bio chp. 6

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a space station orbiting Earth

Which of these is exhibiting kinetic energy?

energy cannot be created or destroyed but can be converted from one form to another

"Conservation of energy" refers to the fact that _____.


Chemical energy is a form of _____ energy.

cellular respiration

In your body, what process converts the chemical energy found in glucose into the chemical energy found in ATP?

heat, carbon dioxide, and water

Which of these are by-products of cellular respiration?

γ-phosphate (the terminal phosphate)

Which part of the adenosine triphosphate molecule is released when it is hydrolyzed to provide energy for biological reactions?


What type of reaction breaks the bonds that join the phosphate groups in an ATP molecule?


The following reaction A –> B + C + heat is a(n) _____ reaction.


A(n) _____ reaction occurs spontaneously.


Which of these reactions requires a net input of energy from its surroundings?


In cells, what is usually the immediate source of energy for an endergonic reaction?


The reaction ADP + P –> ATP is a(n) _____ reaction.


The energy for an endergonic reaction comes from a(n) _____ reaction.

It is acquired by a reactant in an endergonic reaction

What is the fate of the phosphate group that is removed when ATP is converted to ADP?

the use of energy released from an exergonic reaction to drive an endergonic reaction

What is energy coupling?

The terminal phosphate of ATP is bound to the substrate

How do cells use ATP to raise the energy level of reaction substrates?

Triphosphate chains are unstable

Why is ATP a good source of energy for biological reactions?

the free energy change for the reaction is positive, equilibrium favors the reactants, not the products

A reaction is said to be unfavorable if …

The unfavorable reaction is replaced by two favorable reactions

B is unfavorable by itself, but through energy-coupling, cells can use ATP to convert A into B. How is this done?

chloroplasts use light energy to synthesize ATP, mitochondria synthesize ATP using energy that’s released by oxidizing sugars and fats

How do cells replace the energy-rich ATP that is destroyed in energy-coupled reactions?


In general, enzymes are what kinds of molecules?

reducing EA

Enzymes work by _____.

is an organic catalyst

An enzyme _____.


What name is given to the reactants in an enzymatically catalyzed reaction?

is unchanged

As a result of its involvement in a reaction, an enzyme _____.


In a catalyzed reaction a reactant is often called a ____.

active site

A substrate binds to an enzyme at the _________, where the reaction occurs.


When properly aligned, the enzyme and substrate from an enzyme-substrate (ES) _____.


A ______, such as a vitamin, binds to an enzyme and plays a role in catalysis.


An enzyme is considered _______ because of its ability to recognize the shape of a particular molecule.


An enzyme is considered a catalyst because it speeds up chemical reactions without being used up.


An enzyme is denatured when it loses its native conformation and its biological activity.

increasing the concentration of ammonia

Which of the following would increase the rate of the reverse reaction?

The reaction rate would decrease .

What would happen to the rate of the forward reaction if the concentration of nitrogen were decreased?

Both forward and reverse rates increase.

What will happen to the rates of the forward and reverse reactions when a catalyst is added?

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