art in the Byzantine empire

In Byzantine schools, classical Greek literature was

the basis of the curriculum, with much study of the epics of Homer

Women from wealthy Byzantine families

were generally educated at home by tutors, and some became literary figures of note

The Byzantine church of Hagia Sophia was influential in the history of architecture because it

placed a massive dome on a building with a square shape

The Hijra (Hegira) refers to the Prophet Muhammad’s move from

Mecca to Medina

The Qu’ ran contains

the revelations sent by God to Muhammad

Islam spread so quickly in the 7th and 8th centuries because

the Byzantines and Persians had become exhausted by their long wars against each other

In Arabic, caliph means


The Shiite party arose among Muslims because

of a dispute about the proper succession of caliphs in 7th century Arabia

In comparison to the Umayyad, the Abbasid caliphate

adopted more of the style of Persian royal absolutism

The 1001 Nights describes the extravagant behavior of the Abbasid caliph

Harun al-Rashid

The Shiite claim to legitimacy rests on the direct connection to Muhammad through his daughter


Compared to medieval Europe in the 11th and 12th centuries, the Islamic world was

more advanced in technological sophistication, science, and philosophy

Within Islam, social mobility was encouraged because of

the teachings of Muhammad, which stressed the equality of all Muslim men

Opportunity for advancement in Islamic cultures depended on

one’s ability and one’s talent

Charlemagne and Harun al-Rashid formed an alliance partially because of their shared enemy, the


In general, the Christian monasticism of the 4th, 5th, and 6th centuries was a response to

the increasing worldliness of the church, the patronage of powerful families like the Merovingians, and a hunger to transform lives in accordance with the will of God

Why were so many convents (monastic houses for women) founded during the 7th century AD

convents met a variety of social and spiritual needs for artistocratic families

As a theologian, Pope Gregory I is regarded as the successor to


The key figure in creating an alliance between the Carolingian family, the papacy, and Benedictine monasticism was

Saint Boniface

As a Christian king responsible for ruling a Christian society, Charlemagne

took responsibility for reforming the religious life of his kingdom just as he reformed its government

Underlying the Carolingian Renaissance was the basic conviction that

classical learning was the foundation on which Christian wisdom rested

Alcuin and his associates contributed significantly to literacy even until today by

copying corrected versions of biblical texts and investing Carolingian miniscule script in the process

Which was a significant event in creating Byzantine hostility toward the Latin Christian world

the coronoation of Charlemagne as Roman emperor on Christmas Day, 800

The Carolingian empire collapsed during the 9th century because

* the structural limits of its expansion had been reached * the empire was divided among all of Louis’s legitimate heirs * of Viking raids * the Abbasid and Scandinavian trading system broke down

The Vikings settled the area in Europe known today as:


The overall unity of the Muslim world disintegrated during the 10th and 11th centuries because of

the fractured political unity of the Islamic world exacerbated dissent and tension within Islam itself

The position of the Pharisees in Palestine during the 1st century CE believed in

life after death and a system of individual rewards and punishments

The Romans were able to support cities with large populations due, in no small measure, to the

construction of a system of aqueducts to allow a steady supply of potable water to the cities

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