Chapter 3 Cells- The Living Units

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Chapter 3 Chapter Test Question 1
Which of the following is NOT a concept of the cell theory?

Cells are given life through a process known as spontaneous generation.

Chapter 3 Chapter Test Question 2
Which of the following names the three main parts of a human cell?

cytoplasm, plasma membrane, and nucleus

Question 5
Get Ready for A&P Video Tutor: General Cell Structure
Part A
Which of the following is NOT one of the three major components of a typical eukaryotic cell?

Part B
Which of the following acts as the digestive system of the cell, breaking down materials?

Part C
Where in a typical eukaryotic cell would you expect to find genes?

Part D
Which of the following statements about cells is FALSE?

Part A: ribosome Part B: lysosome Part C: in the DNA within the cell’s nucleus Part D: Cells join together to form organelles, which then form our organs and organ systems.

Chapter 3 Homeostatic Imbalance Question 1
Which of the following molecules might change over time in a cancer cell?

all of the above

Art Question Chapter 3 Question 21
Which set of membrane proteins in the figure depicts the transport of solute molecules?


Chapter 3 Reading Quiz Question 2
Which of the following factors act to bind cells together?

specialized junctions, wavy membrane contours, and glycoproteins

Chapter 3 Chapter Test Question 3
Which of the following describes tight junctions?

junctions among epithelial cells lining the digestive tract

Chapter 3 Chapter Test Question 11
The plasma membrane is made primarily of ________.


Get Ready for A&P Video Tutor: Cell Membrane Structure

Part A
Which of the following is the main component of the cell membrane?

Part B
Which of the following is a characteristic of the cell membrane?

Part C
Which of the following is not a major function of proteins in the cell membrane?

Part D
What part of a cell membrane is usually in contact with the interstitial fluid?

Part A: phospholipids Part B: semipermeable Part C: forming the entire glycocalyx Part D: phosphate heads of phospholipids

A&P Flix Quiz: Membrane Transport

Part A
A primary active transport process is one in which __________.

Part B
Some transport processes use transport proteins in the plasma membrane, but do not require ATP. This type of transport is known as _____.

Part C
The majority of water molecules moving across plasma membranes by osmosis do so via a process that is most similar to ____.

Part D
The sodium-potassium pump uses ATP to move sodium and potassium ions across the plasma membrane. This statement describes _____.

Part E
A vesicle fuses with the plasma membrane and releases its contents to the extracellular fluid. This statement describes _____.

Part A: molecules move through transport proteins that have been activated by ATP Part B: facilitated diffusion Part C: facilitated diffusion Part D: primary active transport Part E: exocytosis

Chapter 3 Homeostatic Imbalance Question 2
In a patient with severely burned skin, the damaged cells that have lost fluid cannot be properly rehydrated because_________.

the absence of selective permeability allows water molecules that enter these damaged cells to also leave the cytoplasm

Art Question Chapter 3 Question 7
What process is indicated by C?

exocytosis of secreted proteins

Art Question Chapter 3 Question 24
This figure illustrates which of the following descriptions?

the use of a sodium concentration gradient to power the pumping of glucose into the cell

Art Question Chapter 3 Question 25
How is the energy from ATP used most directly in the illustrated processes?

to generate a sodium concentration gradient

Art Question Chapter 3 Question 29
The mechanism depicted in B would most likely mediate the diffusion of which of the following solutes?

an amino acid

Why is the selective permeability of the plasma membrane essential for normal cell function?

Selective permeability allows cells to exclude some substances and allow others to pass into or out of the cell.

What is the difference between active and passive transport across the plasma membrane?

Active transport is ATP dependent, whereas passive transport uses only the kinetic energy of the particles for movement across the plasma membrane.

Which of the following would NOT diffuse through the plasma membrane by means of simple diffusion?


________ is the diffusion of a solvent, such as water, across a selectively permeable membrane.


Solutions with a higher concentration of solutes than the concentration inside the cells are __________.


Which of the following statements is TRUE?

During exocytosis, substances from inside the cell are moved outside

Which of the following processes allows cells to concentrate material that is present only in very small amounts in the extracellular fluid?

receptor-mediated endocytosis

Which of the following forms of vesicular transport processes are used by flu viruses, diphtheria, and cholera toxins to enter our cells?

receptor-mediated endocytosis

Diffusion is a form of active transport.


Phagocytosis is a form of exocytosis.


Get Ready for A&P Video Tutor: Osmosis
Part A
Which of the following is not required for osmosis to occur?

Part B
Which of the following solutions contains the most solute?

Part C
In general, to maintain homeostasis the relationship between our intracellular and extracellular fluids should be which of the following?

Part D
If a person is severely dehydrated, their extracellular fluids will become hypertonic to the intracellular fluid. What do you predict will happen to the person’s cells?

Part A: cellular energy Part B: hypertonic Part C: isotonic to each other Part D: The cells will lose water and shrink

Get Ready for A&P Video Tutor: Diffusion
Part A
Which of the following best explains diffusion?

Part B
Which of the following is most likely to move through the cell membrane by facilitated diffusion?

Part C
What is the basic difference between simple diffusion and facilitated diffusion across a cell membrane?

Part D
Which of the following is least likely to increase the rate of diffusion?

Part A: movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration Part B: Na+ Part C: In facilitated diffusion, molecules only move with the aid of a protein in the membrane. Part D: small concentration gradient

What is a membrane potential?

a voltage or electrical charge across the plasma membrane

In their resting state, all body cells exhibit a resting membrane potential; therefore, all cells are polarized.


