Chapter 20 Earth Science

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Which of the following is not part of the climate system?


Which of the following is a part of the earth system that could be significantly impacted by climate and climate change?

deposition of sedimentary rocks

Temperature and precipitation are the most important elements in describing a climate because ________.

they are the elements that have the greatest impact on humans

The Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn were identified by the ancient Greeks as the ________.

boundaries between the moderate and hot areas on earth

The Köppen classification system for climate is widely used because _______.

it uses easily obtained data, and the system is relatively unambiguous

Of the 5 major groups in the Köppen classification system, which letter below indicates the classification that is based primarily on precipitation?


Winterless climates with all months having a mean temperature above 18°C are known as ________ climates.

humid tropical

For more than 70 years, the best-known and most used climate classification system has been the ________ classification.


Climates where evaporation exceeds precipitation are called ________ climates.


Köppen believed that the distribution of ________ was an excellent expression of the totality of climate.

natural vegetation

The wet tropics are limited to areas ________.

below 1000 meters of elevation

Why do humid tropical regions have only small variations in temperature throughout the year?

The location of this climate region is limited to an area where the solar radiation does not vary sugnificantly

The major difference between a wet tropical region and a tropical wet and dry region is ________.


The difference in vegetation between different humid tropical (A) regions is that ________.

wet tropical regions have rain forests, and tropical wet and dry regions have grasslands

The climate in which temperatures average 25°C or more each month and total precipitation for the year is high is the ________ climate.

wet tropics

The most luxuriant vegetation found in any climatic realm is the ________.

tropical rain forest

Af and Am climates form a discontinuous belt astride the ________.


A dry climate is defined as ________.

one were the evaporation exceeds the precipitation

Which of the following is not used to establish the boundary between dry and humid climates in the Köppen system?

average annual evaporation

Low latitude dry climates are found primarily ________.

near the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn

Almost ________ of Australia is desert.


The low latitude dry regions coincide with ________.

the subtropical high pressure belts

Low latitude dry regions tend to ________.

be cloud free

Mid-latitude deserts and steppes form because ________.

they are in the interiors of continents

In a climatological sense, dryness is a function of both annual rainfall and ________.


The two types of dry (B) climates are desert and ________.


The ________ sides of mountains are often wet.


The leeward sides of mountains are typically dry and arid enough to be referred to as _____.

rain shadow deserts

Coastal Alaska and Norway are in the ________ group of climates.

humid middle-latitude, mild winters

The humid subtropical climate dominates the ________ United States.


The western U.S. climate is different from the western European climate because ________.

the western U.S. has mountains near the coast and Europe does not

Humid middle-latitude climates with mild winters tend to have less precipitation in the summer than during the rest of the year because ________.

oceanic subtropical highs migrate poleward during the summer.

The name ________ climate is often used as a synonym for the dry-summer subtropical climate.


The ________ west coast climate is situated on the western (windward) side of continents from about 40 to 65 degrees north and south latitude.


Why are humid middle-latitude climates with severe winters not found in the Southern Hemisphere?

the Southern Hemisphere is dominated by oceans

The subarctic climate is often referred to as ________.

the taiga climate

The ________ climate is located on the eastern sides of continents, in the 25- to 40-degree latitude range.

humid subtropical

The ________ climates are land-controlled climates, the result of broad continents in the middle latitudes.


Polar climates get most of their precipitation in the ________.


Polar regions receive nearly continuous sunlight in the summer months so why doesn’t the mean temperature during those months get above 10°C?

the sun is too low in the sky to be a effective heat source

Where are Polar Climates most well developed?

Antarctica and Greenland

Compared to places at lower elevations, highland climates are usually cooler and ________.


Highland climates usually experience ________ compared to the adjacent lowlands.

similar patterns of change

Which of the following might not be considered a natural cause of climate change?

changes in atmospheric ozone

Carbon dioxide is an important influence on climate because ________.

it passes incoming short wavelength solar radiation, but it absorbs some longer wavelength outgoing earth radiation

Any change in the air’s ________ content could alter temperatures in the lower atmosphere.

carbon dioxide

Seasonal variations in CO2 recorded at Mauna Loa Observatory are related to ________.


In the past approximately 100 years, global temperatures have ________.

increased by nearly 1°C

Which of the following is not a trace gas?


Climate-feedback mechanisms ________.

complicate climate models

If sea ice melts, this would affect the climate by ________.

increasing the amount of solar energy absorbed at the surface

General circulation models are based on the fundamental laws of physics and chemistry, and they are designed to ________.

model climate behavior over decades

The combustion of ________ has added great quantities of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere.

fossil fuels

How do aerosols influence climate?

they reflect solar radiation back into space

The overall effect of aerosols is to ________.

cool the planet

Aerosols are ________ in terms of global change due to greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.

a negative feedback mechanism

The magnitude of a temperature increase due to greenhouse warming will probably be smallest in the ________.


Records indicate that sea level has ________ since 1870.

risen by 25 centimeters

Sea level change will have its greatest impact on coastal areas that are ________.

passive continental margins like the eastern U.S. and southern India

Sea level change is ________.


Climate models indicate that ________ is(are) one of the strongest indications of global warming.

loss of sea ice in the Arctic

Global warming appears to be thawing the permafrost as indicated by ________.

disappearing lakes in the Arctic

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