Chapter 9 Pre-Lecture

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What is the correct sequence of steps in cellular respiration, starting with glucose?

Glycolysis, pyruvate processing, citric acid cycle, electron transport, oxidative phosphorylation.

What is the last step of cellular respiration?

Oxidative phosphorylation

During cellular respiration __________.

Glucose is oxidized and there is no net production of ATP

________ harnesses the energy from oxidation of high-energy molecules to produce ATP.

Respiration

In glycolysis, the first stage of cellular respiration, one molecule of glucose is oxidized to two molecules of ________, with the production of ATP and NADH.

Pyruvates

These reactions, called ______ (oxidation-reduction) reactions, play a key role in cellular respiration.

Redox

When a compound donates (loses) electrons, that compound becomes ________. Such a compound is then referred to as an electron donor.

Oxidized

When a compound accepts (gains) electrons, that compound becomes _________. Such a compound is often referred to as an electron acceptor.

Reduced

In glycolysis, the carbon-containing compound that functions as the electron donor is _________.

Glucose

Once the electron donor in glycolysis gives up its electrons, it is oxidized to a compound called _________.

Pyruvate

______ is the compound that functions as the electron acceptor in glycolysis.

NAD+

The reduced form of the electron acceptor in glycolysis is ______.

NADH

Glycolysis is a series of _____ reactions that occurs in the _____ of cells.

Ten, cytoplasm

For each molecule of glucose processed during glycolysis, the net yield is ________.

Two molecules of NADH, two of ATP, and two of pyruvate.

Glycolysis begins by using molecules of ATP, but the net yield is _________.

Positive

During pyruvate processing, two carbons from pyruvate combine with ________.

Coenzyme A

One carbon of the three-carbon pyruvate becomes oxidized to ____ and the remaining two carbons (acetate) combine with coenzyme A to form acetyl coenzyme A.

CO2

What molecule is produced in the citric acid cycle as a by-product of glucose oxidation and is considered a waste product?

Carbon dioxide

What molecule is produced during the citric acid cycle feeds into the electron transport chain?

FADH2

Oxidative phosphorylation consists of two tightly linked processes — _______ _______ and ____ ________.

Electron transport, ATP synthesis

In electron transport, the NADH and FADH2 produced in the first three stages of cellular respiration are _______ by O2 (the oxidative part of this stage.)

Oxidized

These redox reactions also drive the pumping of _______ across the inner mitochondrial membrane, creating a proton (H+) gradient.

Protons

The H+ gradient is used to power the __________ synthesis of ATP from ADP and Pi (the phosphorylation part of this stage).

Chemiosmotic

In mitochondrial electron transport, what is the direct role of O2?

To function as the final electron acceptor in the electron transport chain

The only place that ____ participates in cellular respiration is at the end of the electron transport chain, as the final electron acceptor.

O2

Oxygen’s high affinity for electrons ensures its success in this role. Its contributions to driving electron transport, forming a proton gradient, and synthesizing ATP are all indirect effects of its role as the ________ ________ ________.

Terminal electron acceptor

How would anaerobic conditions (when no O2 is present) affect the rate of electron transport and ATP production during oxidative phosphorylation? (Note that you should not consider the effect on ATP synthesis in glycolysis or the citric acid cycle).

Both electron transport and ATP synthesis would stop.

Without O2, mitochondria are unable to oxidize the ______ and ______ produced in the first three steps of cellular respiration, and thus cannot make any ATP via oxidiative phosphorylation.

NADH, FADH2

In addition, without O2, the mitochondria cannot oxidize the NADH and FADH2 back to ______ and ____ which are needed as inputs to the first three stages of cellular respiration.

NAD+, FAD

Why is ATP production during cellular respiration characterized as indirect?

ATP is not produced directly by the ETC but instead via the proton gradient generated during electron transport through the ETC.

In eukaryotes, the components of the electron transport chain are located in the _______.

Inner mitochondrial membrane

Proteins in the mitochondrial inner membrane pump protons into the intermembrane space, creating a ______ ______ ______.

Proton motive force

At the end of cellular respiration, protons flow through a protein called _______, which drives the formation of ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate.

ATP synthase

Fermentation in human muscle

Lactate

Fermentation in yeast and bacteria

Ethanol

Aerobic oxidation

Acetyl CoA

In the presence of oxygen, human cells carry out aerobic respiration, which yields ______ _____.

Acetyl CoA

In the absence of oxygen, human cells carry out lactic acid fermentation, which yields _______.

Lactate

Yeasts and many bacteria carry out _______ ________, which takes place under anaerobic conditions, and produces ethanol.

Alcohol fermentation

What are the reactants of anaerobic respiration of pyruvate during lactic acid fermentation?

NADH and pyruvate

What are the products of anaerobic respiration of pyruvate during lactic acid fermentation?

Lactate and NAD+

When an animal engages in strenuous usage of its muscles, anaerobic conditions ensue, and pyruvate is reduced to _______.

Lactate

Which answer best explains why organisms that have an ETC as well as fermentation pathways seldom ferment pyruvate if the electron acceptor at the end of the ETC is available?

Fermentation is extremely inefficient in terms of the number of ATP molecules produced for each molecule of glucose metabolized.

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