bio exam chap 11

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At one point, you were just an undifferentiated, single cell. You are now made of many cells; some of these cells function as liver cells, some as muscle cells, some as red blood cells, while others play different roles. What name is given to the process that is responsible for this?

D) cellular differentiation

2) The process by which genotype becomes expressed as phenotype is ______.

C) gene expression

3) In bacteria, what name is given to a cluster of genes with related functions, along with their DNA control sequences?

A) operon

4) Bacterial RNA polymerase binds to the ______.

D) promoter

5) In prokaryotes, the production of a single RNA transcript for a group of related genes is under the control of the ______.

A) operon

6) In an operon, the ______ acts as an on/off switch.

A) operator

7) Which of the following turns off transcription by binding to the operator?

B) repressor

8) Repressors act by blocking the binding of _____ to the operator.

D) RNA polymerase

9) What would you assume if you found RNA transcripts of lactose-utilizing genes within E. coli?

B) the presence of lactose

10) While examining a human cell that functions normally, you determine that it has 45 functional chromosomes and one chromosome that is almost completely inactive. You immediately decide that it is very likely that this cell ______.

A) came from a normal human female

11) What is the first level of control of eukaryotic gene transcription?

C) DNA packing and unpacking

12) Male tortoiseshell cats ______.

D) are likely to be exceedingly rare and very likely to be sterile since normal male cats are XY

13) Which of these plays a role in the regulation of transcription in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells?

B) attachment of RNA polymerase to the promoter

14) In eukaryotic cells, repressor proteins inhibit transcription by binding to ______.

A) silencers

15) Introns are ______.

A) noncoding DNA sequences

16) Which of these is a type of post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression?

C) alteration of proteins

17) How can a single RNA transcript be translated into different polypeptides?

A) There is more than one way to splice an RNA transcript.

18) Cells communicate with one another via ______.

C) signal transduction pathways

19) The "master control genes" that regulate other genes, which determine what body parts will develop in which locations, are called ______.

B) homeotic genes

20) Which of these is most likely to cause the development of a six-legged frog?

A) mutation of homeotic genes

21) Homeotic genes ______.

C) are evidence of the common ancestry of eukaryotic organisms

22) Which of these techniques could tell you how gene expression differs between individuals with and without cystic fibrosis?

B) DNA microarray

23) How is it that the cells in different body tissues are able to perform different functions?

A) The cells exhibit different patterns of gene expression.

24) Reproductive cloning involves

C) be dedifferentiated

25) Possible uses of reproductive cloning include ______.

D) all of the above.

26) What is a difference between embryonic and adult stem cells?

B) Embryonic stem cells are undifferentiated; adult stem cells are partially differentiated.

27) What name is given to a gene that causes cancer?

D) oncogene

28) Many proto-oncogenes regulate ______.

C) cell division

29) Inheritance of certain genes increases the risk of getting certain cancers; thus, it can be said that ______.

C) predisposition to these cancers is inherited

30) Data suggest that the normal version of BRCA1 functions as a(n) ______.

B) tumor-suppressor gene

31) Which risk factors are associated with cancer of the colon and rectum?

D) dietary fat

32) ______ is(are) responsible for more cancers than any other carcinogen.

C) Tobacco

33) More people die of ______ cancer than of any other cancer.

A) lung

34) Which of these lifestyle choices will increase cancer risk?

C) a diet low in plant fiber

1) Jim learned that some cancer cells produce more growth-stimulating proteins than others. What would you give him as a plausible explanation?

B) Proto-oncogenes may have mutated to become oncogenes in these cells.

2) Jim learned that viruses can sometimes cause cancer and wants to know why. You tell him that ______.

C) a human cell can acquire an oncogene from a virus.

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