Chapter 41- Animal Nutrition

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Choose the list that presents the four stages of food processing in the order in which they naturally occur.

ingestion → digestion → absorption → elimination

Fungi begin the process with __ and end with absorption.


When digested, proteins are broken down into _____.

amino acids

When digested, fats are broken down into _____.

both glycerol and fatty acids

Starch is a type of _____.


Starch is a __ composed of many monomers (many monosaccharide units).


Your small intestine can absorb ____ without their being further digested.


Fructose is a __ , so it can be absorbed without having to be broken down into smaller units.


Which of these enzymes begins the breakdown of starch?


The digestion of __ , such as amylose, begins with the amylase secreted by the salivary glands.


Starch can be broken down into the disaccharide known as _____.


Protein digestion begins in the _____.


What is the main component of many secretions, including gastric juice?


_____ is secreted by the _____ and acts to emulsify _____ in the _____.

Bile … liver … fats … small intestine

What acid is responsible for stomach acidity?

hydrochloric acid

Which structure is not part of the alimentary canal?

Salivary glands

Which process is not required for an animal to obtain energy from food?


True or false? One advantage of having a tube-like digestive tract is that digestion of all compounds can take place simultaneously down the tract.


True or False? The liver is a component of the alimentary canal.


The __ canal is the tube through which food passes, beginning at the mouth and ending at the anus. The liver is an accessory organ of digestion and not part of the actual canal through which food passes.


T or F? Proteins that are consumed in the diet are absorbed as individual amino acids following digestion.


T or F? Carbohydrate digestion begins in the mouth with salivary amylase.


T or F? Free fatty acid absorption occurs in the small intestine.


Fat digestion is not complete until pancreatic lipases finalize fat digestion in the __.

small intestine

The lower esophageal sphincter surrounds the upper opening into the stomach. If this sphincter failed to properly constrict, there might be a problem with _____.

regurgitation of acidic stomach contents into the esophagus, commonly called "heartburn"

Different types of food are eaten by various groups of animals, but it is usually true that _____.

cellulose digestion in ruminant mammals occurs before the ingested foods reach the small intestine

The __ are "front-end" fermenters, with mutualistic microbes residing in chambers or sections of the stomach.


Secretin stimulates the _____ to secrete _____.

pancreas … bicarbonate

The acidity of the stomach contents triggers the __ to secrete __, which in turn stimulates the pancreas to secrete bicarbonate to neutralize this acidity.

small intestine … secretin

Cholecystokinin (CCK) stimulates the _____ to secrete _____.

pancreas … pancreatic enzymes

The presence of fatty acids and amino acids in the stomach contents triggers the __ to secrete __. CCK then stimulates the pancreas to secrete enzymes that play a role in the digestion of these nutrients.

small intestine … CCK

The acidity of the stomach contents triggers the small intestine to secrete a hormone known as _____.


Secretin stimulates the pancreas to secrete __ to neutralize this acidity.


The presence of fatty acids and amino acids in the stomach contents triggers the small intestine to secrete a hormone known as _____.

cholecystokinin, or CCK

CCK then stimulates the gall bladder to release __ and the pancreas to secrete pancreatic enzymes.


Bile is produced by the _____ and stored by the _____ until it is secreted into the small intestine.

liver … gall bladder

Bile is continuously produced by the liver and is stored in the gall bladder until __ triggers its release.


Among humans, increased interest in food intake normally occurs _____.

via chemical signals released when the stomach is empty

A shrunken, empty stomach releases __, a protein hormone that sharply increases appetite.


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