Some types of cells move freely through the body, while others are bound into tightly knit communities.


The figure is of which cellular organelle?

a mitochondrion

Structures A and B are composed primarily of ______.


The folded membranes indicated by B are the site of ______.

enzymes involved in cellular respiration

The small circular structure indicated by the letter C represents a ______.

DNA molecule

What major function occurs on the specific membranes indicated by A?

synthesis of secreted proteins

The structure indicated by B is ______.

the Golgi apparatus

The membrane-bound compartment indicated by structure D contains which of the following?

hydrolytic enzymes

Which cell organelle provides the majority of the ATP needed by the cell to carry out its metabolic reactions?


Which cell component helps to maintain the structural integrity of the cell?


What is the primary function of the mitochondria?

They are the main sites of ATP production.

Which organelle is responsible for synthesizing proteins?


Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of peroxisomes?

They contain powerful enzymes called acid hydrolases.

Which of the following is characteristic of cilia?

They are whiplike, motile cellular extensions that occur in large numbers on the exposed surfaces of certain cells.

Lysosomes perform digestive functions within a cell.


What type of protein is indicated by the arrow?


The indicated protein interacts with DNA to form the structural unit of chromatin called a ______.


What is the function of the indicated protein?

to allow DNA to form a compact structure

The nucleolus ________.

is the site of ribosome assembly in a cell

A&P Flix Quiz: Mitosis
Part A
During which phase of the cell cycle does DNA duplication, or replication, take place?

Part B
When a double helix of DNA is replicated, two complete helices are formed. Together, these helices are called sister __________.

Part C
During which phase of mitosis do sister chromatids line up at the center of the cell?

Part D
During which phase of mitosis do the sister chromatids move apart?

Part E
During which phase of mitosis do nuclear envelopes and the nucleoli reappear?

Part F
During which phase of mitosis do the nuclear envelope and nucleoli disappear?

Part G
What is the name of the process by which the cytoplasm divides in two?

Part A: Interphase Part B: chromatids Part C: Metaphase Part D: Anaphase Part E: Telophase Part F: Prophase Part G: Cytokinesis

A&P Flix Quiz: DNA Replication
Part A
Which of the following builds new strands of DNA?

Part B
Which statement best describes strand characteristics as it relates to DNA replication?

Part C
During DNA replication, which nucleotide will bind to an A nucleotide in the original or parental DNA strand?

Part D
Which protein joins together the Okazaki fragments of DNA in the lagging strand?

Part E
Which statement about DNA replication is FALSE?

Part A: DNA polymerase Part B: The leading strand is built continuously, and the lagging strand is built in pieces. Part C: T Part D: DNA ligase Part E: DNA ligase adds nucleotides to the lagging strand

What is a function of the enzyme indicated by structure A?

breaking the bonds between complementary base pairs

What is the specific role of the enzyme indicated by B during the formation of the new DNA strands?

joining the nucleotides that form the new DNA strand

Which of the following statements best explains why the leading and lagging strands are synthesized using two different mechanisms?

The DNA is replicated in one direction, but DNA polymerase must work in opposite directions on each parent strand.

After DNA replication is completed, each DNA double helix consists of ______.

one old parent strand and one new daughter strand

Which letter is pointing to an mRNA molecule?


What process allows for the production of molecule B from a template consisting of molecule A?


Each number above molecule B refers to ______.

a codon

The region of molecule B that encodes a polypeptide is 24 nucleotides in length. Consider another such molecule with a coding region of 300 nucleotides. What is a reasonable estimate for the length of the corresponding polypeptide that will be produced during protein synthesis?

100 amino acids

Molecule B and molecule C are expected to interact within which of the following cellular locations?


What must happen before a body cell can begin mitotic cell division?

Its DNA must be replicated exactly so that identical copies of the cell’s genes can be passed on to each of its offspring.

What are the two basic steps of polypeptide synthesis?

transcription and translation

During DNA replication, the covalent bonding of nucleotides into a new strand of DNA is performed by ________.

DNA polymerase

________ is a molecular "ferry" that brings amino acids to the ribosome to build a protein.


During interphase of the cell life cycle, the parent cell divides into two daughter cells.


Get Ready for A&P Video Tutor: The Cell Cycle
Part A
Which of the following lists, in correct order, the phases of interphase?

Part B
Which of the following lists, in correct order, the phases of mitosis?

Part C
During which of the following phases does DNA replication occur?

Part D
During which of the following phases does chromatin condense and become chromosomes?

Part A: G1, S, and G2 Part B: prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase Part C: Synthesis Part D: prophase

Focus Figure 3.37: Translation
Part B – Role of mRNA
What is the function of mRNA during translation?

Part C – Role of tRNA
Which statement best describes the function of tRNA in translation?

Part B: mRNA carries the code for a polypeptide’s sequence of amino acids. Part C: tRNA carries amino acids to the ribosome.

A&P Flix Activity: Mitosis
Part A – The Cell Cycle: Interphase
The cell cycle is divided into two main parts: interphase and cell division. Interphase is the period in which the cell is performing normal functions and not actively engaged in cell division. Most of your body’s cells spend a lot of their time in interphase. Before a cell can divide, what must occur during interphase?

Part A: Each chromatin fiber is duplicated in the nucleus.

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