Chapter 9 Project Human Resource Management

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Extrinsic motivation causes people to participate in an activity for their own enjoyment.


Maslow’s hierarchy of needs states that people’s behaviors are guided or motivated by a
sequence of needs.


Maslow suggests that each level of the hierarchy of needs is not necessarily a prerequisite for
the levels above.


According to Herzberg, hygiene factors such as larger salaries, more supervision, or a more
attractive work environment would motivate workers to do more if present.


People who need institutional power or social power want to organize others to further the goals
of the organization.


Managers who believe in Theory Y assume that workers dislike and avoid work if possible, so
managers must use coercion, threats, and various control schemes to get workers to make adequate efforts to
meet objectives.


Assignment, budget, promotion, money, and penalty influence bases are automatically available
to project managers as part of their position.


Thamhain and Wilemon found that when project managers used work challenge and expertise to
influence people, projects were more likely to succeed.


Legitimate power involves using personal knowledge and expertise to get people to change their


According to Covey, project managers must use a win/lose approach in making decisions.


A responsibility assignment matrix (RAM) is a matrix that maps the work of the project as
described in the OBS to the people responsible for performing the work as described in the WBS.


A RAM is used only to assign detailed work activities.


A staffing management plan describes when and how people will be added to and taken off the
project team.


Resource leveling results in fewer problems for project personnel and accounting departments.


In the Tuckman model, storming occurs when team members have different opinions for how
the team should operate.


The first dimension of psychological type in the MBTI signifies whether people draw their
energy from other people (extroverts) or from inside themselves (introverts).


In the Social Styles Profile team building activity, drivers are reactive and people-oriented.


The forcing mode is one in which the project manager deemphasizes or avoids areas of
differences and emphasizes areas of agreement.


Project managers must try to avoid conflict at all costs as all conflict within groups is bad.


Microsoft Project 2010 does not lend itself to project human resource management.


_____ involves assigning the needed personnel to work on the project.

Acquiring the project team

Key outputs of _____ process are project staff assignments, resource calendars, and project
management plan updates.

acquiring the project team

_____ involves building individual and group skills to enhance project performance.

Developing the project team

The main outputs of the _____ process are team performance assessments and enterprise
environmental factors updates.

developing the project team

_____ involves tracking team member performance, motivating team members, providing
timely feedback, resolving issues and conflicts, and coordinating changes to help enhance project

Managing the project team

The acquiring of the project team is a subprocess associated with the _____ process of project
human resource management.


_____ a highly respected psychologist, rejected the dehumanizing negativism of psychology and
proposed the hierarchy of needs theory.

Abraham Maslow

At the bottom of Maslow’s structure are _____ needs.


_____ is at the top of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs.


Recognizing an employee as the "Star Performer of the Month" would be satisfying the _____
need of the Maslow’s hierarchy of needs.


The bottom four needs in Maslow’s structure are referred to as _____ needs.


The highest level of needs in Maslow’s structure is referred to as a _____ need.


_____ is best known for distinguishing between motivational factors and hygiene factors when
considering motivation in work settings.

Frederick Herzberg

According to Herzberg, which of the following is a motivational factor?


People with a high need for _____ seek to excel and tend to avoid both low-risk and high-risk
situations to improve their chances for achieving something worthwhile.


According to McClelland’s acquired-needs theory, people with a high need for _____ desire
harmonious relationships with other people and need to feel accepted by others.


According to McClelland’s acquired-needs theory, people who need personal _____ want to
direct others and can be seen as bossy.


The _____ presents subjects with a series of ambiguous pictures and asks them to develop a
spontaneous story for each picture, assuming they will project their own needs into the story.


_____ is best known for developing Theory X and Theory Y.

Douglas McGregor

Managers who follow _____ assume that the average worker wants to be directed and prefers
to avoid responsibility.

Theory X

_____ emphasizes things such as job rotation, broadening of skills, generalization versus
specialization, and the need for continuous training of workers.

Theory Z

According to Thamhain and Wilemon, _____ is the legitimate hierarchical right to issue


According to Thamhain and Wilemon, _____ is the ability to improve a worker’s position.


_____ involves using punishment, threats, or other negative approaches to get people to do
things they do not want to do.

Coercive power

_____ involves using incentives to induce people to do things.

Reward power

_____ is based on an individual’s personal charisma.

Referent power

_____ refers to matching certain behaviors of the other person.


The first step in the framework for defining and assigning work is _____.

finalizing the project requirements

A(n) _____ is a column chart that shows the number of resources assigned to a project over

resource histogram

_____ refers to the amount of individual resources an existing schedule requires during
specific time periods.

Resource loading

_____ is a technique for resolving resource conflicts by delaying tasks.

Resource leveling

In the Tuckman model, _____ occurs as team members have different opinions as to how the
team should operate.


In the Tuckman model, _____ occurs when the emphasis is on reaching the team goals, rather
than working on team process.


In the MBTI, the _____ dimension relates to the manner in which you gather information.


Psychologist David Merril describes _____ as reactive and task-oriented.


According to Blake and Mouton, project managers who use the _____ method use a give-and
take-approach to resolving conflicts.


According to Lencioni, which of the following qualities is present in organizations that


_____ issues that affect how people work and how well they work include motivation, influence
and power, and effectiveness.


_____ causes people to do something for a reward or to avoid a penalty.

Extrinsic motivation

According to Maslow, only after meeting _____ needs can individuals act upon growth needs.


Herzberg called factors that cause job satisfaction _____.


_____ should receive frequent performance feedback, and although money is not an important
motivator to them, it is an effective form of feedback.


The _____ is a tool to measure the individual needs of different people using McClelland’s

Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)

Managers who believe in McGregor’s _____ assume that individuals do not inherently dislike
work, but consider it as natural as play or rest.

Theory Y

_____ is the potential ability to influence behavior to get people to do things they would not
otherwise do.


_____ power is getting people to do things based on a position of authority.


_____ is the concept that the whole is equal to more than the sum of its parts.


Covey, like Maslow, believes that people have the ability to be _____ and choose their
responses to different situations.


_____ is listening with the intent to understand.

Empathic listening

_____ is a relation of harmony, conformity, accord, or affinity and is important for


_____ fill in for project managers in their absence and assist them as needed.

Deputy project managers

A(n) _____ or draft contract often provides the basis for defining and finalizing work

Request for Proposal (RFP)

The _____ allocates work to responsible and performing organizations, teams, or individuals,
depending on the desired level of detail.

responsibility assignment matrix (RAM)

A(n) _____ is a specific type of organizational chart that shows which organizational units are
responsible for which work items.

organizational breakdown structure (OBS)

_____ means more resources than are available are assigned to perform work at a given time.


Resource _____ aims to minimize period-by-period variations in resource loading by shifting
tasks within their slack allowances.


In the Tuckman model, _____ involves the break-up of the team after it successfully reaches its
goals and completes the work.


In the DISC profile, the letter "S" represents _____.


According to Blake and Mouton, project managers who use the _____ mode retreat from an
actual or potential disagreement.


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