Chapter 19

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16) Layer of blood vessels innervated by sympathetic vasomotor fibers.

C) tunica media

17) Capillaries consist of only this layer.
A) tunica intima

18) Structure that regulates blood flow into true capillaries.
C) precapillary sphincter

19) Wide leaky capillaries found in bone marrow and spleen.
A) sinusoids

20) A "coming together" of alternate pathways of blood vessels.
D) vascular anastomosis

21) Precapillary sphincters allow blood to leave this structure and enter true capillaries.
D) metarterioles

22) Collective name for the structures that drain the cranium
B) dural sinuses

23) Present in most capillaries, these structures are absent in those of the blood-brain
D) intercellular clefts

24) Vessels of the small intestines, renal glomerulus, and synovial membranes that allow
passage of fluid and solutes through "windows" in the endothelium.
B) fenestrated capillaries

25) Microvasculature that provides nourishment to the outer walls of the aorta.
E) vasa vasorum

26) Which layer of blood vessels contains smooth muscle tissue?
B) tunica media

27) Most small molecules pass through a capillary wall through which route?
C) through intercellular clefts

28) Functionally, there are no valves in arteries (as opposed to in veins) because
D) the blood pressure in arteries is highenough that there is no backflow of blood.

29) Blood pressure is highest in the
A) elastic arteries

30) The hepatic portal system has two distinct capillary beds separated by a portal vein.
What are the functions of these two capillary beds?
A) The first picks up digested nutrients, and the second delivers these nutrients to
liver cells

31) An aneurysm is
C) a sac-like widening or outpocketing of an artery.

32) The pulse of the facial artery is palpated
B) anterior to the masseter muscle at the inferior margin of the mandible.

33) A blood vessel that ranges from 0.3 mm to about 1 cm in diameter and has a large
tunica media relative to the size of the lumen is
B) a muscular artery.

34) In a capillary bed, relaxation of the precapillary sphincters causes more blood to flow
C) through the true capillaries.

35) The dorsalis pedis artery is located by
B) palpating between the first and second metatarsal

36) What artery enters the skull through the foramen spinosum and supplies the inner
surface of the parietal bone, dura mater, and parts of the temporal bone?
C) middle meningeal artery

37) Two large (wide) arteries that have relatively superficial locations and are often
wounded are the
D) common carotid artery and the femoral artery (in the superior thigh)

38) If a physician cannot feel a pulse in the popliteal fossa, the ________ artery is most likely
narrowed by atherosclerosis.
B) femoral

39) Of the following, the only unpaired dural sinus is the
B) superior sagittal sinus.

40) Which vessel is missing in the following statement? "Tracing venous blood from the
inferior left side of the posterior abdominal wall to the heart, we find that blood enters the
posterior intercostal veins, the hemiazygos vein, the superior vena cava, and the right
A) the azygos vein

41) The foramen ovale in the heart normally closes
C) shortly after birth

42) Which vessel is most commonly used to bypass a damaged coronary artery in coronary
bypass surgery?
B) great saphenous vein

43) What vessel in the fetus connects the pulmonary trunk to the aortic arch so that most of
the blood bypasses the immature lungs?
C) ductus arteriosus

44) Which of the following statements about arteries is false?
C) Arteries carry oxygenated blood to the heart.

45) Which branch (or branches) of the abdominal aorta supplies the stomach?
A) celiac trunk

46) The cerebral arterial circle forms a loop around which structures?
D) the pituitary gland and the optic chiasma

47) A common theme to the development of atherosclerosis is
D) an inflammatory response to a damaged endothelium.

48) The abdominal aorta divides at its distal end into which arteries?
D) the common iliac arteries

49) Which of the following is most likely to become a varicose vein?
B) the saphenous vein

50) Fenestrated capillaries
B) have pores in their walls.

51) The correct proximal to distal sequence of the three vessels branching from the aortic
arch is
A) brachiocephalic, left common carotid, left subclavian.

52) What prevents the backflow of blood in veins?
A) valves

53) The largest molecules that pass through the walls of typical capillaries are thought to
use which route?
B) pinocytotic vesicles

54) The internal carotid artery branches to form the
A) anterior cerebral, middle cerebral, and ophthalmic arteries

55) The major cause of atherosclerosis is due to the
A) formation of atheromas.

56) Most systemic venous blood is both oxygen-poor and nutrient-poor. However, systemic
venous blood that is not oxygen-poor and is nutrient-rich occurs in
C) the hepatic portal vein.

57) The ________ delivers arterial blood to the rotator cuff muscles and thyroid gland.
C) thyrocervical trunk

58) The diameter of a typical capillary is similar to that of
C) an erythrocyte.

59) Which of the following statements about arterioles is false?
D) They have the largest content of smooth muscle in their tunica media.

60) Systemic venous blood that is oxygen-poor but contains the lowest concentration of
nitrogenous wastes occurs in the
A) renal veins.

61) A preferred site to insert intravenous catheters is into the
B) dorsal venous network of the hand.

62) Which artery arises from the inferior part of the abdominal aorta and supplies the
distal half of the large intestine?
D) inferior mesenteric artery

63) The main arteries of the sole of the foot—the medial and lateral plantar arteries—arise
behind the ankle from which artery?
A) posterior tibial

64) A dural sinus that contains a major artery and some cranial nerves within it is the
C) cavernous.

65) Which vessel is missing from the following statement? "Tracing blood that drains from
the large intestine, we find that blood drains from the distal colon is collected in the
inferior mesenteric vein, merges with the splenic vein then directed to the hepatic portal
vein, the liver sinusoids, and the inferior vena cava."
C) hepatic vein

66) In the adult, the hepatic portal system carries nutrients absorbed from the digestive
tract to the liver. In the fetus, nutrients are absorbed at the placenta, and the vessel that
carries these nutrients to the liver is the
C) umbilical vein.

67) The right suprarenal and gonadal veins drain into the inferior vena cava, whereas the
left suprarenal and gonadal veins drain into the
D) left renal vein

68) Phlebitis is
A) inflammation of a vein

69) By definition, veins are
A) vessels that carry blood toward the heart.

70) Which body tissues lack capillaries?
C) the lens and the cornea

71) Which arteries connect the basilar artery and the internal carotid artery forming the
posterior aspect of the cerebral arterial circle
B) posterior communicating arteries

72) The extensor muscles of the forearm are supplied by which artery?
B) posterior interosseous

73) The lumbar veins drain the inferior posterior abdominal wall and direct oxygen-poor
blood into the
D) inferior vena cava.

74) Which of the following is not a branch of the celiac trunk?
C) sigmoidal artery

75) The right gonadal vein drains into the
A) inferior vena cava

76) The circulatory route that runs from the digestive tract to the liver is called
C) hepatic portal circulation.

77) Blood passing through the fetal ductus arteriosus bypasses the
A) lungs, left atrium, and ventricle.

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