Chapter 3 Sociology

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The tragic case of Anna shows that without adequate nutrition a human being cannot develop a personality or self.


Even years of social isolation during infancy in humans does not cause permanent and irreversible developmental damage.


Psychologist John B. Watson claimed that specific patterns of human behavior are not instinctive, but learned.


The "id" in Freud’s work represents the human being’s basic drives, which are unconscious and demand immediate satisfaction.


The "ego" in Freud’s model of personality is the same as "conscience."


In Freud’s model of personality, the superego manages the opposing forces of the id and the ego.


According to Jean Piaget, language and other symbols were first used in the preoperational stage.


Lawrence Kohlberg claims that individuals develop the capacity for moral reasoning in stages as they grow older.


According to Carol Gilligan, boys judge behavior with an eye toward what the actions means for personal relationships.


George Herbert Mead used the concept "the looking-glass self" to refer to significant people in our lives.


Mead’s theory of the self is completely social; he did not recognize a biological element in personality development.


Erik H. Erikson emphasized that almost all important socialization takes place during childhood.


Of all social institutions, the family has the greatest impact on socialization.


Schools provide most children with their first experience of bureaucracy.


Members of a peer group share common interests, social position, and a similar age.


According to Kübler-Ross, a person first reacts to the prospect of dying with denial.


A college is a good example of a total institution.


Total institutions operate with the goal of resocializing inmates.


What concept refers to the lifelong social experience by which human beings develop their potential and learn culture?


What concept refers to a person’s fairly consistent patterns of acting, thinking, and feeling?


Which theory, developed by the psychologist John B. Watson, claims that human behavior is not instinctive but learned within a social environment?


In the nature versus nurture debate, sociologists claim that

nurture is far more important than nature.

If you were to summarize the lesson learned from the case of Anna, you would correctly conclude that

social experience plays a crucial part in forming human personality.

Our basic drives or needs as humans are reflected in Freud’s concept of the


In Freud’s model of personality, which element of the personality represents a person’s efforts to balance the demands of society and innate pleasure-seeking drives?


In Freud’s model of personality, what represents the presence of culture within the individual?


Applying Freud’s thinking to a sociological analysis of personality development, you would conclude that

humans have basic, self-centered drives that must be controlled by learning the ways of society.

Jean Piaget’s focus was on

cognition, or how people think and understand.

According to Piaget, in what stage of human development do individuals experience the world only through sensory contact?

sensorimotor stage

For Jean Piaget, at which stage of development do individuals first use language and other cultural symbols?

preoperational stage

The focus of Lawrence Kohlberg’s research was

moral reasoning.

Carol Gilligan set out to compare the moral development of girls and boys. Her research showed that

girls and boys typically assess situations as right and wrong using different standards.

George Herbert Mead considered the self to be

the part of an individual’s personality that is composed of self-awareness and self-image.

Mead placed the origin of the self on

social experience.

According to Mead, social experience involves

the exchange of symbols.

By "taking the role of the other," Mead had in mind

imagining a situation from another person’s point of view.

According to Mead, children learn to take the role of the other as they model themselves on important people in their lives, such as parents. Mead referred to these people as

significant others.

Mead used the concept "generalized other" to refer to

widespread cultural norms and values used in evaluating ourselves.

Which of the following statements comes closest to describing Erik H. Erikson’s view of socialization?

Personality develops over the entire life course in patterned stages.

Family is important to the socialization process because

a. family members are often what Mead called "significant others." b. families pass along social identity to children in terms of class, ethnicity, and religion. c. parents greatly affect a child’s sense of self. d. ALL RESPONSES ARE CORRECT

The special importance of the peer group is the fact that it

lets children escape the direct supervision of parents.

In her research, Elisabeth Kübler-Ross found that death

is an orderly transition involving specific stages.

Which of the following concepts refers to a setting where a staff tries to radically change someone’s personality through carefully controlling the environment?

a total institution

According to Erving Goffman, the goal of a total institution is

to radically alter a person’s personality or behavior.

Which of the following traits linked to a total institution is NOT correct?

a. Staff members supervise all aspects of daily life. b. STAFF MEMBERS ENCOURAGE THE INDIVIDUAL GROWTH AND REATIVITY OF INMATES. c. Inmates have standardized food, clothing, and activities. d. Formal rules direct people’s daily routines.

Which of the following BEST sums up Goffman’s idea of the resocialization process?

break down an old identity, then build up a new identity

An inmate who loses the capacity for independent living is described as


Based on what you have read in this chapter, you would correctly conclude that

a. society shapes how we think and act. b. human beings are spontaneous and creative with the power to change society. c. human beings have the capacity to change the world. d. ALL RESPONSES ARE CORRECT

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