Chapter 19 The kidney

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Chapter 19- The Kidney
1) Functions of the kidneys include all but one of the following. Identify the exception.

regulation of blood protein levels

2) Ions directly regulated by the kidney include all EXCEPT which of the following?


3) The characteristic yellow color of urine is attributed to the presence of


4) Urine is produced by the


5) Urine is carried to the urinary bladder by the


6) Technically the kidneys are located behind the

peritoneal membrane.

7) Blood flow through the kidney includes a feature seen in only a few organs. What is it?

portal system

8) Which structure is NOT part of the blood circulation through the kidney?

loop of Henle

9) Which statement is NOT true?

The kidneys do not reabsorb filtered waste products.

10) The Bowman’s capsule and glomerulus make up the

renal corpuscle.

11) A glomerulus is a "knot" of capillaries that lies within the

Bowman’s capsule.

12) The portion of the nephron closest to the renal corpuscle is the

proximal tubule.

13) The portion of the nephron that attaches to the collecting duct is the

distal tubule.

14) The hairpin-shaped segment of the nephron is the

loop of Henle.

15) The process of filtration in the kidney is most accurately described as

relatively nonspecific.

16) The amount of plasma that filters into the nephrons is

approximately 1/5 of the total volume.

17) In normal kidneys blood cells and plasma proteins are

not filtered.

18) Which is NOT a kidney filtration barrier?

juxtaglomerular apparatus

19) The force for glomerular filtration is the blood pressure in the

glomerular capillaries.

20) The primary function of the proximal tubule is

reabsorption of ions, organic molecules, and water.

21) Glucose and amino acids are reabsorbed by

symport with sodium.

22) Which of the following statements about autoregulation is NOT true?

Myogenic response is the intrinsic ability of vascular smooth muscle to respond to pressure changes.

23) movement from the nephron lumen to the external environment


24) movement from the nephron lumen to the blood


25) movement from the glomerulus to the nephron lumen


26) movement from the peritubular capillaries to the nephron lumen


27) sodium

active transport

28) glucose

symport with a cation

29) urea

passive reabsorption/diffusion

30) small plasma proteins


31) After it is formed urine is temporarily stored in the

urinary bladder

32) Urine is carried to the external environment by the


33) The plasma concentration at which all of the renal carriers for a given substance are saturated is the

renal threshold

34) The amount of filtrate entering the proximal tubules of the kidneys each minute is the

GFR or glomerular filtration rate.

35) The percentage of total plasma volume that filters is called the

filtration fraction.

36) When fluid flow through the distal tubule increases as a result of increased GFR the macula densa cells send a chemical message to the neighboring afferent arteriole. The afferent arteriole constricts, increasing resistance and decreasing GFR.

This type of autoregulation involving both the kidney tubule and the arteriole is known as tubuloglomerular feedback

37) The renal arteries branch off the abdominal aorta and supply blood to

the kidneys

38) The renal veins carry blood from the kidneys back to

the inferior vena cava.

39) Eighty percent of the nephrons in a kidney are contained within the cortex but the other 20%, called the juxtamedullary nephrons,

dip down into the medulla

40) The vasa recta are the long peritubular capillaries that dip into

the medulla.

41) The nephron begins with a hollow ball-like structure called

Bowman’s capsule

42) The mesangial cells lie between and around

the glomerular capillaries.

43) The specialized cells found in the capsule epithelium are called podocytes;.

These cells have long cytoplasmic extensions called foot processes.

44) Neural control of GFR is mediated by sympathetic neurons that innervate alpha receptors on vascular smooth muscle causing


45) The excretion of glucose in the urine is called

glucosuria or glycosuria

46) Place the following blood vessels that carry blood to and within the kidney in the order in which blood passes through them.

-afferent arteriole -glomerulus -efferent arteriole -peritubular capillary

47) When the plasma concentration of a substance exceeds its renal concentration

more of the substance will be excreted.

48) Damage to the renal medulla would interfere first with the

functioning of the collecting ducts.

49) An obstruction in a glomerulus would affect

the flow of blood into the efferent arteriole.

50) If blood flow through the afferent arterioles increases

stretch reflexes trigger vasoconstriction to reduce the flow.

51) Urea is passively reabsorbed in

the proximal tubule.

52) In the lumen of the proximal tubule

Na+ concentration is much higher than the Na+ concentration inside the cells of the tubule wall.

53) The typical pattern for molecules absorbed by Na+-dependent transport involves this:

an apical symport protein and a basolateral facilitated diffusion carrier

54) One substance has no membrane transporters to move it but can diffuse freely through open leak channels if there is a concentration gradient. Initially this substance’s concentrations in the filtrate and extracellular fluid are equal. Later, however, the active transport of Na+ and other solutes creates a gradient by removing water from the lumen of the tubule where it is located. What substance is this?


55) Measurements in a nephron reveal a glomerular hydraulic pressure of 69 mm Hg and a fluid pressure in the Bowman’s capsule of 15 mm Hg. Assuming that the plasma osmotic pressure is 30 mm Hg, and that essentially no plasma proteins are filtered by the glomerulus, what is the net glomerular filtration pressure in this case?

24 mm Hg

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